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1, and the gardens from 11 to 2. Either can be seen separately by
tickets, 1s. each, obtainable at the porter's lodge.

[Illustration: _Taunt, Oxford._

BLENHEIM PALACE.

Built for the Duke of Marlborough at the public expense, after his
famous victory over the French and Bavarians.]



PETERBOROUGH CATHEDRAL AND CROWLAND


=How to get there.= - Train from King's Cross. Great Northern Rly.
=Nearest Station.= - Peterborough.
=Distance from London.= - 76-1/2 miles.
=Average Time.= - Varies between 1-1/4 to 2-1/4 hours.

1st 2nd 3rd
=Fares.= - Single 11s. 3d. ... 6s. 4d.
Return 22s. 6d. ... 12s. 8d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.= - "Great Northern Railway Company's
Hotel," "Golden Lion Hotel," "Angel Hotel," "Grand Hotel,"
etc., at Peterborough.
=Alternative Route.= - Train from Liverpool Street, _via_ Ely. Great
Eastern Railway.

Nine miles north of Peterborough the ruins of Crowland Abbey arise out
of the flat fen country like a lighthouse out of the sea. With only the
nave and north aisle standing, it breathes the very spirit of romance
even in its decay. It is easy to picture the time when four streams
surrounded the monastery and church and formed an island in the fens,
and to recall how Hereward the Wake demanded entrance to the abbey to
see Torfrida, and was refused admittance by the Abbot Ulfketyl. In those
days two rivers met in the High Street of the little town that grew
round St. Guthlac's Monastery. Now the country is drained, Crowland is a
decayed little town with many thatched roofs, situated in an
agricultural district; the island exists no longer, and the old
triangular bridge rises over the dry Square at a place where three roads
meet. This bridge is older and more peculiar than any bridge in Europe
that is not of Roman origin. It is believed to have been built in 870,
and consists of three pointed arches rising steeply in the centre to
permit the rush of water in flood times. It is too steep to admit of its
use by any sort of vehicle, and one ascends by steps to the top. At the
end of one portion of the bridge there is a stone image of a Saxon
king - possibly Ethelbert - with a loaf in one hand.

In the time of Ethelbald, King of Mercians, a young noble named Guthlac,
weary of life's rough way, sought peace in the ascetic life. He drifted
in a boat to Crowland Isle, and there lived a hermit's life till his
death in 817. On the spot where he died Ethelbald founded and endowed a
monastery on the island, and it flourished exceedingly. The larger part
of the conventual church is now destroyed, but the north aisle is used
as the Parish Church of Crowland.

[Illustration: _Photochrom Co., Ltd._

CROWLAND ABBEY.

The building rises above the little thatched village, which stands on
slightly raised ground in the midst of the fens.]



PETERBOROUGH


As was the case with Wells, Peterborough would have had no existence but
for its cathedral, which was reared in the midst of the fertile fen
country near the slow-flowing river Ness. But the coming of the railways
has roused the country town, and in the last fifty years its population
has increased fivefold. It is situated in a rich agricultural district,
and has a good trade in farm products. Its annual wool and cattle
markets are well known in the eastern counties.

On the site of the present cathedral a minster was built in 870 by a
king of Mercia. On its being destroyed by Danes, a new building was
erected, which was burned down in 1116. The foundations of the Saxon
church can be seen in the crypt. The new Norman building was consecrated
in 1237, and has remained with few alterations to the present day. While
the interior of St. Albans Cathedral shows every phase of Norman and
Gothic architecture, that of Peterborough is remarkable as showing
practically one style throughout the entire building. The west front has
been described as the "grandest portico in Europe." It is Early English
in style, and the finest feature of the cathedral. Its three colossal
arches are flanked and strengthened by two turreted towers with spires.
It needs a close observer to perceive that the central gable of the west
front is smaller than the side ones, for the difficulty has been
cleverly overcome. The northern gable and part of the arch below have
been repaired very carefully amid an outcry from all parts of England
against the restoration. However, the work was proved to be necessary,
as the mortar had crumbled to dust, and many stones were merely resting
one on the other. The Perpendicular Galilee Porch over the small doorway
adds strength to the fa√Іade. The room over it is used as a library.

Perhaps the most interesting feature of the interior is the
twelfth-century wooden vaulting of the nave. There is no Lady Chapel at
the east end as is usually the case. When the ritual demanded a
retro-choir for processions, the Norman apse fortunately was not pulled
down, but the new building, Tudor in style, and with a beautiful
stone-vaulted roof, was built round it. After Ely's Tower fell, the
Norman central tower of Peterborough was pulled down as if a similar
fate was feared for it, and a shorter tower was erected in its place.
Two queens have been buried in the church, namely, Catherine of Arragon
and Mary Queen of Scots. The remains of both queens have been removed to
Westminster Abbey.

Other places worth visiting in Peterborough are the Parish Church and a
well-preserved thirteenth-century manor-house at Longthorpe.

[Illustration: _Photochrom Co., Ltd._

PETERBOROUGH CATHEDRAL

The magnificent west front, which has recently been restored.]



SOUTHAMPTON


=How to get there.= - Train from Waterloo. L. and S.W. Railway.
=Nearest Stations.= - Southampton Docks or Southampton West.
=Distance from London.= - 78-3/4 miles.
=Average Time.= - Varies between 2-1/4 to 3-1/2 hours.

1st 2nd 3rd
=Fares.= - Single 13s. 0d. 8s. 2d. 6s. 6d.
Return 23s. 0d. 14s. 6d. 11s. 6d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.= - "The Royal Hotel," "Radley's Hotel,"
"London and South-Western Hotel," "Dolphin Hotel," "Royal
Pier Hotel," "Flower's Temperance," etc.
=Alternative Route.= - From Paddington. Fares as above.

The earliest accounts of Southampton are vague and uncertain. On the
opposite bank of the Itchen, at Bitterne, was the Roman station of
Clausentum, but Southampton itself seems to have been originally a
settlement of the West Saxons. In the reign of William the Conqueror,
Southampton, owing to its situation, became the principal port of
embarkation for Normandy. In 1295 it first returned representatives to
Parliament, and in 1345 was strongly fortified, and able to contribute
twenty-one ships to the Royal Navy, Portsmouth only supplying five. Many
expeditions for Normandy embarked here during the reigns of the
Plantagenets, and the men who fought and won at Crecy and Agincourt must
have passed, on the way to their ships, under the old West Gate, which
still remains much as it was in those stirring times.

The town is full of interesting relics of every description, one of the
most remarkable being the old wall, of which a considerable portion
remains; that known as The Arcades, built in a series of arches, being
specially noticeable. Close by, in Blue Anchor Lane, is a Norman house,
reputed to be King John's palace, and claiming, with several others, to
be the oldest house in England.

The town was formerly entered by several gates, two of which, Westgate
and Bargate, are still in a good state of preservation.

The Bargate stands in the centre of the High Street, and is an excellent
example of mediaeval fortification.

At the head of Blue Anchor Lane is the remarkably picturesque and
substantial Tudor house, once the residence of Henry VIII. and Anne
Boleyn, and nearly opposite rises the tall tower of St. Michael's, the
oldest church in Southampton. The building is open all day (the keys
being obtainable on inquiry), and contains a remarkable carved black
marble font, reputed to be of Byzantine origin, and a fine eagle lectern
of the fifteenth century.

[Illustration: _Photochrom Co., Ltd._

THE BARGATE IN THE HIGH STREET OF SOUTHAMPTON.]



HELMINGHAM HALL


=How to get there.= - Great Eastern Railway. Liverpool Street.
=Nearest Station.= - Woodbridge (10 miles).
=Distance from London.= - 79 miles.
=Average Time.= - Varies between 2 to 2-1/2 hours. Quickest train
1 hour 56 minutes.

1st 2nd 3rd
=Fares.= - Single 14s. 9d. ... 6s. 8d.
Return 22s. 2d. ... 13s. 4d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.= - "The Bull Hotel," etc., at Woodbridge.

Helmingham Hall, the seat of Lord Tollemache, lies in a beautiful park,
ten miles from Woodbridge, in Suffolk, and has been one of the homes of
the family for generations. The Tollemache family own two of the finest
Tudor houses in this country, Ham House near Richmond, the property of
the Earls of Dysart, and Helmingham, which now belongs to the other
branch of the Tollemache peerage. Helmingham came to them in the reign
of Henry VIII., by the marriage of Lionel Tollemache with the daughter
and heiress of Sir William Joyce, who owned a home called Creke Hall.
The present mansion he rebuilt on the same site, in all probability
retaining the ancient moat.

The hall is approached through an entrance gateway, giving access to a
fine avenue leading directly up a gentle slope to the moat and main
drawbridge of the hall. The house, of red brick, wonderfully tinted by
the hand of time, is remarkably picturesque, with its twisted chimneys,
finely proportioned gables, and beautiful bay windows; and its charm is
considerably enhanced by the brickwork, with sturdy buttresses here and
there, rising sheer out of the clear and tranquil waters of the moat.
The hall is entered by two bridges, each ending in a drawbridge, which
is kept in full working order, and both drawbridges are, and have been
for some hundreds of years, hauled up at ten o'clock every night, when
the house can only be approached from the park by means of a boat.

On crossing the main bridge, one enters the inner court, a fine red
brick quadrangle, much after the style of those at Hampton Court. From
this access is gained to the various wings and apartments of the
mansion, the finest room being the hall, with its deep oak dado,
fireplace, and open timber roof. The best suite of rooms looks out
across the moat to the beautiful gardens. These are some of the most
magnificent in the county, and they are most carefully and elaborately
arranged, and always kept in fine condition. The garden is divided into
two portions by a strip of water covered with lilies.

[Illustration: HELMINGHAM HALL.

An Elizabethan moated mansion. Its drawbridge has been lowered and
raised every day for about 400 years.]



STONEHENGE, WILTSHIRE


=How to get there.= - Train from Waterloo. South-Western Railway.
=Nearest Station.= - Amesbury (1-1/2 miles from Stonehenge).
=Distance from London.= - 80 miles.
=Average Time.= - 3 hours.

1st 2nd 3rd
=Fares.= - Single 13s. 2d. 8s. 3d. 6s. 7-1/2d.
Return 23s. 2d. 14s. 8d. 13s. 3d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.= - "The George Hotel" at Amesbury.
"Railway Hotel" (small) at Porton.
=Alternative Route.= - Porton Station, 5-1/2 miles, and Salisbury Station,
8 miles from Stonehenge.

One of the earliest and most enduring works of man in the British
Islands is to be seen in the circles of giant stones on Salisbury Plain.
They stand in two concentric circles. The outer ring of monoliths
encloses an inner one of blue stones about half their height. These in
turn surround a horseshoe formation consisting of the remains of five
great trilithons. Some of these stones have fallen across the flat one
known as the altar stone, occupying a central position at the head of
the horseshoe. On the 21st of June the sun rises exactly in a line with
the centre of the horseshoe and the long earthen avenue leading towards
the stones, and thus throws a ray between two of the outer monoliths and
touches the altar stone. This orientation on the plan of so many eastern
shrines proves that Stonehenge was the temple of some early
sun-worshipping race of men in Britain.

Sir Norman Lockyer's recent observations at the summer solstice have
placed the date of erection at about 1680 B.C., and the discovery of
flint implements beneath some Roman remains also points to neolithic
times. The upright stones and those resting upon them were originally
all mortised and tenoned together, and from the fact that no similar
stone is found nearer than Marlborough Downs the primitive men must have
hauled the stones considerable distances by means of long leather ropes.
The small blue stones were possibly brought from Normandy.

Other stone circles and similar remains are to be seen at Avebury,
Rollright, and Kit's Coty House, a few miles from Rochester. Also in
Shropshire there is a district rich in stone circles and prehistoric
remains. This is in a line north of Bishops Castle and Shelve, and to
those who appreciate wild scenery this part of the county may be
specially recommended.

[Illustration: STONEHENGE.

Looking towards the east from the altar stone. The point on the horizon
where the sun rises on June 21 is indicated by the small stone seen
through the arches.]



NETLEY ABBEY


=How to get there.= - Train from Waterloo _via_ Southampton. L. and
S.W. Railway.
=Nearest Station.= - Netley (about a mile from the abbey).
=Distance from London.= - 82-1/4 miles.
=Average Time.= - Varies between 2-3/4 to 4-1/2 hours.

1st 2nd 3rd
=Fares.= - Single 13s. 6d. 8s. 6d. 6s. 9-1/2d.
Return 23s. 10d. 15s. 0d. 12s. 3d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.= - "Royal Hotel," "Radley's Hotel,"
"Dolphin," "South-Western," etc., Southampton (3 miles from
Netley).

Netley is a small village on Southampton Water, about 3 miles south-east
of the town of Southampton. It is famous for the ruins of Netley Abbey,
which are not far from the shore, in a wooded and picturesque nook. The
abbey is supposed to have been founded by Peter des Roches, Bishop of
Winchester in Henry III.'s reign, and the monks belonged to the
Cistercian order. It was neither a rich nor famous establishment, and
the monks possessed but one book, Cicero's _Treaty on Rhetoric_. Since
the Dissolution the abbey has belonged to many different families. Only
the walls are now standing, but enough remains to show how beautiful it
once was. The buildings formed a square of which the south wall of the
church formed the side opposite the entrance. Various buildings in
connection with the monastery formed the rest of the quadrangle, which
was known as Fountain Court. The kitchen is still roofed in, although it
has lost its stone groining. Other buildings are, conjecturally, the
buttery and the refectory. Near the kitchen is a curious underground
passage leading to the castle (erected by Henry VIII.), which stands
nearer the shore than the abbey. It is thought to be a drain.

The church is of cruciform shape, in Early English style. Though the
west end is now in a very ruinous condition, the great east window is
fairly well preserved. It has two lights, and is very beautifully
proportioned. Outside the court is the garden, with lawns and trees, too
often desecrated by picnic parties, and the ponds that supplied the
monks with fish are now choked up. It is said that a carpenter who
bought the materials of the church from Sir Bartlet Lucy was warned in a
dream by a monk not to destroy the building. He paid no heed, and was
killed by the west window falling on him.

The Royal Victoria Hospital for Sick Soldiers, erected after the Crimean
War, can be seen at Netley.

[Illustration: _Photochrom Co., Ltd._

NETLEY ABBEY, LOOKING EAST.]



SALISBURY AND ITS CATHEDRAL


=How to get there.= - Train from Waterloo. L. and S.W. Rly.
=Nearest Station.= - Salisbury.
=Distance from London.= - 83-1/4 miles.
=Average Time.= - Varies between 1-3/4 and 3-1/4 hours.

1st 2nd 3rd
=Fares.= - Single 14s. 0d. 8s. 9d. 6s. 11-1/2d.
Return 24s. 6d. 15s. 4d. 12s. 0d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.= - "Angel Hotel," "Crown Hotel,"
"White Hart Hotel," etc.
=Alternative Route.= - Train from Paddington. Great Western Rly.

Salisbury Cathedral is, in the opinion of many, the finest of all the
English cathedrals, and it certainly has many claims to be considered
so. The vast building was completed within fifty years, and is therefore
practically in one style throughout, an advantage not shared by any
other cathedral in the kingdom. Its situation, too, is unique, standing
as it does in the fine old close, entirely separated from any other
buildings, and with its grey walls and buttresses rising sheer up from
such velvety turf as is seen in England alone. The tower and spire are
perhaps the most beautiful in this country.

Passing into the close by the gate at the end of the High Street, one
reaches the west front, which is very rich in effect, with its tiers of
canopied statues and wonderfully proportioned windows. Through the
beautiful north porch one passes into the nave, which, though
exceedingly beautiful, has a certain air of coldness owing to the
absence of stained glass. It seems hardly credible that this beautiful
glass, the making of which is now a lost art, was deliberately destroyed
at the end of the eighteenth century by the so-called "architect" James
Wyatt. In addition to this, "Wyatt swept away screens, chapels, and
porches, desecrated and destroyed the tombs of warriors and prelates;
obliterated ancient paintings, flung stained glass by cartloads into the
city ditch, and razed to the ground the beautiful old campanile which
stood opposite the north porch."

The Lady Chapel of the cathedral is one of the most beautiful in the
kingdom.

Although the cathedral is the great glory of Salisbury, there are plenty
of interesting mediaeval buildings in the city. In the close itself are
the King's House and the King's Wardrobe, both old gabled houses of
great beauty. St. Thomas's and St. Edmund's are the two most interesting
churches in the city.

About 2 miles north of Salisbury is a group of pretty cottages on the
Avon, forming the village of Milston. Here, on May 1, 1672, Joseph
Addison was born in the old rectory, now unfortunately pulled down. His
father, Lancelot Addison, was rector of the parish.

[Illustration: _Photochrom Co., Ltd._

SALISBURY CATHEDRAL.

The spire is one of the most graceful in the world, and the whole
building, commenced in 1220, was completed within fifty years.]



SANDWICH, KENT


=How to get there.= - Train from Charing Cross, Cannon Street, and
London Bridge. South-Eastern and Chatham Railway.
=Nearest Station.= - Sandwich.
=Distance from London.= - 84-1/2 miles.
=Average Time.= - Varies between 2-1/2 to 3 hours.

1st 2nd 3rd
=Fares.= - Single 13s. 0d. 8s. 4d. 6s. 6d.
Return 22s. 8d. 16s. 8d. 13s. 0d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.= - "Bell," "Bell and Anchor," "Fleur
de Lys," etc.

It is difficult to realise that Sandwich, now 1-1/2 miles from the
coast, was yet once situated on the sea, and was the second in
importance of the Cinque Ports. In Roman and early Saxon times a wide
arm of the Thames, called the Wantsume, flowed from Reculver (then known
as Regulbium), where it was a mile wide, southwards to what is now the
mouth of the Stour. Between Ebbsfleet and Worth it was over 4 miles
wide. The Roman fortress of Ritupiae (Richborough) guarded it on the
south, and the river Stour flowed into it at Stourmouth. This stream
caused so much alluvial deposit that the sea receded from Richborough in
early Saxon times, and part of the population removed to Sandwich. The
repeated attacks by the Danes and the French did not check the growth of
the town, which attained its maximum prosperity in Edward IV.'s reign,
when it was walled. But the sea left its shores, and the town declined
to again rise in importance, when the 400 Flemish emigrants settled
there in Elizabeth's reign and introduced silk-weaving, flannel
manufactures, and market-gardening.

Sandwich contains some of the richest bits of mediaeval architecture in
England. There are some traces of the walls to be seen, and one ancient
gateway is perfect, Fisher's Gate, near the quay. On the north is the
Tudor barbican gate. St. Clement's Church possesses a central Norman
tower. The nave is in the Perpendicular style, and the chancel is
Decorated. Both have fine roofs. St. Peter's Church (thirteenth century)
has a tower, but its south aisle was destroyed in 1661. The session-room
at the town hall has some curious seats for the mayor and aldermen, and
the hospital of St. Bartholomew's has an Early English chapel. The best
of the ancient houses in the town are in Strand Street and Lucksboat
Street. Manswood Grammar School dates from 1564, and has a Flemish
front.

At Richborough can be seen some Roman rectangular walls about 10 feet
high, with a subterranean concrete building in the centre.

[Illustration: _Photochrom Co., Ltd._

FISHER'S GATE, SANDWICH.

A picturesque survival of the days of the town's importance as a Cinque
Port.]



NEW FOREST, HAMPSHIRE


=How to get there.= - Train from Waterloo. L. and S.W. Railway.
=Nearest Station.= - Lyndhurst Road Station (3 miles).
=Distance from London.= - 85-1/4 miles.
=Average Time.= - Varies between 2-1/4 to 3-3/4 hours.

1st 2nd 3rd
=Fares.= - Single 14s. 2d. 9s. 0d. 7s. 1d.
Return 24s. 10d. 15s. 8d. 14s. 2d.

=Accommodation Obtainable.= - "Grand Hotel," Lyndhurst; "Crown
Hotel," Lyndhurst; "Rose and Crown," Brockenhurst, etc.

The popular story as to the creation of what was then the "New" Forest
by William the Conqueror has been probably much exaggerated, although we
all believed in our school days the old chroniclers, who averred that
the king destroyed fifty or so churches and numerous villages, and
exterminated their inhabitants. The fact is that the harsh feudal forest
laws were rigidly enforced by the Conqueror, who no doubt in some places
swept away the villages and churches of rebellious foresters, but the
very qualities of the forest soil disprove the fact that the land was
once all "smiling pastures and golden cornfields," as some of the old
historians would have us believe.

The New Forest of the present day forms a triangle about 20 miles long
and 12 broad, of which the base is a line drawn westward from the mouth
of the Beaulieu river to within a mile or two of the Avon, the apex
reaching to the confines of Wiltshire. The forest scenery is extremely
diversified, but always very beautiful; glades and reaches of gentle
park and meadow, and open heath-like stretches, contrast wonderfully
with the actual masses of huge beeches, under some of which daylight
never penetrates.

Lyndhurst, the little capital of the New Forest, is situated in its
centre, and is one of the best points from which to explore the beauties
of the district. The church at Lyndhurst is modern, rebuilt in 1863; but
it should be visited in order to see the large altar-fresco of the Ten
Virgins executed by the late Lord Leighton. A little way beyond the
church is the Queen's House, built in Charles II.'s reign. Here resides
the Deputy-Surveyor, who administers under the Crown, while six elected
Verderers, in their courts of Swain-mote, represent the Commoners. In
the hall is kept what is known as William Rufus's stirrup-iron.

Close to the village of Minsted is Malwood Lodge, Sir William Harcourt's
New Forest seat. From a ridge near this there are grand views of the
forest, till one comes to the Compton Arms Hotel, a completely isolated
inn, near the Rufus Stone, which marks the spot where William II. fell
by the arrow of Walter Tyrell.

[Illustration: _Photochrom Co., Ltd._

THE RUFUS STONE IN THE NEW FOREST.

Marking the spot where William II. fell by Walter Tyrell's arrow.]



OSBORNE HOUSE


=How to get there.= - Train from London Bridge or Victoria. London,
Brighton, and South Coast Railway.
=Nearest Station.= - Cowes.
=Distance from London.= - 87 miles.
=Average Time.= - Varies between 4 to 5-1/4 hours.

1st 2nd 3rd
=Fares.= - Single 16s. 0d. 10s. 5d. 8s. 10d.
Return 27s. 10d. 18s. 2d. 16s. 4d.


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