Grace G. Montgomery.

Modern auction: in ten lessons online

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and the diphthongs cd and ce; as, cado, pronounced ka^do; cedo,
pronounced se^do,

3. Ch is pronounced like k; as, chorus, pronounced ko^nts,

4. G is pronounced hard before a, o, w, and soft like^ before e, t,
y, <u, cs ; as, gustOy in which g is pronounced as in Augusta ; gero,
pronounced je^ro,

5. A consonant between two vowels must be joined to the latter ; .
as, bene, pronounced he^ne,

6. Two consonants in the middle of a word, not proper to begin a
word, must be divided ; as, mille, pronounced miVle.

7. The diphthongs ce and <b are sounded like e; as, ccedo, pro-
nounced ce^do.

8. Words of two syllables are accented on the first ; as, ager, pro-
nounced a^jer,

9. When a word of more than one syllable ends in a, the a should
be sounded like ah ; as, musa, pronounced m/ufsah.

10. Es, at the end of a word, is pronounced like the English word
tase; as, miles, pronounced mVl^,

11. T, s, and c, before ia, ie, it, to, in, and en, preceded imme-
diatelv by the accent, in Latin words as in English, change into sh
and zh; as, fa'cio, pronounced fa'sheo; san^cio, pronounced wn'-
iheo; spa^tium,^TOTio\mii&dLspa^sheum,


When EnfrliBh wordi are derived from Latin verbs, they are generally derived from
Che present Indicative; as, agents from a/70, 1 do, I perform; or from the supine of the
verl>; ns, aeUir^ from actum, to tlo, to perform.

When English words are derived from Latin nonns, they are generally derived from the
Nominutive case; as, iteraU, fh>m iter, a Journey; or from the Genitive case; as, itiner-
ate-, from itineriM, (of a Journey,^ the Genitive of Her.

There is generally a part of tne liHtiu word not nsed in forming the English derivative.
In order to show the scholar this termination, we have separated it from the rest of the
word by a hyphen: thus, the o in ag^, us in <in7^u9t tu in api^ui eo in ard^eo, and is in
lw«i^i», loiB ntyt U^ in fttrmiog niy English W^


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1. ACEB^B-VS, severe. A^CB-IS, sharp. ACTJ^T-TJS, sharp. A^GIB-
US, sour.

4, Acidity, sourness.

5. Acumen, intellectual penetra-


1. Acrimony, ill- nature.

1. Acerbity, harshness.

2. Acrid, biting.

3. Acidulate, to flavor vith acid.

1. There was neither acrimatiy nor acevkity in the reprimand
which Washington gave to Lee, after the battle of Monmouth, in 1778.

2. The ticT^id nature (324)f of pepper renders it very disagreeable in
large quantities. '

8. In tropical climates, the lower classes use vinegar to acidtUute
both food and drink.

4. The acidity of the juice of the lemon is very refreshing in warm

5. John Adams, by his legal €icumenf saved the life of Gaptain
Preston, charged with homicide (220) in the Boston Massacre.

2. A'OEB, (AOBI,*) a field.
I. Agriculture, the cultivation of the ground.

* Nouns and acUectives in Latin have six cases: the Nominative, Genitive, Dativoi
Aocasutive, Vocative, and Ablative. Words in which the root is either a notin or an
a^it'Ctive are generally derived from the Nominative Cuso; as, Ager^ 8 field; or from the
Oeiiitivu; as, Agri, of a field. In giving the root, the Nominative only is defined, and
the Ounitive is placed in a parenthesis.

A few derivatives, (such as " peregrinate,** Ac.,) which are bat litae uttd^ Will te f
defined in Part !« page 24. •

f fiftfton tc P :A>t 8i4i iind«ir Which the wbrd mtfttt^ Win be foiitid.


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1. ' Agrictllture was the principal (47) occupation (47) of the ant€'-
diluvians ( 121 ). Is it incorrect (438) to attribute (541) their longevity (147)
to this cause ?

3. A'0-0, 1 do, I perform. AGT'-TJH, to do, to perform.

1. Actuates, incites to action.

2. Actuary, clerk.

3. Actual, real.

4. Cogent, forcible.

5. Enacted, decreed.

5. Transact, to do.

G. Exact, to take by authority.

7. Exigency, pressing necessity.

1. The motive (316) which actuates a person ought always to be
taken into consideration in judging of his conduct (133).

2. It is customary for the actuary of a Literari/ (267) Institute, to
advertise (665) for the payment of the annual dues.

3. If the British had been able (215) to ascertain the actual cou'
diiion (124) of the foldier?/ (488) at Valley Forge, in 1777-78, they
would have been convinced (573), that they could neYer subjugate (242)
Buch &pecj)le (400).

4. The most cogent argument (24) was not sufficient (152) to in-
duce (133) Jackson to sign the bill, rechartering the Bank of the United
SUtes in 1832.

5. In 1705, ParUament enacted a law, that no legal (256) document
(125j should be valid (555) without a stamp. As no merchant (293)
could see the propriety (416) of the Stamp Act, the whole mercantile
community (320) determined to transact no business requiring'
stamped paper.

6. One of the causes of the Revolution (584), was the attempt (522) of
Great Britain to exact from the colonies (82) revenue (559J, t? be ap-
plied to her own benefit (38).

7. In the latter part of 1776, success (57) seemed to follow the
British arms (25) ; New York had been taken, and Washington, closely
pursued (470) through New Jersey, had crossed the Delaware to
Pennsylvania. In this exigency ^ Washington did not succumb (99),
but, to the aurjom* (409) of the British, recrossed the Delaware, and
defeated the Hessians at Trenton.

4. A'LI-US, or ALIE'N-US, another, foreign.

4. Inalienable, incapable of
being transferred.

1. Aliens, foreigners.

2. Alienated, estranged.

3. Alienation, estrangement.

1. In reference (167) to aliens f the Constitution (485) provides, that
no person (379) except (47) a natural (324) born citizen (72) is eligible (258)
to the Presidency (471).

2. In 1779, Arnold's trial by court-martial irritated his irascible (236;
dtflpt^tion^ and ^cMenated Me afm^n (152j from Ms ct^imttyk

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8. Arnold's alienation lasted till his deeet,Me (57), and he nerex
wished even to advert (5«5) to his country.

4. Life, liberty^ (257) and the pursuit (476) of happiness, are the
inalienable rights of every one in the United States.

6. A'L-0, 1 feed, I nourish. AL'IT-XTM, or ALT-UIC, to feed, to nourish.

1. Aliment, nutriment. | 3. Coalesce, unite.

2. Coalition, union.

1. The eommisiary (305) who provided (671) proper aliment for
the sick soldiers, and such palliation (300) of their sufferings as the
case would admit (305), is worthy of an annuity for life.

2. In 1643, Massachusetts, Connecticut, Plymouth, and New Haven,
formed a coalition for mutual protection (518) and defence.

5. Oil and water will not coalesce ; oil, heing lighter than water,
rises to the top.

6. AL'TEB, another. ALTEE'H-XIS, by turns.

1. Altercation, angry dispute.

2. Alternately, by turns.

3. Alternation, alternate action.

4. Alternative, a choice be-
tween two things.

1. The constant (485) altercation which took place between Mason
and the people of New Hampshire, was only settled by calling in
an arbitrator (20).

2. The Legislature (256) of Connecticut is in session (471) alternately
at Hartford and New Haven.

3. The alternation of day and night is caused by the rotation (448)
of the earth upon its axis.

4. In 1776, it became evident, that the only alternative was sub-
mission (305), or a declaration (75) of independence.

'^ 7. AL'T-irS, lofty.

1. Altitude, height.

1. The altitude of the highest mountain is found, by accurate (102)
measurement, to be 5} miles.

8. AM'BUL.0, 1 walk. AHBULAT-UM, to walk.
1. Perambulate, to walk through.

1. Queen Elizabeth loved to perambulate the rural (452) dig
trict8,and hear the rustic (462) people laud (251) "Good Queen Bessl**

9. Air-O, I love. AMA'T-UM, to love. AM IC-US, a friend.
1. Amicable, friendly. I 2. Enmity, hostility.

1. Amitt, friendship. I 3. Inimical, unfriendly.


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1. The most amicable relations existed between Massasoit and
the Plymouth settlers in 1620, and a ireatt/ (538) of amity was made,
which was not broken until King Philip became hosdle (224) in 1C75.

2. Such was the entnity of the ludians to the colony of Virginia,
that hosliliiies (224) commenced in 1C09.

8. When Hull, in 1812, determined to relinquuh (263) the territory (627)
already acquired in Canada, he was considered initnical to the
American cause.

10. AHTL-US, large.

1. Amply, abundantly.

2. Amplify, to enlarge.

3. Amplitude, extent.

4. Amplification, the act of di-
lating upon all the particu-
lars of a subject.

1. The Croton aqueduct (19), constructed for the purpose of tnpply-
ing (801) New York with water, is eapaile (47) of providing amply
for the wants of the whole city.

2. Nothing is more tedious in an orator (854), than a tendency (520)
to am^plify too much.

8. The afnplltude of the universe (551) may well excite (68) won-
der, even in the mind of a scientific (466) man.

4. In his preliminary (261 ) remarks, Webster's argumentative (24)
style is terse (524) and concise (41), but his am^pllflcatlon is in the
highest degree (207) eloquent (270).

U. AN'CKO, I y^. AHX1, 1 am yezed.
1. Anxibty, solicitude. ,

1. Great anociety was felt in 1807, for the four sailors of ine
Chesapeake, given up as deserter$ (477).

12. AN'OTJIrXTS, a eomer.
1. Angular, having comers.

1. A terrible (528) desperado (498), sentenced to iolitary (490) confine-
ment (176), declared he would have been insane (460), if his cell had
been circular (71) instead of angular.

IS. AN'nCA, the life, the vital air. AH'IM-Xrs, the mind.

1. Animalculk, a minute animal.
1, Animation, liveliness.

1. Unanimity, agreement in


2. Animadverted, commented on

by way of censure.

2. Animosity, violent hatred.

3. Animate, to stimulate.

4. Magnanimity, greatness of


5. Unanimous, of one mind.

6. Equanimity, evenness of mind.

1. In a meeting of the Philosophical Association (486), the discussion
(425) as to th« formation (187) of the aninuUcuie was carried on

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with great animation; but there was no unanimity until a
microscope settled the question (*428).

2. Hamilton anim,adverted teverdy (480) upon the political
course of the Viee-Pretident (471), but entirely without animosity.

3. Previously to the battle of Trenton, Washington endeavored
to anim>ate the soldiers to renewed effort (189),. by showing that the
cause was not desperate (498), and by promising (305) a bounty (38)
to all who would remain.

4. If Burr had had a particle (365) of m^agnanimity, he would
never have sought to revenge (574) himself, by taking the life of his
opponent (399).

5. After the evacuation of Philadelphia, and the success at Mon-
mouth, it was decided, by a unanimous vote, to go to White

6. Washington bore with equanimity the misfortune (188) of
losing New York in 1776, and flying like a fugitive (197) before Com-

14. AK'K-XTS, a year.

1. Annals, a series of historical


2. Septennial, happening every

seven years.
2. Biennial, happening every
two years.

3. Superannuated, impaired by

old age and infirmity.

4. Perennial, lasting through

the year.

5. Millennium, a thousand years

of peace.

1. When Watson wrote his ** Annals of Philadelphia," the anti-
guaied (16) house occupied (47) by William Penn was still standing, in
Second Sti'eet, above Walnut.

2. The members of the Convocation (580) first decided that the meet-
ings should be septennial, but finally (176) reversed (565) the ded^
sion (41), and made them biennial.

8. Had Gen. Prescott been superannuated, and unable to resist
(485) Col. Barton, his capture (47) would still have been ridiculous (442) ;
but we are scarcely able to restrain (606) our risible (442) faculties, at
the thought of the supercilious (518) General, accustomed to domineer
(127) over the province (573) of Rhode Island, carried from his bed
almost in a state of nudity (838).

4. A plant (387) or shrub, whose stem can remam (281) in the ground
aU the year, is called perennial.

5. On examining the Scriptures (467), we find that several writer
predict (117) a time of peace (369) on earth, called the miUennlutn,
in which the most ferocious (166) beasts will become harmless.

15. AN'NTL-US, a ring.
1. Annular, in the form of a ring.

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1. An annular eclipse is not a common (820) event (559), as & con-
currence of circumstances is necessary to produce (133) the result (456).

16. ANTI^QU-US, old, ancient.

1. Antiquary, one who seeks an- I 1. Antique, ancient.

cient things. | Antiquated, out of date. (14.)

1. Nothing is more precious (All) to the antiquary, ihsm some
antique relic (2G3) of elaborate (246) workmanship.

17. AFE'EI-0, 1 open. AFEBT-UH, to open.
1. Aperture, an opening.

1. Some of the Roman soldiers gained access (57) to Jerusalem by
an aperture in the wall.

18. AP'T-TTS, fit, meet.

1. Adapt, to fit. | 2. Aptitude, disposition.

1. The preceptor (47) should endeavor to adapt his teaching to the
eapacitij (47) of each scholar.

2. His aptitude for learning, and the facility (152) with which he
executed every kind of penmanship, enabled him to make a most ex-
cellent counterfeit (162).

19. A'QUA, water.

1. Aqueous, watery.

2. Aquatic, living in the water.

3. Terraqueous, consisting of

land and water.

1. The aqueous portion of the earth greatly preponderates (398)
over the solid (488) or earthy part.

2. An aquarium is a convenient arrangement for observing (479) the
habits of aquatic animals.

3. This terraqueous globe is admirably (301) adapted for the
habitation (215) of human (220) beings.

20. AB'BITEB, a judge or umpire.

1, Arbitrate, to decide between

opposing parties.

2. Arbitrary, not governed by

fixed rule.

Aqueduct, a channel for water.

Arbitrator, a judge appointed
by parties to decide between
ttem. (6.)

1. During the war of 1812, between the United States and England,
Russia offered to arbitrate,

2. Both countries refusing (200) to accept (47) the mediation (287) of
Russia, England continued her arbitrary conduct.

• Befara to senten 9» under Root 10, among which aqtudxtct will be found.

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«1.AB'B0B, atree.
1 Arbor, a bower.

I. As the leaves of the ffrape-vine (575) are deeidua is (40), and its stem
p,Mnt (392), it is an appropriate (416) coyering for a summer arbOTm

22. AB'C-EO, I hixider or restrain.

1. Coerce, compel by force. | 2. Coercion, force.

1. Washington had too much discernment (65), to suppose that he
could coerce volunteers (582) to remain in the army.

2. Washington had no wish to exasperate (29) the insurgents, but he
determined to resort (494) to coercion, rather than permit (305) an
ir^fringement (191) of the law.

23. AB'B-SO, I burn, I desire earnestly. AB'S-UM, to bnm, to desirt

1. Ardent, passionate. i 3. Arson, setting fire to a dwell-

2. Ardor, earnestness. ing.

1. The ardent desire of Wolfe to take Quebec was grat^ed {210) in

2. The ardor of Wesley led him, whilst he was a missionary (306)
in Georgia, to perform almost incredible (92) labors.

3. So dreadful are the consequences of arson, that no community
should allow a person to commit (305) the offence (165) with impunity
(421) ; in some countries it is common to incarcerate (49) the criminal
(96), in others to decapitate (48) him.

24. AB'GU-0, 1 argne.

1. Argue, to reason. I ARGUHENT/k.TiYE, containing ar-

ARGUMENT,areasonofiered.(3.) I gument. (10)

1. Pocahontas, finding it useless to argne with the Indians, deter"
mined (525) to notify (334) the colonists of their danger.

25. AB'H-A, armi, weapons.

1. Armistice, a cessation of hos-


2. A.Rif AMENT, a nayal warlike


2. Armada, a naval warlike force.

3. Armory, the place where arms

are kept.

4. Armor, defensive clothing.

1. In 1847, Scott consented to an armistice, and our Government
considering this an auspicious (82) ]'eriod, sent Nicholas IP. Trist to
negotiate r355) peace


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5. Armt, a number of soldiers

organized under officers.

6. Armorer, one who makes


7. Disarm, to deprive of weapons.

8. Arm, to take arms.
Arms, weapons. (3.)

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2. Raleigh sent out his third expedition (380) in 1587; out Spain
having inyaded England with a powerful armamentt called th»
"Invincible JLrmada/* the colony failed for want of supplies.

3. On the first appearance of defection (152) in Boston, Gage placed
a strong guard around the armory*

4. The wearing of armor has fallen into disuse (562) since the in-
vention (559) of gunpowder.

5. The condition of the arm,y in 1775^ made it impossible (403) for
Washington to act on the offensive (165).

6. Every artisan (27), whether an amvorer or not, was employed
in the manufacture (162) of arms and ammunition (319).

7. Nothing could be more futile, than the attempt of George III. to
disarm the colonists.

8. "I deprecate (407) war," said John Adams; ".but it is inevitable
(578), and it is our duty to arm, as rapidly (437) as possible.

36. A'B-0, I plough.
1. Inarable, not fit for tillage. | 1. Arable, fit for tillage.

1. The first donation (124) to Culpepper and Arlington, cowipnaec/ (409)
only forests and inarable lands; but finally the colonists had to
yield some of their best arable fields to the rapacious (437) monarch.

27. ABS, (ABT-IS,) art, skill.

1. Artifice, stratagem.

2. Artless, without fraud.
2. Artist, one skilled in art.
2. Art<fici4.l, made by art.

1. In 1776, General Gage resorted to every artifice, to conceal (61)
his design of seizing the stores at Concord.

2. An artless little girl, while walking in an aviary, delighted the
artist, by mistaking an artificial bird, which he had placed there*
for a real one.

3. The great painter, Rubens, displayed such art inlhe manage-
ment of his subject (239), that it excited the admiration (301) of every

4. An artful impostor endeavored to obtain money from his
auditory (80), by asserting that he could move inert bodies, by the mere
force of his will.

28. ABTIC'UL-XrS, a joint or limb.

1. Articulation, utterance of I 2. Inarticulate, indistinct,
the elementary sounds. |

1. Whitfield's artictUation was so distinct, that every word waa
easily understood by an immense audience (30).

3. Art, skill.

4. Artful, cunning.
Artisan, artificer. (26.)
Artificer, artisan. (25.)

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2. Demosthenes, finding his speech yerj inartictUate, resorted
to erery expedient to improTe it, and labored with the most exem-
plary (148) patience (368) and perseverance (480), until he could speak

29. ASTEE, rough.
1. Asperity, harshness. | Exasperate, to enrage. (22.)

1. In 1781, the most strenuous efforts were made to procure (102) a
pardon for Isaac Eayne. Judge Balfour, however, was inexorable (354),
and, with great asperity and bitter invective (556), subjected (230) him
to the ignominy (334) of dying on a gibbet.

80. AXT'DI-O, I hoar. ATTBIT-UM, to hear.

1. Audit, to examine an ao- Audience, an assembly of hear-

count. ers. (28.)

2. Audible, that can be heard. Auditory, an assembly of hear-

ers. (27.)

1. 'When the committee came to audit the accounts of Arnold, they
were astonished at the enormity (333) of the fraud.

2. The vision (571) of the celestial (62) hosts (224), as they announced,
with audible voice (580), the incarnation (50), must have filled the
thepherds with rapture (437).

81. AXrO'-EO, I increase. AXTC'T-UM, to increase. AXTXITI-UH, a

4. Author, a writer of a book

or other document.

5. Auxiliary, helping.

6. Authority, legal power.

1. Auctioneer, one who holds

an auction.

2. Augment, to increase.

3. Authorized, empowered.
3. Auction, a sale by bidding

more and more.

1. In order to make such vociferous (167) cries, an auctioneer
must constantly (485) expand (358) his lungs.

2. The wise and judicious measures of Hamilton to aufffnent the
funds in the Treasury, and to restore the value of the depreciated (411)
currency, placed the credit of the United States on a firm basis.

8. Charles II. autliorized Culpepper and Arlington to sell the
lands in Virginia by auction.

4. Milton derived very little benefit from the pubHcaiion (400) of the
works on divorce, of which he was the author*

5. Taylor's campaign in 1846 was antecedent (57), and auxUiarp
to the capture of Mexico by Scott.

6. The people of New Hampshire contended that Mason had ne
autlwrity to exact rent for the land.

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82. ATT'OUB, (ATTSTIC-IS,) a soothsayer.

3. Inauspicious, unfavorable.

4. AuGURT, an omen.
Auspicious, favorable. (25.)

1. Auspices, the omens of an

L. AuouR, to predict.
2 Inaugurate, to invest with an

office by solemn rites.

1. Colambus commenced his voyage under such favorable atlspiceSi
as led Isabella to augur success.

2. It is customary to inaugurate the President on the portico of
the Capitol.

8. Inauspicious as was the loss of Gilbert's expedition, it did
not deter (528) Elizabeth from making another attempt.

4. When Magellan undertook the cireumnavigation (826) of the globe,
he accepted as a favorable augwry^i^^ appearance of a beautiful
dove flying over the vessel.

83. BAB'BAE-TTS, rude, savage.

1. Barbarous, savage.

1. De Soto, though often attacked by the barbarous tribes, pressed
on until he reached the Mississippi.

84. BEA'T-XTS, happy, bleiied.

I. Beatitude, a blessing pronounced.

1. The compassion (368) of the Saviour for the suffering (167) tnci-
dent (40) to humanity (220), is exhibited in each beatitude.

85. BEL'L-TTM, war.

I. Rebellion, insurrection. | 1. Rebel, one who revolts.

1. When the rebellion in Canada commenced, a re&e? might have
had a transient hope of ultimate (547) success.

86. BI'B-O, I drink.
I. Imbibed, drank in.

1. Aaron Burr may not have been an inebriate (136), but that he
inibibed ardent spirits freely at the time of the duel (184), there can

be no doubt. • ^

■ •>

87. BIS, twice. BrN-I, two by two.

1. Combine, to unite.

1. Hamilton was said to comMne the finest colloquial (270) powert;
with ffteat profundity (201) of learning.

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88. BO'H-XrS, good. BE'KE, good, well.

1. Beneficent, kind, doing good.

2. Benign, kind.

3. Benignity, graciousness.

4. Benefice, church-living.

5. Benediction, a blessing.

5. Benefaction, benefit con*


6. Beneficial, advantageous.
Benefit, advantage. (3.)
Bounty, premium. (13.)

1. In the beneficent character of Oglethorpe, we discern (65) a
great iimilarity (482) to that of William Penn.

2. Sir Harry Vane, a compatriot (367) of Cromwell, was noted for hi
benign and affable manner.

3. The benignity and goodness of Henry the Fourth of France,
made the populace (400) almost revere (562) him.

4. In 1592, many a Doctor (125) of divinity (123) resigned (481) his
benefice, and became a refugee (197), rather than submit to the law
of Conformity (187).

5. The father of William Penn was so angry at his son, for what he
deemed his fanaticism, that he refused him his benedicHanf and
would have deprived him of the King's benefaction.

6. Penn, in 1701, granted a new charter, whose provisions wer#
very benefi>cial to the colony.

89. BBEYMS, short

1. Brevity, conciseness. I 3. Brief, short.

2. Abbreviate, to shorten. |

1. In the address of the first Continental Congress, the introductory
(138) remarks were written with great brevity, and with a simplicity
and candor (44), which forced conviction (573) on the mind.

2. Before an article is available (555) for popular (400) reading, it is
frequently necessary for an editor to abbreviate it.

8. Give a brief account of that troublesome malcontent (279), Clay-
borne, who kept Maryland in such a turbulent state.

40. CA'D-O, I faU. CA'S-UM, to fjEOL

6. Coincidence, concurrence.

7. Decay, gradual failure of

Deciduous, falling. (21.)
Incident, apt to happen. (34.)

1. Cadence, fall of the voice.

2. Occasion, time of particular


3. Casual, happening by chance.

4. Casualty, accident.

5. Coincided, agreed.

1. There was a sweet cadence in ihe tones of Mary Queen of Scots,
and an affability (156) of manner, which seemed to inspire (499) her

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Online LibraryGrace G. MontgomeryModern auction: in ten lessons → online text (page 3 of 16)