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the destroyed town of Souk, and the Cherfig,
descended from men of Marrakesh in the far distant
days when the Sultan of the kingdom of Morocco
then only the region about the city of Marrakesh
conquered Timbuctoo.

As the clergy are so ignorant it is natural that the
laity are more so. The women are more educated
than the men and many of them know something of
the tifinar, the written characters of the Targui
language characters which are shaped like circles,
squares, dots, crosses, and parallel lines which is
now rarely employed.

Every girl is taught to play the amz'ad, the single-
stringed violin, as skill with it will add to her popularity
in the ahal the musical At Homes where the court-
ing is done. If she is of wealthy parentage she will
be crammed from earliest youth with fattening food
like a Strasbourg goose; for fatness is considered
beautiful by the men.

In dress as in almost everything else the Touareg
differ from the Arabs. The garments of the men,
made of dark blue, almost black, cotton, consist of a
sleeveless inner gown called takarbast by the
Ahaggar open at the sides, an outer one with wide
sleeves, the takammist, and loose trousers gathered in
at the ankles. The characteristic veil, the tiedjel-
moust, is a long strip of blue cotton, one end of which
is placed on the top of the head, the rest brought down
to and across the lower part of the face, then up and
across the brow, leaving the eyes visible, then wound
around the skull. Their bare feet are thrust into
broad, flat sandals. Everywhere about them they
hang little leather bags or boxes containing amulets


scraps of paper with a text from the Koran scrawled
on it by a marabout, an inch or two of giraffe skin, a
lion's claw or some other similar charm.

The women wear sleeved shirts or blouses, a haik
and a skirt, and the ikerhi, a black veil which is never
drawn across the face except in the presence of some
elderly and important relative as a mark of respect.
In summer they put on large hats to shade them from
the sun. They load themselves with ornaments
bracelets of silver, glass or horn, rings, and large-
hooped ear-rings and like the men wear many

The reason of the men being veiled is lost in
antiquity. The Arabs on their first introduction to
the Touareg found them thus masking their faces and
called them Ahl-el-Litham, the Veiled People. The
Touareg say themselves that their ancestors adopted
this fashion because the Prophet veiled his face before
entering Mecca after its capture. But the truth
probably is that the habit originated in these desert-
riders' desire to protect their eyes from the glare of the
sun and their mouths and nostrils from the sand.
To-day a Targui thinks it shameful to expose his
mouth to view. When entering an encampment of
strangers he shrouds his eyes and in assemblies and
council-meetings his whole face.

The Touareg, both noble and imrad, possess
slaves, mostly negroes, either born in captivity or
captured in raids. The males herd the flocks and
attend their masters in war and in the chase. The
females do the heavy work indoor and out, gather
and shell the seed-pods of wild plants to make flour
for couscous, weave mats, tan and dye sheepskins,


Photo. Service, Government of Algeria.


make garments, fetch water from the wells and make
cheese and butter.

The coming of the French has materially inter-
fered with the national pursuit of raiding for booty
and slaves. And to-day any slave who can reach a
French military post can claim his freedom. Yet
few desire it ; for if born in captivity they are regarded
almost as part of the family and are well treated.
The women are often their master's concubines.
Sometimes slaves liberated by the French have
demanded to return to servitude in order to be among
their friends and companions again.

The fog of mystery that for so long shrouded
this strange race has lifted. French officers lead
their camelry through the country and impose peace
on it. Fortified posts dot it. Even as far back as
1887 warriors of the Taitoq clans raiding tribes under
French protection and captured were brought to
Algiers some even to Paris. Veiled chieftains of
the Ahaggar met a President of France in the
Algerian capital, haxe driven behind him in stately
procession, have accompanied him on warships in the
bay, haxe seen and heard the guns on battleship and
cruiser salute him, have been stared at by tens of
thousands of white folk in the streets, and watched
the rank, beauty and fashion of Algiers dance one-
step and tango in the Summer Palace and gone
back again by train, automobile and camel on the
long journey to the dark ravines of the Hoggar
Mountains and the grim deserts of their motherland.
The fierce eyes had gazed intently from the shrouded
faces at Modern Civilisation what did the brains
behind them think of it?



I HAVE said much of the Algeria of Yesterday and
To-day. iWhat of the Algeria of To-morrow?

Its prosperity depends on its remaining under
European control; for no one who knows Eastern or
African Moslem races would have faith in the power
of Algerian Arabs and Berbers to successfully
conduct the affairs of the country if they won or were
given their complete independence.

The French when they arrived found Algeria in a
state of almost barbarism; and their achievement in
ninety-two years of stress and storm is marvellous.
They have made a success of it despite the vacillating
policies of their statesmen, the doubts, the fears of
the faint-hearted among them. If they have not
succeeded altogether as colonisers they have certainly
done well as organisers ; and I do not believe that any
other nation would have done better. I say that
deliberately, having seen the Americans in Hawaii
and the Philippines, the British in Egypt, India, the
Straits Settlements and Hong Kong, the Japanese in
Corea, the Portuguese in Goa and Macao and the
Russians formerly in Manchuria. France has made
mistakes, and grave ones, in Algeria; but others
might have made worse.



The success, the future, of the land depend on her
continued predominance. Is it threatened from within ?

I quote from Captain Raymond Peyronnet's
interesting article on the 1921 Census, in the
Bulletin de la Societe de Geographic d'Alger :

" The European population of Algeria has
increased by 21,000 in ten years. It has been proved
on the other hand that in the same period the
European element of the three large cities, Algiers,
Oran and Constantine, has grown by 39,000. The
conclusion forces itself on us that the French of the
rural districts (" the bled ") are disappearing. They
are 18,000 less in 1921 than 1911. And this is a
grave matter. It is the solid framework of Algeria
that is being weakened. If the European element
in the country districts is lacking our domination is

" A second fact proved is that the proportion
between natives and Europeans is in each province
substantially the same. In the Department of Oran
there is one European to a little under three natives,
in the Department of Algiers one to a little less than
fixe, of Constantine one to twelve.

" It is in the Department of Algiers that the purely
French are much the more numerous. In that of
Oran there is a majority of French of Spanish origin,
of Constantine many colonists are of Maltese or
Italian origin.

''' M. Demontes has proved that the annual increase
of the Algerian population is in normal times 3,000
French, 6,000 Europeans or other races, and 60,000 The native population has doubled in the
last forty or fifty years."


He points out that the security of life in Algeria
given by the French occupation, which has put an end
to tribal wars, and the decrease of infantile mortality
owing to improved hygiene and the medical help
available now tend to increase the disproportion
between the two races which is becoming greater
every day.

" To have in Algeria a million Europeans against
six million natives or two millions against twelve
millions is not at all the same thing. But what when
four million Europeans have to face twenty-four
millions ?, "

It must be remembered that Algeria does not
stand alone, that Tunisia and Morocco with the
^proportion of one white man to twelve natives and
one to twenty-eight (or if French-born Europeans
only are counted, one to twenty-six and one to fifty-
five) must be reckoned with if ever there were a big
upheaval against white domination.

So Captain Peyronnet is of opinion that " It
is necessary to develop strongly the European
immigration into Algeria, Tunisia and Morocco. As
France has a feeble birth-rate one must appeal to the
Mediterranean European races that will readily be
acclimatised in North Africa. But to prevent any
danger from our national point of view it is necessary
to prevent any one race becoming too numerous.
In the Department of Oran which is crowded with
Spaniards let us call in mostly Italians, in Tunisia
counterbalance the existing Italian influence by
Spanish immigration, in Morocco welcome equal
numbers of Italians and Spaniards.

" Let us appeal as well to prolific races which swarm


and which are not too far away from our mentality.
We see two the Czecho-Slovaks and the Poles. . . .

" ... If it is impossible to create in North Africa
a race strictly French at least it is necessary that the
race that will be formed there should be French by
culture. . . . Let us at least fashion foreigners in a
French mould. . . .

' The European races should hold first place, no
matter what happens. To do this they must be at least
the quarter of the total population. Of the twelve and
a half million inhabitants of North Africa there are
800,000 Europeans in Algeria, 150,000 in Tunisia,
150,000 in Morocco. Add 200,000 Tunisian and
Moroccan Jews who will adopt French customs. This
makes a total of 1,300,000 souls. There should be
four million Europeans to twelve million natives.
Can we create such a current of immigration ? I doubt
it. At least we could attempt it. ... Why 'do not the
many emigrants who turn their steps to the United
States and South Africa take the road to North
Africa? . . .

' To attract the Italian, Spaniard, Pole, Czecho-
slovak, Bulgarian, Roumanian, one must ensure their
finding land or work. . . . There is enough land in
North Africa for new comers without dispossessing
present proprietors and driving them to revolt.

. . A policy of immigration will only succeed if
linked with a programme of improving the soil
agricultural hydraulic works will be the first considera-
tion in Algeria, ways of communication in Morocco.

[< ... If at the end of ten years there are three
million Europeans in North Africa, who will be six
millions in fifty years and ten in a century, France will


have fulfilled her destiny. Facing these ten millions
of Europeans will be forty million North African
natives and thirty million negroes (i.e., the latter
chiefly in French West Africa). ... In a century
Algeria, Tunisia, Morocco, and French West Africa
will be made capable of supporting this population.
The ten million Europeans could direct this mass of
natives, greatly civilised and intimately associated with
the conduct of their own affairs. . . .

" . . . But ... it is necessary that the European
element in North Africa should be from now on and
before the lapse of ten years much more important
than it is. If not, the disproportion between Euro-
peans and natives will only grow greater and more

M. Saurin, president of the Comit6 Bugeaud, a
society formed to develop this Europeanisation,
says :

" Our North Africa is menaced. So many French
soldiers struck down by bullets or by fever from, the
taking of Algiers to the pacification of Morocco will
have died in vain.

' The danger is the increasing insufficiency of the
French population. The soldier, the official, the
large proprietor, pass ; only the peasant remains. We
must therefore settle French peasants. Public
opinion should insist on the creation of powerful
Caisses de Colonisation charged with this mission."

Captain Peyronnet, however, has wisely recognised
the impossibility of securing a sufficient immigration
of French peasants and has suggested a more
practicable plan.

A former Governor-General of Algeria, M..


Lutaud, warns his compatriots, " If we do not people
North Africa we shall lose it."

The passing of Algeria and its neighbours from
European, that is, French, control would be a world
calamity. For the sake of the generations that follow
us let us hope that it will never happen. Their native
populations would never keep these countries in the
van of progress as France is doing. Look at
Morocco ! Ten years ago she was sunk in barbarism ;
and were European control removed from her she
would relapse again. I was amazed at the work that
France has already accomplished in her Protectorate.
If anyone doubts its value let them compare it with
the state of the parts of the land in the Riff and else-
where still independent !

Algeria has advanced centuries since 1830 and will
go much farther still. Her first and most pressing
need is a remedy for the droughts when the rainfall
is deficient; and that is irrigation. The water that
sweeps unprofitably to the sea from the streams and
rivers swollen by the rain when it does come should be
stored to be used when required. This was actually
done better in the days of the Romans than now.
With a sufficient and dependable water supply Algeria
could maintain a population vastly greater than the
present one.

Her mineral wealth has only been scratched as yet.
When war-stricken France has more money to spare
and her financiers and thrifty citizens can be induced
to invest their cash in their own dependencies instead
of Eastern Europe Algeria will return them ample

She has already proved a source of strength to


France in times of peril. In 1870-71 and in 1914-19
she sent her sons, European and native, to the help
of the stricken motherland; and she will do so again
in ever increasing numbers.

Some day the Trans-Saharan railway will be built
and even if its main outlet be to the Atlantic through
Morocco, it will be connected with the railways of
Algeria and increase her wealth.

So the sky over this fair Department of France
across the Mediterranean has but one cloud the dark
menace of an increasing disproportion between Euro-
peans and the native populations. Let us hope that
it will come to nothing and that the country that
shouldered the white man's burden for a century may
continue to reap the reward that she merits. In
Algeria France has deserved well of the world let
those who doubt it visit this storied land!


Abd-el-Kader, 78, 169, 206

, A descendant of, 50

, Mount, no

Abderrames, Rue des, 12

Abel, M., 1 86

Abencerrages, Rue des, 12

Abisga, 215

Abou Tachfin's silver tree, 149

Abou Yakoub, 147

Adjar, 45, 100

Admiral's House, 29, 52

Adrar, 218

Ad Piscinam, 167

Agadez, 217

Agents de Surete, 31

Agents de ville, 31

Agha-bashi, 76

Aghalik of Ouargla, 48'

Agriculture, Sahara, 215; Kabyle,

122; Touat, 219
Ahaggar or Hoggar Mountains,

59, 214, 230
Ahal, 237
Ahl-el-Litham, 246
Ahmed-El-Kebir, no, in, 112
AJtrar, 218
Ain-el-Hadjadj, 214
Am Touta Mac Mahon, 160
Air, 215
Aissaoua, 205
Akiriko, 242
Alaoua dates, 179
Alexandrine Greeks, Knowledge

derived from, 72
Alfa, 57
Algeria under the Romans, 66 ;

under the Turks, 76 ; to-
morrow, 248
Algiers. Description, 10 et seq.

as a port, 56 ; as a winter resort,

58 ; history, 73 et seq.
Ali-ben-Ali-thaleb, 198

Ali-ben-Gana, Cai'd, 168, 199

Alma, 129, 154

Almoravide kings, 72

Amenokal, 233, 234

Amin amina, 125

Amr'ar, 232

Amr'id, 232

Amulets, Touareg, 95, 245

Amz'ad, 237

Anahef Mountains, 214

Andalusian Moors, no, 112

Aoulef, 219

Arab learning, 72

Arabs. Street singer, 15;

musicians, 16 ; funeral, 23 ;

invasions of, 69, 71 ; nomad,

221; character, 222; food, 223;

superstitions, 225
Argel, 73, 74
Aristocracy, Moslem, 197
Aroudj, 74
Atlas Mountains, 9, 40, 62, 66,

in, 113

Andouin-Dubreuil, M., 227
Augustan Legion, 66
Aumale, Due d', 117
Aures Mountains, 62, 120, 157,

1 60
Azdjer, 214, 230


Bab-el-Oued, 21, 23, 29

Babouches, 44

Badestan, 88

Balagnier, Ponce de, 34

Balearic slingers, 65

Barbarossa, 30, 74

Barbary coast, Colonies on, 65;

pirates of, 72
Bardo, 102
Earth, 228
Batna, 158
Bedouins, 222




Belisarius, 6g

Bellah, 232

Belle Fontaine, 129

Belleville, 127

Ben Aknoun, 25, 58

Ben Djellab, 184

Ben Gana. Bou-Aziz, 168; the

Bach-Agha, 168, 192, 199;

Caid Ali, 168, 199; Hamma,

T, IQ9 ,
Benghazi, 204

Beni-Hilal, 71
Isguen, 48

Mansour, 155

M'Zab, 48, 213

Mora, 187

Salah, 112
Benzert, 65

Berbers. Origin of name, 62 ;
girls, 19; workmen in Algiers,
36 ; history of, 62 et seq. ;
divisions, 64 ; struggles for
freedom, 68 ; religions, 69, 70 ;
character and customs, 121 et

Berrian, 48

Berrouaghia, 112, 117

Bey, 74; of Titeri, 74

Beylerrbeg, 74

Bilma, 216, 235

Birkadem, 104

Birmandreis, 104

Biskra, 47; climate, 59; descrip-
tion, 164 et seq.

Bismillai ! 243

Bisset, Lieutenant, 230

Blacksmiths, Touareg, 234

Blandon, Sergeant, 105

Bled, the, 249

Blida, 100 ; destruction of, 105;
under the pirates, 106; its
Daughters of Joy, 107; history,
no; college at, 58

Bliss, Colonel, 187

Boghar, in, 117

Boghari, 19, 117 et seq.

Bois de Boulogne, 40

Bone, 58, 65

Boniface, Count, 68

Bordj-bou-Arreridj, '156

Boulevard de la Republique, 30,

Boulevard Laferriere, 37
Boulevard Sadi Carnot, 33
Boufarik, 104

Bougie, 56 ; Carthaginian Colony,
65 ; pirates, 72 ; captured by
Spaniards, 73

Bou Beih, 207

Bourbons, 10

Bou-Saada, goum of, 184

Bridge, El Kantara, 161

Bridges of Constantine, 137

Britain, Phoenicians and, 64

Bugeaud, Comite, 252
, Marshal, 37

Bureau Arabe, 48; Tougourt, 182
Burnous, 17, 18, 44
Byzantines, 69, 72


Caesarean Mauritania, 66

Cafe Maure, 15

Cai'ds, 92, 94, 197

Caid Ali-ben-Gana, 168, 199

Caid of L'Arba, 200

Caid of Tougourt, 183, 199

Cairo, 16, 207

Caisses de Colonisation, 252

Caliphs of Bagdad, 69, 72

Caliphs, Eastern, 71

Camp des Chenes, 113

Canton, 16

Carnival in Algiers, 55, 56

Cartagena, 145

Carthage, 65, 66

Cathedral, Algiers, 25 ; Constan^

tine, 137
Caxine, Cape, 74
Celtiberians, 62
Celts, 62
Cemeteries, Moslem, 14; El

Kettar, 23; St Eugene, 34
Ceuta, 70
Chadelya, 207
Chambre des De"pute"s, 10
Chamba of El Golea, 48
Chamba of Metlili, 48
Chameau, Rue du, 12
Charles V., 24, 25. 34, 77. 7Q
Chaouias, 71, 121, 161
Checchia, 16
Chegga (cloth), 235
Chegga, station of, 175
Cheliff, 74
Chenoua, in
Cherchel, 66, 72
Chiffa, in, 116
Chott El Melghir, 176
Chotts, 176



Citroen, M. Andre, 226 ; Saharan

mission, 227
Climate of Algiers, 58; of

Algeria, 59, 151
Col de Chr6a, in
Compagnies de Discipline, 112
Concierges in Algiers, 54
Confectioner, 17
Confraternities, religious, 201
Conseils Municipaux, 50
Constantine, 19, 57, 78, 136

et seq.

Constantinople, 13, 46
Convicts, Algerian, 32, 98
Cork oaks, 142
Costume, of dancer, 20; of

men in Algiers, 44; Arab, 44;

Arab women's, 45 ; Jews', 45 ;

Jewesses', 45, 139; Ai'r, 216;

Touareg, 245, 246

DAHRA, 120

Damergou, 217

Dance, native, 20

Dancing girls in Algiers, 19

Dancing girls in Boghari, 119

Dar-el-Harb, 203, 204

Dar-el-Islam, 203

Dates, 179

Date palms, 178

Dattes, Rue des, 12

Daughters of the Dey, 26

Daughters of Joy, 19, 107

Degla-Beida, 179

Deglet-Nour, 179

Delhi, 16

Dellys, 72

Demmane, 216, 235

Democracy, Moslem, 197

Demontes, M., 249

Depeche Algerienne, 38, 99

Derbrouka, 16

Derqaoua, 207

Desvaux, Colonel, 184

Dey, it, 39, 74

Dey Hassan, 77, 78

Dido, 65

Diffa, 224

Dikr, 207

Divorce, among Arabs, 224 ;

among Touareg, 242
Diwan of Algiers, 75, 84
Djama El Djedid, 27, 29
Djama El Kebir, 28
Djama El Kebir in Tlemcen, 148

Djaraboub, 205
Djebel Amour, 119
Djebel Belloua, 131
Djebel Tarik, 70
Djehad, 203
Djelfa, 119
Djemaa, M'Zab, 48

, Kabyle, 124

Djerid, 179

Djezair-Beni-Mezr'anna, 74

Djidjel, 65

Djidjelli, 65, 72

Djilala, 206

Djinns, 243

Djurdjura Mountains, 24, 33, 37,

130, 155
Dokahs, 219

Don Juan of Austria, 83
Douar, 163, 221
Dowry in the Touat, 220
Dowry among Touareg, 240
Due d'Aumale, 117
Due d'Orleans, 27
Duvivier, General, 103

EDUCATION in Algeria, 57, 58

Eikoci, 65

Eikosion, 73

Eixosi, 73

El Ateuf, 48

El Bahadja, 184

El Bekri, 74

El Berd, 180

El Biar, 25, 40

El Biodh, 214

El Djezair, 10

El Golea, 48, 219

El Guerrah, 153, 157

El Hadj, Ahmed, 137

El Kantara, 161

EF Kettar, 23

Elkillan, 232

Elissar, 65

Emirs, 72

Emperors, Berber-Roman, 68

Exmouth, Lord, 77

Exports, Algerian, 56 ; under

Rome, 67
Eucalyptus trees, 22, 128

FAIR at Tizi Ouzou, 133
Fantasia at Tolga, 195
Fantasia Touareg, 240
Fatemide dynasty, 47
Father Francis, 87
Fathma, 198



Fathma, hand of, 18

Feidj, 213

Fezzan, 230

Fish Market, 33

Flatters, Colonel, 228

Flora of Algeria, 41

Flora of Northern Algeria, 152

Flora of Sahara, 152, 210

Fontaine Chaude, 167

Forfeits played by Touareg, 238

Fort Bab Azoun, 89

Fort de 1'Eau, 24

Fort 1'Empereur, 25, 37, 78

Fort National, 135

Fort of Tougourt, 182

GABES, Gulf of, 176

Gandaura, 18, 44

Garden of Allah, 24

Gauls, 65

Gassi, 213

General Post Office in Algiers,

38, ipi
Genseric, 68

Geographic, Socie'te de, 38
Geryville, goum of, 184
Getulians, 63
Ghaita, 16
Ghardaia, 48
Ghardimaou, 143
Girafe, Rue de la, 12
Giudicelli, Sanson Napollon, 83
CTolden Apples of the Hesperides,

10, no

Gorge of El Kantara, 161
Gorge of the Chiffa, 112 et seq.
Gorge of the Isser, 154
Gorge of the Rummel, 140
Governor-General. His position,

51 ; present, 51 ; visit to Tolga,

i 86 et seg.
Goum, IQO

Granary of Europe, 40
Granary of Rome, 103
Grand Marabout of M'Sila, 185
Grand Marabout of Tolga, 194
Greeks, 65
Grib, 207
Guerrara, 48

HAARDT, M., 227
Had, 210
Hadj Ali, 213
Haick, 17
Hamal, 13

Hamma-ben-Gana, IQQ
Hammam Meskputine, 142
Harbour of Algiers, 10, 30
Harbour of Oran, 144
Harrach river, 127
Harratines, 218, 234
Hassan-ben-Kheir-ed-Din, 25
Hassan Pacha, 26, 39
Haussonvilliers, 129
Hauts Plateaux, 59, 151, 156
Hercules, 10; meaning of legend,

6 1 ; pillars of, 62
Hesperides, Golden Apples of, 61
Hilalian Invasion, 71
Hillil, 204
Hlafa, 17, 100
Hole of Mourning, 221
Horse-breeding at Blida, 109
Houses of Algiers, 53
Housewives of Algiers, 54
Hussein Pasha, 24, 39
Hussein Dey, suburb of Algiers,

Hycsos, 63


Ice in the Sahara, 177

Icosium, 73

Iferouane, 215

Ifrikya, 69

Ikerhi, 246

Imam, 47, 201

Imamat, 204

Imrad, 231

Inimani, 214

Inner Harbour, 29, 30

In-Salah, 218

Invincible Militia, 75, 76, 84, 85

Irhazar river, 215

Irrigation, 67, 253

Islam, 27

Isly, Rue d', 35, 37

Victory of, 37

Israelites in Africa, 69

JANISSARIES, 43, 75, 76

Jardin Bizot, 109

Jardin d'Essai, 25, 41, 127

Jewellery of dancing girl, 20

Jewesses, 19, 139

Jews, 17, 25, 65, 69, 251

Judaism, spread of, 69


Kabylia, 24, 29, 36, 62, 120, '126
et seq.



Kabyles. Appearance, 121 ; food,
121 ; agriculture, 122; family
love, 123 ; character, 123 ;
women, 124; tribal system,
124; number, 125

Kairouan, foundation of, 70

Khamsa, 18

Kanoums, 125

Kasbah. n. 22. 24. 80, 89, QO

Kaya, 76

Keir-ed-Din, 29, 74, 110

Kel-es-Souk, 244

Khadrya, 206

Karoubas, 124

Khetib, 201

Khouans, 207

Kissing among Touareg, 238

Korunka, 214

Kouba, 206

Koudiat-es-Saboun, 24

Koulouglis, 75

Ksar of Boghari, 19, 118, 119

Ksour of Touat, 218

LAGHOUAT, goum of, 184

La Guyane, 32

Lake Chad, 204

Lalla Khadidja, in, 155

Lalahoum, Rue, 12

Lambessa, 66, 158

Lamta, 65

Landon de Longeville, Comte,

1 66
Language of natives of Algiers,

43 ; French in Algeria, 57
Laperrine, General, 230
Leptis, 67
Les Glacieres, in
Libyans, 62, 63
Lutaud, M., 253
Lycees in Algeria, 57

Mag'reb, 64
Mahmoudi, 235

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