Grace Viall Gray.

Every Step in Canning online

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| |or bins. The wrapping prevents apples from touching and
| |thus prevents decay. It also protects apples from odors
| |of vegetables stored nearby.
| | |As many barrels of apples as possible. Remember
| | |that "An apple a day will keep the doctor away."
| | | |The cellar or other storage place must be kept
| | | |cool. 32° F. is ideal. Never allow temperature
| | | |to go above 40° F. They can be stored
| | | |unwrapped in barrels, boxes, crates, bins,
| | | |etc., if proper attention is paid to sorting,
| | | |to providing a cool place for storage, to
| | | |occasional sorting during the winter and for
| | | |the immediate removal of all decayed fruit.
| | | |Even if you do not raise apples, but have a
| | | |good storage place, meeting the requirements
| | | |as regards temperature, you will find it
| | | |advantageous to buy a winter's supply in the
| | | |autumn, when prices are low.



You have some delicious jellies, jams, canned fruits and vegetables
that you wish to sell and you do not know just how to go about it.
There are at your disposal several means of selling:

1. Through advertising.

2. Through personal letters to desirable shops, delicatessens,
boarding-houses, colleges, etc.

3. By direct salesmanship; that is, by making personal visits to the
buyers, either homes or stores.

4. Through jobbers to whom you pay a commission on all sales.

5. Through coöperative selling.

Perhaps the cheapest and easiest way for you to handle your problem is
to employ the method so much used to-day and that is wayside
advertising. Wayside advertising costs practically nothing and yet it

Autos are everywhere these days. You cannot take a country ride
without seeing many signboards at the farm entrances advertising
chickens, fresh eggs, vegetables, honey, apples and canned goods. I
have a friend who drives 50 miles every fall for her honey. She first
found it by seeing the sign in front of the farm and now she returns
year after year because she thinks no other honey is just like it. She
would never have discovered it if that farm woman had not been clever
enough to think of advertising her goods in this cheap way. My friend
told all her other "auto" friends, so the country woman has a splendid
outlet for her product now. If you live on a good road that is
patronized at all by autoists you ought to get your signboard up at

We often pass a farm where the sign "Fresh Home-Made Candy" always
tempts us to stop and buy. What autoist could resist that sign? And
here miles from town this clever woman is carrying on a profitable
side trade, which is netting her a nice little yearly income. Her
candy is good; we go often and so do many others. She has turned her
profession into a paying proposition. She could send her candy away by
parcel post or by some other means, but she would not be so far ahead
as she is now.

In addition to your wayside advertising you could advertise in papers,
magazines, etc. Many producers believe strongly in advertising in
daily and weekly papers. You can quickly find out whether this kind of
advertising pays. Give it a trial at least. After you have spent ten
or fifteen dollars in advertising you ought to know whether it pays.

Use one or two of the city papers near you, taking the publisher's
advice as to the best day of the week on which to run the
advertisement, the size and the position of the "ad." The first cost
of getting your customers may seem high, but with good products you
could soon build up a list of people to whom sales can be made year
after year.

This form of advertising has many advantages. If your advertising copy
is clever and you have some novelty to offer, you ought to receive
many orders. If orders come, you get the full retail price, the
shipping charges are paid by the customer, and cash comes with every
order. And it means, if your customers are pleased, that you have
permanent customers. The initial cost is great and there is a risk,
but remember "it pays to advertise."

There are millions of city women who never can a jar of fruit or put
up a single glass of preserves or jelly who will be glad to have you
send your goods direct to them by parcel post. But you must get in
touch with these women either through wayside advertising, magazine
and paper advertising or by direct salesmanship, although very few
women have the time for personal calls.

Considerable business can be done by letter writing to stores,
restaurants and boarding-houses in distant cities. It may be
impossible for you to go personally, in which case letters often bring
the desired results. Make your letters business-like and typewrite
them. Do not be discouraged if you do not get many replies at first as
there are at least fifty per cent who pay no attention to such
letters. But this form of advertising usually pays.

Another method followed by many home canners is that of marketing
direct to the retail grocers, care being taken, of course, to protect
these grocers by not selling to more than one member in a community.
One of the great advantages, of this direct salesmanship is that
little selling effort is required on your part after the first
arrangements have been made. The nearby market plan is greatly to be
recommended because you can keep in touch with your selling concern,
build up a line of desirable goods and promote its sale by

Of course you can get more money for your goods if you have time and
the opportunity to sell _direct to_ the consumers. You will of
necessity have to sell cheaper to the grocers because they too must
make their profit. Marketing direct to the consumer has a special
appeal to many people. Where time is available and the community
accustomed to purchasing in this manner, this method offers great
possibilities. The profits are of course higher but the results more
uncertain, for it is somewhat difficult to gauge the demands of the
public, and the canner must assume the risk ordinarily taken by the

It takes time and patience to develop a list of customers but if you
have time in the winter to do this you will find it will pay you well.
If you can get customers who are willing to pay good prices for
quality, scrupulous cleanliness and the homemade flavor, you will get
a larger gross return than if you sold through merchants, but if your
time is valuable it would scarcely pay you to take individual orders
and deliver goods.

There is still another way and that is to market your home-canned
products in large lots to jobbers, but if this plan is to be pursued
successfully there must be a reasonably large pack and wholesale
rates. This method produces more uniform profits year by year, for
after a reputation is established the home-canner would not experience
great difficulty in thus disposing of her entire output by contract,
providing the quality was high and the price demands not excessive.

But the greatest and best way of all to find a profitable market for
your things is to coöperate with other canners in your own
neighborhood and find a market for quantity as well as quality.
Delicatessens, club houses, tea shops, college dormitories,
restaurants and hotels, all pay good prices for fine quality. No big
buyer will bother to purchase one or two dozen of this or that. He
wants dozens of things. One of the very best profitable ways to sell
with little trouble is through quantities. Get all the women in your
community to bring together cans of fruit and preserves, etc., to some
marketing place. Find out how many jars of currant jelly you have, how
many cans of peas and corn, how many of cherries, etc., and then
notify your buyer or prospective buyer.

Coöperative selling has been undertaken and found profitable. In some
cases, especially in localities frequented by the summer boarder or
the automobile tourist, sales are made direct to customers who come to
the salesrooms of the organizations or to their special sales; in
other cases goods are sent by parcel post and other means. The women
in the community can hire or beg a room where all the women of the
community can sell their products for individual profit. This room
should be located on the direct automobile road in order to attract
tourists and automobile parties. An annual membership fee of from 50
cents to $1 generally is required for these organizations, and a
charge of from 10 to 15 per cent of the selling price usually is made
to cover the cost of selling. In a few instances the managing board
has been able to secure an efficient person to take charge of the
enterprise for a specified percentage on the sales.

Wholesale grocery concerns are interested in big things - orders can
be placed with them. Soda fountains in towns and cities are excellent
customers for the freshest eggs they can get. They are encroaching
more and more on the trade of the restaurants and lunch rooms. Many
serve light luncheons and would be interested in good butter,
preserves and jams. When you get a list of names and addresses write
to several dozen places, tell what your organization has in the way of
guaranteed eggs, homemade products and what kind of service you could
offer in the way of regular shipments. When orders come it is an easy
matter to look up at your local bank the responsibility of any
customer, so there is little risk. Or cash can be insisted upon with
every order, although large concerns prefer to pay after receipt of
goods and bill.

Each woman in this coöperative organization must keep her goods up to
a certain standard, for an inferior lot of goods sent to a large firm
might ruin a reputation.

Three things govern the sale of canned products - appearances, quality
and price. So many things enter into consideration of prices
obtainable that it is difficult to set a standard which will be
applicable to different sections. The quality of the pack, its
neatness, the method of marketing and many other matters must be
considered in deciding this all-important point. As a general
proposition, however, if the products are uniformly high grade, prices
may be obtained which are somewhat in excess of factory-made products
marketed in the same manner.

Like any other new industry, the selling should be developed slowly in
order to minimize the possibility of loss and to assure stable
business. One should study the situation carefully both from the
manufacturing and marketing standpoints. Plan the season's campaign
before taking up the work, and do not let the enthusiasm of the
beginner interfere with good business judgment.

The selling when rightly managed can be made a successful business or
it can be turned into a liability through careless, unbusinesslike
methods and insufficient or unwise planning. Properly handled it will
pay well for the investment of time and money, and offer opportunity
for the disposal of surplus home-canned, home-grown, homemade and
home-prepared products of all kinds.


Care must be taken not to contract for more than can be delivered.
This would be bad business, and business principles must govern in
selling home products just as in other enterprises if one is to be
increasingly successful from year to year.

Occasionally a quantity of fruit which will not meet the rigid
requirements of the canning business can be turned into preserves,
jellies or fruit juices. Preserves and jellies should be marketed in
glass, and fruit juices in bottles, although some manufacturers are
now marketing some of these products in fiber cups. This line of
products will require some additional equipment, but there is a steady
demand for such homemade things and many women are deriving profits
through the sale of their tastily prepared jellies, just as pickles
and condiments have lined the pocketbooks of ambitious housewives
before now.

Home canning for the market is essentially a matter of specializing
and of giving the consumer a better product than he is accustomed to
purchase. Too much emphasis cannot be placed upon the maintenance of a
high standard for home-canned goods. Care should be taken that every
jar measures up to a rigid standard, for a single one which falls
below grade will neutralize the reputation and standing obtained by
the sale of a dozen jars of perfect product. A quality is necessary
which will warrant a money-back guarantee on every jar.


Labels for both tin cans and glass jars should tell the truth as to
the quality, weight and kind of product within the pack. Before
adopting a trade-mark and label, consult the Bureau of Chemistry, U.S.
Department of Agriculture, Washington, D.C., as to label requirements
for canned goods prepared for the market.

It pays to show samples of all your canned goods at county and state
fairs. You may win many premiums. Goods which are canned with
preservatives should be debarred from all exhibits.


Wrap each glass or jar separately in rumpled newspapers or excelsior
and pack in barrels or boxes. Line these containers with papers or

Strong corrugated parcel post boxes can be obtained for this purpose.
Wrap each jar with excelsior or paper before putting it in its proper
section. If sending large amounts send all boxes or all barrels, do
not mix them, - sending half barrels and half boxes - as large concerns
like uniform packages.


Two dozen cans is the regulation shipping case. Have the shipping
boxes of uniform size. Put the two dozen cans in the box and nail on
the top. Be exceedingly careful not to drive nails into the cans. On
both ends of the box paste labels such as are on the cans, telling
what the contents of the box are.

Address the box carefully using marking ink or a regulation tag. If a
tag, tack with small tacks on the top of the box. Write your own name
and address on the tag _distinctly_ as the sender. Be as careful of
the tacks as you were of the nails. Always get a receipt from your
express agent if shipping by express as this will be necessary in case
of non-receipt of goods.

Send to the concern or individual to whom you are sending the goods a
list of the things you have sent. This is called an invoice. Keep a
copy of the invoice for yourself so if any question arises you will
know what you are talking about.


C.O.D. means collect on delivery. The purchaser pays the price of the
products to the transportation company before they are delivered.

F.O.B. means free on board. For instance: if you send a shipment of
canned goods to Chicago at $6.00 per case f.o.b. Charles City it means
that you deliver the canned goods to the freight depot at Charles City
and the purchaser pays both the price per case and the freight. If you
deliver them f.o.b. Chicago it means you deliver them to the freight
depot at Charles City and also pay the freight to Chicago.

Bill of Lading with Sight Draft Attached is a call for the money
before the purchaser can take the products from the freight office.

Drop Shipment. If a wholesale firm requests that you ship direct to
another firm buying from him, thus avoiding two shipments, this is
called a drop shipment.

Lot Shipment. If you ship two or more barrels or cases as a "lot
shipment" to the same destination they may be sent at a cheaper rate
than if each were shipped separately.



Butler Manufacturing Co. Kansas City, Mo., and Hot water and steam
Minneapolis, Minn. pressure canners.

Carolina Metal Products Co. Wilmington, N.C. " " "

H.P. Chandlee Sons Co., Baltimore, Md. Hot water canners.

Farm Canning Machine Co. Meridian, Miss. " " "

Favorite Manufacturing Co. Tamps, Florida Water-seal canners.

Florida Metal Products Jacksonville, Fla. Water-seal canners.

Griffith & Turner Co. 205-207 N. Pace St., Steam canners.
Baltimore, Md.

Halftime Cooker Co. 7556 Oglesby Avenue, Pressure canners.
Chicago, Ill.

Hall Canner Co. Grand Rapids, Mich. Hot water bath

Henninger & Ayes Mfg. Co 80-82 N. 5th Street, Steam pressure
Portland, Ore. canners.

Home Canner Manufacturing Hickory, N.C. Hot water canners.

E.F. Kirwan & Co. Baltimore, Md. " " "

Modern Canner Co. Chattanooga, Tenn. " " "

Monarch Manufacturing Co. Chattanooga, Tenn. " " "

Northwestern Steel & Iron Eau Claire, Wis. Steam pressure
Wks. canners.

Phillips & Buttorff Mfg. Nashville, Tenn. Hot water canners.

Pressure Cooker Co. Denver, Colo. Aluminum steam
pressure cookers
and canners.

T.H. Raney Chapel Hill, N.C. Hot water canners.

A.K. Robins & Co. Baltimore, Md. Steam pressure

Royal Supply Co. Cincinnati, Ohio Steam process

Southern Canner and Chattanooga, Tenn. Hot water canners
Evaporator Co.

Sprague Canning Machinery 222 No. Wabash Ave., Steam pressure
Co. Chicago, Ill. canners.

F.S. Stahl 212 N. 4th Street, Hot water canners.
Quincy, Ill.

Standard Water-Seal Canner 17 N. 2nd Street, Water-seal canners.
Co. Philadelphia, Pa.

Utility Company Hickory, N.C. Hot water canners.

Willson Canner Company Louisville, Ky., and Water-seal and
No. 8 G St., N.W. pressure canners.
Washington, D.C.


American Paring Machine Co 1231 Callowhill St.,
Philadelphia, Pa. Peeler

Harry Bentz Engineering Co. 90 West St., New York City Dryer

G.S. Blakekslee & Company, 2806 Quinn St., Chicago, Ill. "

H.P. Chandlee Sons Co., Baltimore, Md.

Enterprise Mfg. Co., 3rd and Dauphin Sts.,
Philadelphia, Pa. Slicer

Edw. B. Fahrney, Waynesboro, Pa.

Gordon Engineering Corporaton 39 Cortlandt St., New York City "

The Grange Sales Association, Lafayette Bldg., Philadelphia, Pa.

Hunter Dry Kiln Co. Indianapolis, Ind. Dryer

Imperial Machine Company, 108 West 34th St., N.Y. City Cuber

Lake Breeze Motor Co., 564 W. Monroe St., Chicago Dryer

Philadelphia Drying Machinery Stekley St., above Westmoreland,
Co. Philadelphia, Pa. "

Philadelphia Textile Machinery Sixth St. and Tabor Road, "
Co. Philadelphia, Pa.

Phillips & Buttorff Mfg. Co., Nashville, Tenn.

John E. Smith's Sons Co., Buffalo, N.Y. Cuber

Southern Evaporator Co., Chattanooga, Tenn.

F.S. Stahl, 212 N. 4th St., Quincy, Ill.

N.R. Streeter Company, Rochester, N.Y. Dryer

N.R. Streeter & Co., Rochester, N.Y. "

B.F. Sturtevant Company, Hyde Park Dist., Boston, Mass. Peeler

Stutzman Mfg. Company, Ligonier, Ind.

H.G.W. Young Co., 61 Hanover St., Boston, Mass. Cuber


American Metal Cap Co.,
Summit St. and Commercial
Wharf, Brooklyn, N.Y. Metal bottle caps.

American Pure Food Process Co.,
Greenmount Avenue and Preston
St., Baltimore, Md. Mechanical sealer for glass jars.

Bowers Can Seal Company,
146 Summer St., Boston, Mass. Automatic can sealers for tin cans.

Burpe Can Sealer Co.,
215 W. Huron St., Chicago. Tin can sealer and opener.

Columbia Specialty Co.,
Baltimore, Md. Metal bottle caps.

Crown Cork and Seal Co.,
Baltimore, Chicago, San
Francisco, and other cities Sanitary metal bottle caps and sealers.

The Enterprise Mfg. Co.,
Philadelphia, Pa. Bottle cappers from 3 in. to 14 in.

Frazer & Co., Mechanical hand sealer for sanitary
50 Church Street, New York City cans.

Henninger & Ayes Mfg. Co.,
47 1st Street, Portland, Ore. Automatic can sealers for tin cans.

States Metals Co., Hand sealers for sanitary cans.
30 Church Street, New York City


Aluminum Cooking Utensil Co. New Kensington, Pa.

Toledo Cooker Co. Toledo, Ohio.

Wilmot, Castle & Co. Rochester, N.Y.


L.B. Allen Co. 4517 No. Lincoln St.,
Chicago, Ill. Commercial flux.

Biddle-Gaumer Co. Philadelphia, Pa. Patent canners.

H.P. Chandlee Sons Co. Baltimore, Md. " " "

Fagley & Halpen Philadelphia, Pa. " " "

Handy Mfg. Co. Maritime Bldg.,
Seattle Wash., and Individual jar holders.
208 No. Wabash Ave.,
Chicago, Ill.

Kerr Glass Mfg. Co. Sand Springs, Okla. Duplex fork.

Manning, Bowman & Co. Meriden, Conn. Alcholite stoves.

Parker Wire Goods Co. Worcester, Mass. Lifting tray for jars.

Pearce Co. Albion, Mich. Racks and lifters.

W.H. Schaefer Co. Toledo, Ohio. Fruit jar wrench.


Camden Curtain and
Embroidery Co Camden, New Jersey.

R.P. Clarke & Co. Washington, D.C.

Dennison Mfg. Co. Boston, Mass.

U.S. Printing and
Lithograph Co. Cincinnati, Ohio.


American Can Co. New York City. Tin cans.

Ball Bros. Glass
Mfg. Co. Muncie, Ind. Screw top and glass-top jars

Ben Schloss San Francisco, Cal. Glass jars.

Buck Glass Co. Baltimore, Md. Glass jars.

Chesapeake Glass Co. Baltimore, Md. Glass jars.

Continental Can Co. Chicago, Ill. Tin cans.

Frazer & Co. 50 Church St., N.Y.C. Sanitary cans.

Hazel-Atlas Glass Co. Wheeling, W. Va. Glass-top jars.

Johnson-Morse Can Co. Wheeling, W. Va. Tin cans.

Kearns-Gorsuch Bottle
Co. Zanesville, Ohio. Glass jars.

Kerr Glass Mfg. Co. Sand Springs, Okla. Suction seal and Mason

E.F. Kirwan Co. Baltimore, Md. Tin cans.

A.K. Robins & Co. Baltimore, Md. Tin cans and general

Schramm Glass Mfg. Co. St. Louis, Mo. Suction seal and screw
top jars.

Smalley Fruit Jar Co. 26 Dock Sq., Boston, Glass-top jars.

Southern Can Co. Baltimore, Md. Tin cans.

F.S. Stahl Quincy, Ill. " "

Staunton Jar Corporation Ellicott Sq, Buffalo, Vacuum seal jars.

United States Can Co. Cincinnati, Ohio Tin cans.

Virginia Can Co. Buchanan, Va. " "

Wheeling Can Co. Wheeling, W.Va. " "


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