Grace G. Montgomery.

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rent of bitter denunciation (341) against the British Government, and
avowed his firm conviction that the mother country had no legitimate
(266) power to tax the Colonies.

159. FABI'N-A, meal.

1. Farina, the flour of any spe- I 1. Farinaceous, consisting of
cies of corn. | meal.

1. During the war, large quantities of farinaceous food, such
as oat-meal, farina, corn-starch, &o., were required for the sick

160. PES'S-TTH, to own, to declare.

1. Professed, claimed.

1. Tyler, although elected by a party, who professed to be in favor
of a United States Bank, vetoed two bills rechartering the Bank, its
charter having expired (499) in 1836.

'161. FE'BE-IS, a fever.
1. Feverish, affected by fever. | 1. Febrile, perjiaining to fever.

1. In 1799, Washington, while superintending (620) his plantation
(887), took a cold, which produced inflammation (180) of the throat,
and a feverish condition of the whole* system. Every eff'ort was
made to subdue the inflammatory (180) and febrile symptoms, but it
was of no avail; thellisease proved irremediable (286), and he died in
a feW hours.

162. F(£''D-TrS, (FCED'ISB-IS,) a league, or covenant.

1. Confederacy, a 'number of
States united by a league.

1. Federal, pertaining to a cov-

1 . Under the Confederacy, the Congress had no power to levy a
tax; while the FedereU Constitution declares that « Congress haa
|K>wer to lay and collect taxes, duties, impoitt" (899).

2. Confederate, one joined with
others in a league.

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2. Blanneriasset was charged with being a confederate of Aaron
Burr, in the attempt to form a western empire.

163. FE'L-IX, (FEU'C-IS,) happy.

1. Felicitous, happy. I Felicity, happiness. (77.)

2. Felicitate, to congratulate. I

1. The felicitous condition of the Wyoming Colony, so remota
from the commotion (316) of the war, made them disregard the dangei
of their defenceless (165) position, until too late to remedy it.

2. After the treaty of Aix-la-Ghapelle,* the colonists had scarcely
time to felicitate themselyes on the restoration Of peace, when hos-
tilities again commenced.

Feminine, pertaining to the fe*
male sex. (41.)

164. FEM'IN-A, a woman.

1. Effeminate, unmanly.

2. Effeminacy, womanly deli-


1. Nothing but confusion (200) and turbulence (546) could result
from the reign of a sovereign, so effemitiatey dilatory (167), and
careless, as Charles II.

2. Men of sagacity (454) assert, that, when a people becc^me very
prosperous (498), they are in great danger of effeininocf/*

165. FEN'D-0, 1 strike. FEN'S-TJH, to strike.

1. Defendant, one who makes a

defence in a prosecution.

2. Fender, a metallic frame to

hinder coals of fire from
rolling on the floor.
Defence, protection. (92.)

Defenceless, destitute of pro-
tection. (163.)
Defend, to protect. (48.)
Defensive, resisting attach. (99.)
Offence, crime. (23.)
Offensive, aggressive. (25.)

1. In 1680, a suit was brought by Andross, for the possession (471)
of New Jersey. Sir William Jones decided against Andross, and in
favor of the defendant.

2. It is related of a Spanish monarch, that, being seated too near
the fender for comfort (189), and no attendant being at hand, the
exquisite {42S) formaliti/ (187) of court etiquette would not allow him
to move himself. He was, therefore, nearly roasted.

166. F£'B-A, a wild beast.
Febocious, savage. (14.)

I Fierce, furious. (117.)

• Pronom—d tk94a-sharpSt.

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167. FE'B-0, 1 bear, I earry. LA'T-TTK, to bear, to earrj.

1. Confer, to consult one with


2. Deference, a yielding of judg-

ment out of respect to an-

3. Elate, to render proud by


3. Dilate, enlarge upon.

4. Proffer, to offer.

4. Oblation, a sacrifice.

5. Preference, predilection.

5. Relative, kinsman.

6. Translate, to interpret into

another language.

7. Pestiferous, producing the


Conference, a meeting for con*

sultation. (120.)
Defer, to put off. (91.)
Dilatory, disposed to put off.

Infer, to draw a conclusion.

Legislature, the law-making

power. (6.)
Reference, relation. (4.)
Relation, connection. (47.)
Suffering, distress. (34.)
Transfer, to convey to another.

Vociferous, making loud vocal

sounds. (3L)

1. When Harrison marched against the Indians, in 1811, they asked
that an opportunity (402) to confer might he afforded, before they de-
cided on his proposition (899). Harrison wspected (497) that this was
only tk pretext (530), and the aequel (476) showed his surmise (805) to be

2. The Mosaic law, and also the Roman law, er\foin (242) defer-
ence to the aged.

8. The victory of Gates, in 1777, seemed to elate him beyond
measure ; and, for months, he could do little else than dilate on the
magnitude (278) of his achievements, and maUgn (279) both the motives
and management of Washington.

4. It was sacrilege (453) to proffer ^ as an obloMon, any animal
that was infirm (177), or injured in any way.

6. The preference which Queen Elizabeth felt for Raleigh, a
relative of Gilbert, induced her, to transfer the patent to her

6. It is necessary to apply (892) ourselves closely to the acquisiHon
(428) of a language (262), in order to translate with facility.

7. During the Great Plague, in 1665, Newton escaped from the
pestiferous air of London, and remained in the country, where he
discovered the great principle of gravitation.

168. FEBFL-A, a plant, (giant-fenneL)

1. Ferule, to punish by striking with a piece of wood like a flat
1. Anciently, the stalks of fennel, or the << ferula," were used to
punish children; hence the expression, ** to ferule a child."

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1. Fepvob, zeal.

2. Efvbryescencb, ebullition.

169. FEB'YEO, I boil, I am hot

. FERMENTATioN,i;hat change, by
which substances are decom*
posed, and their elements
form new compounds.

1. Large numbers of persons used to congregate (212) around Peter
the Hoirmit, attracted (688) by the /ervof, with which he would /^or^ray
(538) the advantages to be derived (445), from joining the Crusades,
and rencuing the Holy Sepulchre from the hands of the infidels (171).

2. Soda-water, in a state of effervescence^ is agreeable to the
taste; but when that has passed oS, it becomes very insipid (461).

3. To commemorate the Passover, the Israelites were commanded to
eat bread, which had not gone through the process of fermentation*

4. Festiyal, an occasion of re*
Infested, harassed. (47.)

170. FES'T-TJX, a foait

1. Fertiyity, gayety.

2. Infest, to harass.

3. Festiyb, joyful.

1. Rahl was engaged in the festivity incident to Christmas, when
surprised by Washington, at the battle of Trenton.

2. From the settlement of Ohio, in 1788, until Wayne's victory, in
1794, the Indians continued to infest her western frontier.

8. From time immemorial (290), it has been customary to make the
birthday a festive occasion.

4. 'Job's sous were together, enjoying ^ome festivalf when a whirl-
wind destroyed the house, and all in it save one.

171. FI'D-O, I trust

1. Diffidence, distrust of one's Confidence, trust. (45.)

self. Confidential, private. (123.)

2. Confide, to impart secretly. Fidelity, faithful adherence.

3. Infidelity, disbelief. (45.)

4. Affianced, betrothed. Infidels, unbelievers. (169.)

Perfidy, treachery. (6o.)

1. The diffidence shown by Washington, in undertaking such an
important commission (305), as the remonstrance against the French
encroachments, only served to elevate (255) him, in the estimation of
the Governor.

2. The thing that a child is not willing to confide to his mother,
is generally wrong.

8. The inj/idelity of Ethan Allen, and his belief in the transmigro'
Hon (295) of souls, afforded no solace (489), when death came to olaim
his beloved daughter.

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4. Ptince Charles, having been affianced to the Infania of Spain,
determined to yisit her ; but on his way, he fell in love with Henrietta
of France, and afterwards married her.

172. FI'0-0, 1 fix, I fasten. FIX'-TTH, to fix, to fasten.
1. Transfix, to pierce through. | Prefix.*

1. The bare recital of the atrocities of the Wyoming massacre, was
suflBcient to transfix the listener with horror.

173. FIL'I-TTS, a son. FIL'I-A, a daughter.
Filial, pertaining to a son or daughter. (57.)

174. YIN'Q-Oj I form, I fashion. FIC'T-TTM, to form, to fashion.

1. Fiction, a feigned story. I 3. Effigy, an image.

2. Fictitious, imaginary. |

1. Defoe's "Robinson Crusoe" is n. fiction f yet everything de-
picted in it, seems like a realiUj (441).

2. To witness distress, which we do not attempt to alleviate (255),
renders the heart less sensitive (473). Novels (335) depict only fi^o^
titlons suffering, which requires no effort for its relief; therefore,
the effect of such reading is to harden the heart, and make it callous
and indifferent.

8. That sage (454) observer, Benjamin Franklin, endeavored, from
the commencement of the difficulties, to convince the British Govern-
ment, that it was useless to contend. ** I do not extenuate" (523), ^aid
he, " such acts as burning the King in effigy f and treating his repre-
sentative (511) with contumely (544) ; but the Americans have had great
provocation (580); and if, as all the signs j7or/en(^ (520), they resort to
arms, you will find them invincible** (578).

2. Figurative, representing by
Figure, a character. (151.)

175. FIGTTH-A, an image

1. Transfiguration, the super-
natural change in appear-
ance of our Saviour on the

1. A little infant scholar, when asked, how she knew that people
lived after death, said, " Because Moses and Elias were at the trans-

2. The figurative language of "Paradise Lost," is very similar
to that of the Bible.

* To learn the correct use of other derivatives otfigo, Jianm, ilndy the atyioologiGal
doflaitions on page 7.

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176. FI'N-IS, the end orUmit.

3. Confines, fronders.

4. Indefinite, not precise.
6. Finite, limited.

Confinement, restraint. (12.)
Finally, ultimately. (14.)

Infinite, limitless. (135.)

I. Affinity, attraction which
exists between the particles
of bodies.

1. Definition,* a short descrip-


2. Definitive, conclusive.

3. Definite, precise.

1. The affinity which the particles of one body have for those of
another, enables chemists to perform many interesting experiments.*

2. The definitive treaty between England and the United States,
omitted to make any proTision for the collection of debts, due to Brit-
ish creditors.

3. Jay's treaty, in 1795, was definite on the subject of debts, con-
tracted ^lor (412) to the war; and it also provided for the evacuation
of all posts still held by the British, on the confines of the United

4. The intelligence from the army was very indefinite f but such
was the distraction (538) consequent on the approach of the British, in
1777, that Congress determined to remove (816) to Lancaster, and many
citizens transported thither their movables (316).

5. Many things transcend (465) man's finite powers. How incom-
prehensible (409) is the omnipresent (345) and omniscient (345) God I

4. Infirmary, an hospital.
Affirmative, expressing as-
sent. (144.)
Infirm, weak. (167.)

177. FIE'M-lIS, strong.

1. Firmament, the heavens.

2. Confirmation, proof.

3. Affirmation, solemn assever-

3. Affirm, assert.

1. Light was created on the first day, yet it was not till the fourth
day, that the great luminary (276) was placed in the fimnament.

2 The garrison at Fort Mimms heard of the intended attack ; but
as the report needed confiTrmatioUf the commander resisted all
importunity (402) to send for more troops.

8. Before he (the President) shall enter on the duties of his office,
he shall take the following affirmation : — " I do solemnly affirm ,

* The following experiment, which illustrates the definition of affinity^ can
be easily tried. Take one pair of dirty hands, two quarts of soft water (warm is bottei),
and a sraall quantity of soap. Apply the soap to the hands, and then immerse them in
the water ; bring them in contact with each other, and rub briskly, when the particles
of dirt, having a greater affinity for the soap than for the hands, toiU leave the hands,
and pass into the soapy water. This experiment will always succeed, if the above direo>
tfons are carefully followed.

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that I wUi faithftOly execute (476) the office of President of the United
States, and will, to the best of my ability, preeeroe (479), protect (618),
and defend the Constitution of the United States."

4. In Girard College, there is an apartment (865) used as an ift-
firmary, or hoepital (223).

178. 7IS'C-US, a money-bag.

1. Confiscated, appropriated, as 1 Confiscation, transfer of for-
a penalty, to public use. felted goods to public use.

I (84.)
1. During the ReTolutionary War, the States confiscated the prop-
erty of those who continued to adhere (216) to the royal cause.

179. FLA'OB.0,Ibam.

1. Flagrant, enormous. 1 Conflagration, an extensive

2. Flaorancy, enormity. | fire. (58.)

1. During the Revolution in France, the most flagrant crimes
were committed, by those who had been accustomed to inveigh (556)
against the nobles, for similar atrocities.

2. When the Revolution in France was over, people were astonished
at the flagrancy of the crimes, which had been committed in the
name of Liberty.

180. TLAM'M-A, a flame.

Inflame, to irritate. (142.) Inflammation, diseased heat of

Inflammable, easily set on fire. the body. (161.)

(148.) Inflammatory, accompanied with

preternatural heat. (161.)

181. FLECT-O, I bend. FI£X'-UM, to bend.

1. Inflexible, obstinate. | Reflect, to throw back. (120.)

2. Flexible, pliable. |

1. Every effort to induce Jackson to re-charter the United States
Bank, was unavailing.; he remained infleiciblef^nd ordered William
J. Duane to remove the deposits.

2. By using gutta-percha, we can have a flexible tube, convenient
for many purposes. .

182. ni'G-0, 1 beat, I dash. TLIC'T-TJK, to beat, to dash.

3. Afflict, to trouble.
Inflict, to impose. (52.)

1. Conflict, contest.

2. Profligate, dissolute.
2. Affliction, suffering.

1. After a long conflict, in South Carolina, all laws which wert
wf^uet (244) to the Huguenots, were abrogated (447) in 1797.

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2. The administration of the profligate Lord Cornbtnryr, ^caused
much affliction in New York and New Jersey, from 1702 to 1707.

3. In the leprosy, which continues to afflict the inhabitants of
Eastern countries, the flesh assumes a tumid (544) appearance, the
limbs are tremuloiis (589), and the sufi^erer soon becomes a vagabond

183. FLO, I blow. FLA'T.UM, to blow.
1. Inflate, to fill with air.

1. To inflate the lungs, we must stand erect, expand the chest to
its full size, and then make a long inspiration (499). ^

184. FLOS, (FLO'B-IS,) a flower.

3. Florid, having a lively red

4. Floriferous, bearing flowera,

5. Flowers, shrubs.

1. Efflorescence, an appearance

resembling flowers.

2. Florist, a cultivator of flow-

2. Floral, pertaining to flowers.

5. Flourish, are in vigor.

1. A beautiful efflorescence, which appears on the snow in
Qreenland, has given it the name of "Red Snow."

2. A florist thinks himself yery fortunate (188), if he can add one
new specimen (497) to the fiorcU beauties of his green-house.

8. Magnus, a noted depredator (408) from Norway, made an attempt
to ravage (437) England, in the reign (438) of William Bufus, so called
from his florid complexion (392).

4. Many plants, which are fruit-bearing in their native (324) country,
are only fl^yriferows when exotics.

6. Trees and flowers flouiri^h in England, on account of tho
humidity (225) of the air.

185. FLU'-O, I flow. FLUX'-TJM, to flow.

1. Fluency, readiness of speech.

1. Fluent,* ready in the use of


2. Fluctuate, to wave.

3. Confluence, junction.

3. Fluctuation, undulation.

4. Affluence, wealth.

5. Influential, powerful.

6. Influx, coming in.

6. Superfluity, a superabim-


7. Superfluous, more than !•

Influence, power. (47.)

1. Whitfield possessed great fluency of speech, and hiQ passion(U$
(368) appeals to his hearers, to attend to religion (260), were frequently
followed by the conversion of hundreds.

2. A very light wind will cause the surface of the ocean iofluctHh
ate sufficiently to produce sea- sickness.

• Whitfield WM very fluttttt* and his pawtonttiH Ae.

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8. At the confltience of two rapid (437) streams, the flttctua-
tion of the water is very great.

4. Robert Morris, in the mids of afflttencCf was willing not only
to entertain (621) the oflficers, but to provide sustenance (521) for the

6. Formerly, Spain was one of the most influential nations of
Europe ; but the suicidal (510) policy adopted by her rulers, has greatly
diminished her power

6. On the discovery of gold in California, it was thought, that the
influx of that commodity (306) would be so great, that there would be
a superfluity.

7. We can find a ready market in Europe for all our superflturus

188. FO'LI-TTM, a leaf.

1. Foliage, a collection of

Folio, a large book, in which
the sheets of paper are foMed
only once. (109.)

1. When within ten miles of Fort Du Quesne, Braddock was startled
by a shower of arrows from the dense foliage of the surrounding

8. Reformation, correction.

9. Informality, absence of some

legal form.
9. Formal, according to pre-
scribed rule.
Conformity, agreement. (38.)
Formality, ceremoniousness.

Formation, shape. (13.)
Perform, execute. (144.)

187. FOB'M-A, form; beauty.

1. Conform, to comply with.

2. Deformity, state of being de-


3. Informer, informant.

4. Information, intelligence.

5. Transformation, change of


6. Transform, to change.

6. Performance, achievement.

7. Uniformity, conformity to a


1. The Puritans, unwilling to conform to the law prescribing
ministerial (299) habiliments (215), and many other things, which they
could not approve (414), determined to emigrate to Holland.

2. Lord Byron was morbidly (312) sensitive on the subject of his

3. The inforfneVf who apprised (409) General Grey of the locality
of Wayne's troops, must have felt great remorse (313), when he heard
of the massacre.

4. When information of the surrender of Yorktown, in 1781,
was brought to Philadelphia, the aged doorkeeper of CongresQ fell

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6. Wliftt a transforfnation have railroads effected in one genera"
tion (204), bringing the inhabitants of distant sections (469) in close
contiguity (517) to each other.

6. Heathen mythology describes (467) beings with power to tranS'
form a man into a monster (311) ; thus, Circe's* perfortnance
was to change men into swine.

7. If there were no uniformity in the money of the United States,
there would be more counterfeit coin.

8. To diminish (800) the amount (310) of crime among i\iQ junior (245)
members of society, houses of refoirmation have been established
in Massachusetts.

9. In 1690, Allen, having purchased Mason's claim, was appointed
Governor of New Hampshire. Some infoirmality in the grant to
Mason, caused continual (521) disputes, but finally the Governor made %
foirmaZ surrender of the land to the settlers.

188. FOBS, (FOB'T-IS,) chance.
Fortunate, successful. (184.) I Misfortune, calamity. (13.)

Effort, exertion. (13.)
Fortitude, courage. (57.)
Fortification, military archi-
tecture for defence. (58.)

Fortuitous, accidental. (102.)

189. FOBT-IS, brave, strong.

1. Fortify, to strengthen by

forts, batteries, &c.

2. Fortress, a fort.
Comfort, a state of quiet en-
joyment. (165.)

1. Gage determined to fortify Boston, in case of a rupturs (451)
batween England and the Colonies.

2. The fortress of Ticonderoga surrendered in 1759 to Amherst,
in 1775 to Ethan Allen, and in 1777 to Burgoyne.

190. FOS'S-A, a ditch, or trench.

1. Fossils, substances changed into stone.

1. Some fossUs give ir/efragable (191) evidence, that there has beea
a universal deluge.

191. FBAH'6.0, 1 break. TBACT-TTM, to break.

1. Fracture, a breaking.

2. Fragment, a broken part.

2. Fragile, brittle.

3. Fragility, brittleness.

3. Frailty, state Df being easily

4. Refractory, contumacious.

5. Suffrage, vote.

6. Infraction, violation.
Infringement, violation. (22.)
Irrefragable, not to- be re-
futed. (190.)


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1. In the battle of Vera Cruz, in 1836, a ball struck Santa Anna,
and caused ik fracture of his leg.

2. On the bursting of the Peacemaker, in 1844, h, fragment of the
fragile gun struck Mr. Upshur, Secretary of State, killing him

3. From the fragility of flowers, a sentimental (473) mind is led to
moralize (315) on the frailty of all things earthly.

4. In 1664, Charles II. sent over commiBsioners (305), to bring the
refractory Colonies of New England to obedience.

5. The permanent (281) limitation to the power of amendment is, as
follows: — "No State, without its consent (473), shall be deprived of
its equal suffrage in the Senate."

6. Fine and imprisonment, is the penalty for every infraction of
the law, which requires a person to appear in court, when a subpoena
(876) is served upon him.

192. FBA'TEB, a brother.

1. Fraternal, brotherly. I 3. Fratricide, the murder of a

2. Fraternity, brotherhood. | brother.

1. Penn's determination, to treat (538) the Indians ^n .an honorable
(221) manner, and to compensate (374) them for everything needed by
the settlers, served to pacify (369) the Indians, and produce the most
fraternal feelings.

2. No nobler fraternity can be found in history, than the forty-
one men who sought the solitude (490) of Massachusetts, that they
might enjoy religious freedom.

3. Had Cain subdued every feeling of jealousy and hatred, he would
not have committed the crime of fratricide*

193. FBATTS, (FBATT'DIS,! deceit.

Defraud, to cheat. (152.) | Fraudulent, treacherous. (100.)

194. FEI'O-TTS, (FBI'OOB-IS,) cold.

1. Frigidity, coldness. | 2. Frigid, cold.

1. Arnold and Montgomery, disregarding the frigidity of a Cana-
dian winter, attacked Quebec on the last night of 1775.

2. The frigid atmosphere, and the falling snow, increased th€
misery (303) of the soldiers, in the memorable (290) attack on Quebec.

195. FEONS, (FBON'T-IS,) the forehead.

1. Confront, to meet face to face.

2. Frontispiece, a picture facing

the title-page.

Frontiers, borders. (86.)

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= 1. Hearing that Santa Anna was adyancing, Taylor retolvii (491)
to confront him at Buena Vista, in 1847.

2. When a book lies open, the frontispiece is on the left-hand
page, the vignette .on the right.

196. FBU'-OB, I eig'oy. FBFIT-irS, to exijoy.

1. Fri7ition, pleasure derived from possession.

1. By patient continuance in well-doing, we may hope for ihefrui*
tion of all our hopes, in another world.

197. FV'O-IO, I flee. FXT'Oir-TTM, to flee.

Refugee, one who flees for pro*
tection. (38.)

1. Subterfuge, evasion.

Fugitive, one who flees. (13.)
Refuge-, shelter. (89.)

1. By a mean subterfuge , Col. John Butler induced Zebulon But-
ler to come, with his f'orce, into the woods of Wyoming, when a sud-
den attack was made upon them.

198. FITL'GE-O, I shine.

1. FuLGBNCT, brightness. ] Effulgence, extreme brillianey.

I (46.)

1. The opinion, that light is' produced only by the fuigencjf of the
tun, is not lenable (521), as light was created before the sun.

199. FU'M.US, smoke.

1. Fumigation, the application

of vapor as a disinfectant.

2. Perfume, odor.

1. Many substances are good tor fumigation $ such as coffee,
tobacco, sugar, tar, &c.

2. How delightful to rusticate (452), where the primroses (412) diffuse
(200) a sweet 2>e9*/t^9tl« through the room, and the tendril (521) of
the vine creeps lovingly into the window of our tenement (521), and all
the air is redolent (344) of flowers.

3. In the manufacture of 2>er/t^mer|f^ it is necessary to express

1 2 3 4 5 7 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16

Online LibraryGrace G. MontgomeryModern auction: in ten lessons → online text (page 7 of 16)