Grace Raymond Hebard.

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MARKING

THE OREGON TRAIL

THE BOZEMAN ROAD

AND

HISTORIC PLACES

IN

WYOMING
1908-1920



PRESENTED BY

THE DAUGHTERS OF THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION
OF WYOMING







STATE REGENTS OF THE

DAUGHTERS OF THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION,
WYOMING



MRS. H. B. PATTEN, Cheyenne, 1912-1914
GRACE RAYMOND HEBARD, Laramie, 1914-1916
MRS. EDWARD GILLETTE, Sheridan, 1916-1918
MRS. BRYANT B. BROOKS, Casper, 1918-1922



WYOMING OREGON TRAIL COMMISSION



CAPTAIN H. G. NICKERSON, Lander, President, 1913-1921
MRS. H. B. PATTEN, Cheyenne, Secretary, 1913-1915
A. J. PARSHALL, Cheyenne, 1913-1915
MRS. J. T. SNOW, Torrington, 1915-1921
GRACE RAYMOND HEBARD, Secretary, 1915-1921



Report prepared by
GRACE RAYMOND HEBARD

State Historian of the Wyoming Daughters of the American Revolution
Secretary of the Wyoming Oregon Trail Commission
State Historian of the Wyoming Colonial Dames.




The Marking of Trails and Historic Places

BY THE

Oregon Trail Commission of Wyoming

THE

Daughters and Sons of the American Revolution

AND

CITIZENS OF WYOMING

It seems entirely appropriate that the organization known as the Wyoming
Daughters of the American Revolution should present this report of its activities
in the State of Wyoming during the past ten years, for the reason that this organi-
zation was responsible to a large degree for the introduction of a bill, in the
Twelfth State Legislature in 1913, which became a law and established the
Wyoming Oregon Trail Commission. The Sons of the American Revolution
assisted in the work to obtain the Trail Commission, as did other interested citizens
of Wyoming.

The text of the law, Session Laws, 1913, page 24, Chapter 29, reads as
follows:

MARKING THE OLD OREGON TRAIL.

SECTION 1. The Old Oregon Trail and historic landmarks in the State of
Wyoming shall be marked by appropriate markers under the supervision of a com-
mission of three members, the same to serve without compensation, to be appointed
by the Governor; Proz-idcd, That no indebtedness shall be contracted or incurred
hereunder beyond the actual amount in the hands of the State Treasurer appro-
priated for the payment thereof.

SEC. 2. The appropriation provided for herein shall be paid out only on certified
vouchers, granted in like form, approved by the said commission, and the State
Auditor is hereby authorized to draw warrants on the State Treasurer for the
expends provided by this act upon certified and approved vouchers as herein pro-
vided, but no such warrant shall be drawn for any amount in excess of the amount
that may be at the time in the State Treasury, appropriated for that purpose.

SEC. 3. Any person who shall destroy, deface, remove or injure any monument
or marker erected as herein provided for, shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, and upon
conviction thereof, shall be punished by a fine not exceeding one hundred dollars, or
by imprisonment in the county jail for a period not less than thirty days nor more
than ninety days, or both by such fine and imprisonment at the discretion of the
court.

Approved February 20, 1913.

For the first year of the existence of the Trail Commission the Legislature
generously appropriated the sum of $2.500, with which a large number of
markers were purchased and located in different parts of the State, The Legis-
latures following 1913 appropriated the sum of $500 at each Session.



THE OREGON TRAIL



The Wyoming Daughters of the American Revolution did not initiate the
movement for trail marking; in fact, they were somewhat tardy in their activities
for this purpose, for several states through which old trails ran had received gen-
erous appropriations from their Legislatures for this historical work of trail and
site marking before the year of 1913. Special reference is made to marking the
greatest of all trails, the Oregon, the southern trail of Santa Fe, and other trails
leading to the West.

The State of Missouri in 1909 made an appropriation sufficiently large to
enable the D. A. R. of that State to mark the Santa Fe Trail from eastern to
western boundaries; Kansas has placed eighty-nine markers in that State along
this trail ; New Mexico in 1 909 received a Legislative appropriation for markers
to be located in that State along this old merchants' road, and Colorado, in 1912,
completed the trail of markers which runs from Independence, Missouri, the start-
ing point of both the Santa Fe and the Oregon Trails, to the sleepy interior city
of Santa Fe, seven hundred and seventy miles to the southwest, a marker being set
at about every seven miles the entire length of the Santa Fe Trail.

As the southern trail to the West was outlined by stones, markers and monu-
ments, so the more northern, or central one, the Oregon Trail, has been traced
along its length of two thousand and twenty miles. The states east and west of
Wyoming through which the trail passed have marked this homeseekers' road from
Independence to the Oregon country. Wyoming has finished the gap that repre-
sented the trail within the boundaries of Wyoming.

The report here presented delineates the activities of the Daughters and Sons
of the American Revolution, public-spirited citizens, and the Oregon Trail Com-
mission of Wyoming. Too much praise cannot be given to the President of the
Commission, Capt. H. G. Nickerson, of Lander, who from 1 9 1 3 to 1 92 1 has
not only assisted in locating trails and historic sites and battelfields, but has
traveled on foot, by wagon, by horse and automobile into the territory that is lo-
cated west of Casper to Cokeville and from Ft. Washakie in the central part of the
State to the Union Pacific railroad to the south. Here and there Captain Nicker-
son has placed stones, boulders and slabs of native material on which he, in the
open, has carved with his chisels and mallet inscriptions and notations. No task
has been too difficult for Captain Nickerson to undertake, no distance too long to
journey, in order to locate sites off of the Oregon Trail, no weather too disagreeable ?
no mosquitoes too numerous to make him waver in this service for the State. Not
only has Captain Nickerson helped to make the history of Wyoming since the year
of 1 866, but he has assisted in writing Wyoming's history on these stones and
boulders.

Mr. A. J. Parshall, through his long residence in Wyoming and his experi-
ences as a civil engineer, contributed greatly to the value of the Oregon Trail
Commission, a value beyond an expression in words. To Mrs. H. B. Patten,
through whose extensive and painstaking reports this report is made possible, words
of commendation are gratefully given for her efficient work. Mrs. Elizabeth
Snow (Mrs. J. T.), of Torrington, through her interest in the work arid her
many years of citizenship in Wyoming, has been a valuable and helpful member
of the Commission. All of the Chapters of the Wyoming Daughters of the
American Revolution, Cheyenne, Laramie, Sheridan, and Casper, and the Wyo-
ming Sons of the American Revolution, have not only cooperated in the marking



THE OREGON TRAIL



and site selecting work and giving financial aid to the cause, but have given
unstintingly of their time in the support of this movement.

To Governor Joseph M. Carey, during whose administration the Oregon
Trail Commission was created, to Governor John B. Kendrick, and to Governor
Robert D. Carey, and the members of the Legislature of and since 1913, a
tribute of appreciation is here given. They all have made the work of preserving
history for Wyoming a possibility.



FETTERMAN MONUMENT

The most substantial of monuments placed in Wyoming to commemorate
deeds of valor and sacrifice is the marker placed on the summit of ''Massacre
Hill" in Johnson County near the boundry line between Johnson and Sheridan
Counties, north and west of the site of Fort Phil Kearney. Through the efforts
of Congressman Frank W. Mondell, an appropriation was obtained from the
government to mark the site of a battle waged between eighty-one soldiers and
civilians, under Captain Fetterman, and Red Cloud and his warriors. In the
combat of December 21, 1 866, there were thousands of Indians against these
eighty-one whites. No wonder there were "no survivors". The redman fought
for the possession of his luxuriant grazing and hunting grounds, the land which
had been exclusively used by Indians "since the time of man runneth not". The
whiteman was fighting under government orders for the use of the land as a road
leading to the goldfields near Virginia City, Montana.

Although the monument was erected many years ago, it was not dedicated
until July 3, 1908, when Gen. H. B. Carrington, who was commander from
1 866 to 1 868 of Fort Phil Kearney, Fort Reno and Fort C. F. Smith, all on the
Bozeman Trail, which crossed and recrossed the land of the Sioux, took part in
the ceremonies of the day, as did Hon. F. W. Mondell, Mr. William Daly, Sr.,
who had helped to fashion the flag pole for the garrison in July, 1866, and
Sergeant S. S. Gibson and Mr. William Murphy, who were stationed at Fort
Phil Kearney during the troublesome days in the Powder River country.

The monument is made of native cobblestones set in cement. On the side
toward the wagon road is a large bronze shield on which are blazoned the
following:

ON THIS FIELD ON THE 2 1ST DAY OF

DECEMBER, 1866,
THREE COMMISSIONED OFFICERS AND

SEVENTY-SIX PRIVATES
OF THE 18TH U. S. INFANTRY AND OF THE

2ND U. S. CAVALRY AND TWO CIVILIANS

UNDER THE COMMAND OF CAPTAIN BREVET-

LIEUTENANT COLONEL WILLIAM J. FETTERMAN

WERE KILLED BY AN OVERWHELMING
FORCE OF SIOUX UNDER THE COMMAND OF

RED CLOUD.
THERE WERE NO SURVIVORS.



THE OREGON TRAIL



SACAJAWEA

Sacajawea, the little Shoshone Indian woman guide to Lewis and Clark on
their expedition across the country to the Pacific Coast in 1 805-06, lived for
many years, after the return of the expedition, in the country now embraced in the
State of Wyoming. Sacajawea and her two sons, Bazil and Baptiste, lived in
the region of the Wind River Mountains, where she died and was given a Chris-
tian burial. On April 9, 1 884, Rev. John Roberts, missionary to the Indians
in the Wind River and Shoshone Reservation, performed the ritual for the burial
of the Indian guide, she being at the time of her death one hundred years of age.

After establishing beyond a question of doubt that this Indian woman was at
one time the young Indian guide for Lewis and Clark, a monument, in 1 909,
through the efforts of Miss Hebard, who had located the last resting place of
Sacajewea, was erected over the guide's grave. The cement marker was erected
by Superintendent Wadsworth, then of the Indian Agency. In this cement a
bronze tablet has been placed which was donated by the late Hon. Timothy F.
Burke, at that time a Trustee of the University of Wyoming.





SACAJAWEA

DIED APRIL, 1 884

A GUIDE WITH THE

LEWIS AND CLARK EXPEDITION

1805-1806

IDENTIFIED 1909 BY REV. J. ROBERTS
WHO OFFICIATED AT HER BURIAL.



FREMONT MARKER ON THE LARAMIE PLAINS
General John Charles Fremont was sent by our government into the West
to establish, or survey, a possible route for a transcontinental railway through the
Rocky Mountains. He made five such expeditions to the West, three for the
government and two privately financed. In 1 843 Fremont and his men, with
Kit Carson for a guide, marched into what is now Wyoming by the way of



THE OREGON TRAIL



Colorado into Albany County, establishing one of his temporary camps about
four miles South of the present day city of Laramie. These men blazed a way
to the Northwest across the Laramie Plains, journeying just North of Sheep
Mountain. About August 1, 1843, the party was 12 miles West of Laramie,
having had on that day an exciting chase after buffalo and encountering a band
of Sioux and Cheyenne Indians, who, however, did not challenge the white man's
journey over their hunting grounds.

The trail made by General Fremont and his men became in 1 862 a part of
the Overland Route, which ran along the southern tier of counties in Wyoming
to old Fort Bridger. Where this trail of Fremont's expedition and the Overland
road crosses, only in dim outline today, the Colorado, Wyoming and Eastern
Railroad on the Laramie Plains, the Jacques Laramie Chapter of the Daughters of
the American Revolution (of Laramie) erected a monument of grey Salida granite.
The stone was at the time of its dedication placed in cement on the ground, but
subsequently the Oregon Trail Commission had the stone raised several feet from
the earth by a cement foundation. The location is in Sec. 34, T. 16, R. 75,
between "Plains" and "Millbrook" stations.

At the unveiling of this marker on July 1, 1911, the exercises were con-
ducted by Mrs. C. P. Arnold, Acting Regent of the Jacques Laramie Chapter,
and Mrs. William Reed, the Chaplain of the D. A. R. At this dedication, as
all other unveiling ceremonies, the program consisted of rehgicuj, patriotic and
historical exercises, prayer, national songs and addresses. The main address was
given by Miss Grace Raymond Hebard, ex-Chapter Regent of the D. A. R.,
on "Trail Breakers".



THE FIRST STONE
ERECTED IN ALBANY CO.

TO MARK THE
OLD OVERLAND TRAIL

1862-1868

ERECTED BY
JACQUES LARAMIE CHAPTER

DAUGHTERS OF THE
AMERICAN REVOLUTION

LARAMIE. WYOMING
1911




Unveiling the marker on the Laramie Plaint
where Fremont's survey of IMS. which In the
sixties became a part of the Overland Route,
crosses the track of the Colorado. Wyoming
and Eastern Railway, twelve miles West of
the city of Laramie. Ceremony under the
direction of the Jacques Laramie Chapter of
the Daughters of the American Revolution.
July 1. 1911. Left to right. Miss Amy Abbot,
Miss Grace Raymond Hebard. Mrs. R. E.
Fitch. Mrs. J. H. Abbot. Mrs. F. Blake. Mrs.
George Patterson. Mrs. James Mathison. Mrs.
Arnold Bode. Mrs. C. P. Arnold (Acting
Regent), and Mrs. Frank W. Lee.



THE OREGON TRAIL



THE OREGON TRAIL ON THE NEBRASKA-WYOMING

BOUNDARY




OREGON TRAIL

MARKED BY THE

NEBRASKA AND WYOMING

SONS AND DAUGHTERS

OF THE

AMERICAN REVOLUTION
1912



The Nebraska-Wyoming Marker, placed on the
boundary line where the old Oregon Trail
enters Wyoming.

The Sons and Daughters of the American Revolution of Nebraska and
Cheyenne, on April 4, 1913, placed an imposing monument on the boundary
line between the two states where the old Oregon Trail crossed the States' line,
in Tp. 23, R. 60. The .stone of granite is on the South side of the North
Platte, near the present village of Henry, Nebraska. The monument, with a
large cement base, is in a field of alfalfa, but can be easily located from the
established road by the aid of a stone "finder" about five feet high, which is on
the main road. This finder is on the right hand side of the road as one travels to
the East. Near the stone may be found a gate leading to the boundary
monument.

The site of this boundary stone bears unusual significance aside from being
on the trail and the boundary line of two adjoining states. It was near the site
of the stone that in December, 1812, a remnant of the John Jacob Astor over-
land expedition, which had gone to the Pacific Coast, on its returning journey,
camped for several months before pushing on to St. Louis, which had been the point
of departure for the West. In the spring of 1811 A.stor's party, under the
leadership of Wilson Price Hunt, started from the Missouri river with the pur-
pose of establishing fur posts along the Missouri, Snake and Columbia rivers
west to the Pacific Ocean, intending to follow the route taken by Lewis and
Clark in 1 804-'06. Hunt encountered hostile Indians in what is now South
Dakota on his way up the Missouri, and, in place of continuing to the North-
west, he deflected his course to the Southwest, passing through what is now Wyo-
ming, through Crook, Campbell, Johnson, Washakie, Hot Springs, Fremont and
Lincoln Counties and out of Wyoming near the Snake river south of the Teton
Mountains. Thus, these pioneer explorers were the first white men to traverse
the lands in Wyoming from the eastern to the western boundaries. The follow-
ing year, 1812, from Fort Astor, on the Pacific (Oregon), which had been
established in 1811 by the Astoria parties, a small party of men, under the leader-
ship of Robert Stuart, started on a return journey to St. Louis. In due course of
time the party reached the western boundary of our State. This group of men



THE OREGON TRAIL.



also went through Wyoming, but from the West to the East, by the way of the
Snake, then southeast through South Pass to the Sweetwater and North Platte
rivers. The place where these fearless explorers went through the rift in the
Rocky Mountains is not exactly known, but there is no doubt that these white
men did go through the pass somewhat to the South of the road that was estab-
lished in the years to come, and which road was called the Oregon Trail. This
handful of Astoria men, in November, 1812, reached the mouth of Poison Spider
Creek where it empties into the North Platte, somewhat Southwest of the present
day city of Casper. Here, an early snowstorm driving them into winter camp,
they built a warm log cabin, the first building to be erected in Wyoming by known
white men. From this seemingly secluded spot, the Indians discovered the white
men, eating them out of house and home, thus forcing the Astorian to journey on
down the Platte, making their winter camp near the site of the Nebraska- Wyoming
boundary monument. The return trip of the Astorian, a party reduced to ten
men by the time of the erection of the Nebraska-Wyoming winter quarters, from
the Pacific to St. Louis was made in ten months, a journey that by train in this
day may be made in less than three days.

On April 4, 1913, the following program, in the presence of four hundred
citizens of Nebraska and Wyoming, was presented at the boundary monument:

Mr. H. G. Leavitt, Master of Ceremonies; music by the Torrington Boys'
Band ; Unveiling the Monument, by Mrs. Charles Oliver Norton, State Regent
of the D. A. R. of Nebraska, and Mrs. H. B. Patten, State Regent of Wyo-
ming; Presentation of the Monument, by Mrs. Norton; Acceptance of the
Monument in behalf of the people of Nebraska, by Hon. C. S. Paine, who
represented Governor Moorehead; Presentation of Monument by Wyoming, by
Mrs. H. B. Patten, Secretary of the Wyoming Oregon Trail Commission; for
the Sons of the American Revolution, an address by Rev. Leon C. Hills, of
Cheyenne ; Receiving the Monument for Wyoming, Hon. A. J. Parshall, Chey-
enne; "One Hundred Years Ago", Dr. Grace Raymond Hebard, Laramie;
"The Pioneer", an original poem, Mrs. Alice Dyer Nichols, Henry, Nebraska.



THE OREGON TRAIL IN CONVERSE COUNTY

The stone posts placed in the Counties of Converse, Goshen, Johnson, Platte,
and Sheridan, were committed to the charge of the respective County Commis-
sioners for placement. They are five feet high, and a half foot wide, and one
foot thick, marked:

OREGON TRAIL BOZEMAN TRAIL

MARKED BY THE OR MARKED BY THE

STATE OF WYOMING STATE OF WYOMING

1913 1913

Usually these stones are placed on a cement foundation, the labor and the
expense of the cement donated by the several counties.

In September, 1913, the Commissioners of Converse County placed five of
these stone posts on the Oregon Trail, as follows:

At the junction of the Cheyenne-Fetterman and Fort Laramie and Fort
Fetterman road.



THE OREGON TRAIL



On the trail just South of the Wagon Hound.

At La Prele school house, which is just one-half mile from the trail and
marks the site of the first school house erected in Converse County.

A stone West of S. O. ranch at the junction of the trail and the wagon
road.

A marker near the grave of a child who was buried on the trail near the
Big Muddy. "Near the center of the Big Muddy field, a few feet South of the
Oregon Trail, is a lonely grave, covered with stones and marked by a rough head-
stone on which is rudely chiseled the name, and date of death, July 3, 1 864, of a
little girl, Ada Magill, a member of the party of Ezra Meeker, who passed this
way en route to Oregon more than 56 years ago. The party camped for the night
on the bank of the North Platte. The child was taken ill, died and was buried by
the edge of the trail. Stones were heaped on the grave and a rude fence erected
about it to keep off wolves and coyotes. The fence long ago disappeared, but the
stones remain. Nearby is a red stone marker, an official Orgon Trail post.
Hundreds of automobiles pass over this highway every day en route to Yellow-
stone Park. For more than half a century canvas covered wagons, headed west-
ward, crossed the rich oil sands of the Big Muddy, the owners little realizing that
there were riches under their feet as well as at the far end of the trail. Over this
lonely grave the noon day sun beats down, and not one in a thousand of those
who pass by know of its existence. The snows cover it with a mantle of white in
winter. In spring the winds whisper and the birds sing above it. And in the
watches of the night the stars keep vigil over this tiny God's acre in a treeless
land."

On Saturday, September 20, 1913,
the Daughters of the American Revolu-
tion, the citizens of Douglas, and mem-
bers of the State Federation of Women's
Clubs, the Federation at that time hold-
ing its annual meeting in Douglas, wit-
nessed the ceremony of unveiling a monu-
ment five miles west of the city, the
monument being placed at the site where
the old Oregon Trail crosses the road
that went to Fort Fetterman, called the
"Upper La Prele Road". The monu-
ment, as well as five stone posts set in
Converse County, had the site selected,
the inscription made by the following
committee of Converse County citizens:
Messrs. Al Ayers, M. K. Wiker,
George Powell, H. P. Allen, and Ed-
ward T. David.

The program for the unveiling of the
Douglas-Fort Fetterman monument fol-
lows : Unveiling of Monument, by Helen
McWhinnie; "The Pioneer", Mayor C.
H. McWhinnie; Mr. B. J. Irwin.
"Why the Site"; Mrs. S. Downey




Unveiling the Monument near Douglas, Mayor
McWhinnie making the address, September
20, 1913. Dr. C, A. Duniway with folded
arms.



THE OREGON TRAIL



(Eva Owen), who as an infant went over the Oregon Trail with her parents in
1852, "Trail Breaking"; Mr. Al Ayers, "Helping to Build Fort Fetterman in
1867 and Dismantling the Fort in 1867". Mr. Ayer having taken part in both
events; President C. A. Duniway, of Wyoming State University, "Responsi-
bilities to Pioneers", reading in part from his mother's diary, written in 1852,
when she. as a young woman, went over the Oregon Trail with her parents on
their way to the Oregon country.

This monument of red sandstone from the quarry south of Glenrock, about
10 feet high, on a base three feet square, bears the following inscription:

"THIS MONUMENT MARKS THE JUNCTION OF THE
OREGON TRAIL AND A ROAD TO OLD FORT FETTERMAN.
THE FORT WAS NINE MILES SOUTH OF THIS SPOT. ESTAB-
LISHED JULY 19, 1867; ABANDONED MAY 25. 1882. ERECTED
BY THE STATE OF WYOMING AND CITIZENS OF CONVERSE
COUNTY TO COMMEMORATE THE EARLY HISTORY OF
WYOMING."

Fort Fetterman, named for Gen. William L. Fetterman, who was killed
by the Sioux December 21,1 866, was situated on the south side of the North
Platte, where La Prcle Creek empties into the river. When the three forts, Reno,
Phil Kearney, and C. F. Smith, on the Bozeman Trail, were abandoned in
August, 1 868, Fetterman became an important supply point for the army operat-
ing against the Indians in the Northwest. For a period of years Gen. Henry B.
Freeman, father of Mrs. Robert D. Carey, was stationed at this post, also at old
Fort Caspar, Fort Reno, and Fort Phil Kearney.



THE OREGON TRAIL IN PLATTE COUNTY

In October, 1913, three Oregon Trail markers were sent to the Commis-
sioners of Platte County, who placed them :

One on the divide East of Badger Creek.

On the divide between Little Cottonwood Creek and the Platte River.

At the old telegraph and stage station grounds on Horse Creek, southwest
of Glendo.



THE OREGON TRAIL AND HISTORIC SITES MARKED BY

CAPTAIN H. G. NICKERSON

PRESIDENT OF THE OREGON TRAIL COMMISSION
DURING THE SUMMER OF 1913 AND 1914

FORT AUGUR AND FORT BROWN

A smooth-faced, oblong granite boulder, weighing about one-half of a ton,
hauled from the mountains near Lander, and placed on the site of old Fort
Brown, now the property of F. G. Burnett, of Fort Washakie. situated on the
South side of Main street, in the city of Lander. Tp. 33, R. 99. marked "SITE



10



THE OREGON TRAIL


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