Grace Viall Gray.

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in packing, and to subject the product to a sudden shock by quick
change in temperature.


STEPS IN CANNING VEGETABLES

If you will follow these steps for all vegetable canning you cannot
help but be successful:

1. Clean jars and test rubbers. If rubbers do not return to normal
shape after stretching, do not use.

2. Prepare material to be canned, according to directions given on
chart.

3. Hot-dip - blanch or scald - the prepared food. This process consists
of immersing the prepared product in boiling water for different
lengths of time, according to the material to be canned. See chart.
Hot-dipping shrinks the product and enables one to pack more material
in a jar.

4. Cold-dip the material. This process consists of plunging the
blanched or scalded food into cold water, which makes it more easily
handled. Be sure the water is cold; the colder the better.

Take the product out immediately and let it drain. _Don't let any food
soak in the cold water._

From this point on, speed is highly important. The blanched vegetables
which are slightly warm must not be allowed to remain out of the jars
a moment longer than is necessary.

Remove skins when required, and as each article is pared cut it into
pieces of proper size and

5. Pack directly into the clean, scalded cans or jars. Pack as solidly
as possible, being careful not to bruise or mash soft products. Pack
the product to within three-eighths of an inch of the top. Lima beans,
navy beans, peas, corn, pumpkin and sweet potatoes swell, so pack them
within only one inch of the top of the jar.

6. Add seasoning. One teaspoonful salt to every quart jar of
vegetables, and an equal amount of sugar to tomatoes, corn and peas if
desired.

7. Add boiling water to within a quarter inch of top to all
vegetables, except tomatoes and greens. Tomatoes contain ninety-four
per cent water, so none should be added. Tomato juice can be used if
desired. Greens are canned in just the water that clings to the
leaves after the cold-dip.

8. Adjust rubber rings and the covers of the jars; partially seal.

9. Sterilize - see time-table on pages following.

10. Remove from canner and completely seal. Test for leaks. Cool jars
as rapidly as possible, without drafts striking them.

Rapid cooling of the product prevents overcooking, clarifies the
liquid and preserves the shape and texture of the product.


SPECIAL DIRECTIONS FOR VARIOUS VEGETABLES

Greens. No water is added to greens. Ninety percent of greens is
water. They are high in mineral matter and we must preserve that.

Asparagus. Remove string before packing in jar. Can or dry tough ends
for soup. If asparagus is packed in jars as whole stalks, pack with
the tips up.

Tomatoes. Remove skins before packing. Tomatoes may be canned whole or
in pieces. Skin, cook and strain imperfect tomatoes. Use this for
liquid; as 94 per cent of the tomato is water, no water is needed.

Eggplants. Make slices about ½ to ¾ of an inch thick. Do not add salt,
as it causes eggplants to turn dark.

Pumpkin and squash. If you do not wish to scrape out of the shells you
can remove seeds, pare and cut into small blocks of uniform size. Then
blanch.

Sweet corn. Corn expands a little in processing, and for this reason
jars should not be filled quite full. Corn that has reached the dough
stage before being packed will have a cheesy appearance after
canning. Corn should never be allowed to remain in the cold-dip water.

Field corn. This product is commonly known as corn-club breakfast
food. The corn should be selected between the milk and the dough
stage. Wide-mouthed glass jars or tin cans should be used for canning
this product. Avoid packing container too full, as the product swells
during the sterilization period. The corn should be canned the same
day it is picked from the field if possible. After this product has
been sterilized and cooked and stored away it will form a solid,
butter-like mass which may be cut into convenient slices for toasting,
frying and baking purposes.

Mushrooms. Do not fail to blanch and cold dip. After opening
containers remove the mushrooms immediately and use them as quickly as
possible.

Sweet peppers. Place the peppers in the oven and bake them until the
skins separate from the meat. Remove the skin. Pack in hot jars. Add 1
teaspoonful of salt to a quart. Add boiling water.

Lima beans. Lima beans can be either blanched or steamed. If blanched
allow 5 minutes; if in live steam allow 10.

Wax or string beans. Beans can be canned whole or cut into uniform
pieces.

Cabbage and cauliflower. Cabbage and cauliflower should be soaked in
cold brine (½ lb. salt to 12 quarts water) for one hour before
blanching.

Brussels sprouts. Use small solid heads.

Peas. A cloudy or hazy appearance of the liquid indicates that the
product was roughly handled in blanching and cold dipping, or that
broken peas were not removed before packing.

Carrots and parsnips. Carrots can be packed whole, in slices or in
cross-section pieces. Skin of parsnips can be scraped off after
blanching and cold dipping.

Beets. Small beets that run 40 to a quart are the most suitable size
for first-class packs. Well-canned beets will show a slight loss of
color when removed from the canner, but will brighten up in a few
days.

Turnips. Scrape skin after blanching and cold dipping.

Corn and tomatoes. Add 1 teaspoonful of salt to every quart of
mixture. Mix 2 parts of tomatoes with 1 part corn. One teaspoonful of
sugar improves the flavor.

Corn, tomatoes and string beans. Use 1 part of corn, 1 part of green
string beans and 3 parts of tomatoes. Add 1 teaspoonful of salt and 1
teaspoonful of sugar to every quart jar.

CHARTS FOR CANNING ALL VEGETABLES AND GREENS

[A] SCALDING OR BLANCHING MINUTES
[B] IN BOILING WATER OR HOMEMADE OUTFIT (212°F.)
[C] IN CONDENSED STEAM OUTFIT
[D] IN WATER-SEAL OUTFIT 214°F
[E] IN STEAM PRESSURE 5 TO 10 POUNDS
[F] IN PRESSURE COOKER 10 POUNDS

VEGETABLES/ NUMBER OF MINUTES TO STERILIZE
PREPARATION | [A] | [B] | [C] | [D] | [E] | [F]
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Class 1 - Greens, Domestic and Wild
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
ALL GREENS - SPINACH, |Steam in | 120 | 120 | 90 | 60 |40, at
BEET TOPS, CHARD, |colander or | (2 hr)| (2 hr)|(1½ hr)| (1 hr)|10 lbs.
DANDELIONS, ETC. |in steamer | | | | |
Pick over; wash in |until wilted| | | | |
several waters. |Takes about | | | | |
|15 minutes. | | | | |
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Class 2 - Special Vegetables
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
ASPARAGUS |Blanch tough| 90 | 90 | 60 | 50 |25, at
Wash, remove woody |ends 4 |(1½ hr)|(1½ hr)| (1 hr)| |10 lbs.
ends; cut to fit |minutes, tip| | | | |
jar; tie in bundles.|ends 2 | | | | |
| minutes. | | | | |
| | | | | |
TOMATOES Select | Scald 1½ | 22 | 22 | 18 | 18 |10, at
fresh, ripe, firm | | | | | |10 lbs.
tomatoes. Skins | | | | | |
will slip off after| | | | | |
scalding and cold | | | | | |
dipping. | | | | | |
| | | | | |
EGGPLANTS Remove skin| Blanch 3 | 60 | 60 | 50 | 45 |30, at
after blanching | | (1 hr)| (1 hr)| | |10 lbs.
and cold dipping. | | | | | |
Slice crosswise and| | | | | |
pack. | | | | | |
| | | | | |
PUMPKIN AND SQUASH | Blanch 5 | 120 | 120 | 90 | 60 |40, at
Cut into sections; | | (2 hr)| (2 hr)|(1½ hr)| (1 hr)|10 lbs.
remove seeds; | | | | | |
scrape shells after| | | | | |
blanching and cold | | | | | |
dipping. | | | | | |
| | | | | |
CORN - SWEET | 5 on cob | 180 | 180 | 120 | 90 |60, at
Cut corn from cob, | | (3 hr)| (3 hr)| (2 hr)|(1½ hr)|10 lbs.
blanch immediately | | | | | |
after and cold dip.| | | | | |
| | | | | |
CORN - FIELD | 10 | 180 | 180 | 120 | 60 |50, at
Remove husk and | | (3 hr)| (3 hr)| (2 hr)| (1 hr)|10 lbs.
silk. Cut the corn | | | | | |
from the cob after | | | | | |
it has been blanched| | | | | |
and cold dipped. | | | | | |
Feed the corn to a | | | | | |
food chopper and | | | | | |
grind to a pulp. | | | | | |
Cook this product | | | | | |
in a kettle, add | | | | | |
2/3 teaspoonful | | | | | |
sugar and 1/3 | | | | | |
teaspoonful salt to| | | | | |
each quart. Cook | | | | | |
(stir while cooking)| | | | | |
until the product | | | | | |
has assumed a | | | | | |
thickened or | | | | | |
pastelike mass. | | | | | |
| | | | | |
MUSHROOMS If small, | 5 | 90 | 90 | 80 | 50 |30, at
can them whole; if | |(1½ hr)|(1½ hr)|(1-1/3 | |10 lbs.
large they may be | | | | hr) | |
cut into sections. | | | | | |
| | | | | |
SWEET PEPPERS Use | .. | 90 | 90 | 75 | 60 |40, at
either green or red| |(1½ hr)|(1½ hr)|(1¾ hr)| (1 hr)|10 lbs.
peppers. | | | | | |
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Class 3 - Pod Vegetables and Other Green Products
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
BEANS - LIMA | 5 to 10 | 180 | 180 | 120 | 60 |40, at
Shell and wash. | | (3 hr)| (3 hr)| (2 hr)| (1 hr)|10 lbs.
| | | | | |
BEANS - WAX OR STRING | 5 to 10 | 120 | 120 | 90 | 60 |40, at
Wash and string. | | (2 hr)| (2 hr)|(1½ hr)| (1 hr)|10 lbs.
| | | | | |
CABBAGE Use small | 5 to 10 | 120 | 120 | 90 | 60 |40, at
solid heads of | | (2 hr)| (2 hr)|(1½ hr)| (1 hr)|10 lbs.
cabbage. | | | | | |
| | | | | |
CAULIFLOWER Use | 3 | 60 | 60 | 40 | 30 |20, at
flowered portion of| | (1 hr)| (1 hr)| | |15 lbs.
cauliflower. | | | | | |
| | | | | |
BRUSSELS SPROUTS | 5 to 10 | 120 | 120 | 90 | 60 |40, at
Cut into sections | | (2 hr)| (2 hr)|(1½ hr)| (1 hr)|10 lbs.
and remove core. | | | | | |
| | | | | |
PEAS | 5 to 10 | 180 | 180 | 120 | 60 |40, at
Shell and wash. Add| | (3 hr)| (3 hr)| (2 hr)| (1 hr)|10 to
1 teaspoonful of | | | | | |15 lbs.
salt and 1 tea- | | | | | |
spoonful of sugar | | | | | |
toevery quart. | | | | | |
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Class 4 - Roots and Tuber Vegetables
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
CARROTS, PARSNIPS, | 5 | 90 | 90 | 80 | 60 |40, at
SALSIFY | |(1½ hr)|(1½ hr)| (1-1/3| (1 hr)|10 lbs.
Remove skin by | | | | hr) | |
scraping after | | | | | |
blanching and cold | | | | | |
dipping. | | | | | |
| | | | | |
BEETS | 5 | 90 | 90 | 80 | 60 |40, at
To retain the color| |(1½ hr)|(1½ hr)| (1-1/3| (1 hr)|10 lbs.
of beets leave 3 or| | | | hr) | |
4 inches of the | | | | | |
stem and all the | | | | | |
root on while | | | | | |
blanching. After | | | | | |
cold dipping, the | | | | | |
skin may be removed| | | | | |
Scrape the skin. | | | | | |
| | | | | |
TURNIPS | 5 | 90 | 90 | 80 | 60 |40, at
Wash thoroughly | |(1½ hr)|(1½ hr)| (1-1/3| (1 hr)|10 lbs.
with a vegetable | | | | hr) | |
brush. | | | | | |
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Class 5 - Vegetable Combinations
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
CORN AND TOMATOES | | 120 | 120 | 120 | 60 |45, at
Prepare individual | | (2 hr)| (2 hr)| (2 hr)| (1 hr)|10 lbs.
vegetables and then| | | | | |
combine and pack. | | | | | |
| | | | | |
CORN, TOMATOES AND | | | | | |
STRING BEANS | | | | | |
Corn | 3 | | | | |
Tomatoes | 1½ | 120 | 120 | 120 | 60 |45, at
String beans | 5 | (2 hr)| (2 hr)| (2 hr)| (1 hr)|10 lbs.
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Count from time when water begins to boil (bubbles all over). This
time schedule is for both pint and quart jars. Add 30 minutes to time
of sterilizing for 2-quart jars.




CHAPTER V

SOUPS


After one has learned how to can fruits and vegetables successfully,
the next thing to attempt is the canning of soups.

Soups may be canned with or without meat. We make one variety which is
a pure vegetable soup. We use no stock or meat, and can it in its own
juice or liquor, thus using no water.

When we wish to use it we dilute it three or four times and serve it
as a vegetable soup or, more frequently, when we have chicken bones or
any meat bones on hand, we add a can of this concentrated vegetable
mixture to the bones and make a delicious stock soup.

I will give this recipe as I have given it to many friends, all of
whom have pronounced it excellent:

1 Peck ripe tomatoes
1 Head cabbage
1 Dozen carrots
1 White turnip
3 Pounds string beans
1 Pound okra
3 Red peppers
1 Peck spinach
2 Pounds asparagus
6 Small beets
6 Ears sweet corn

Scald the tomatoes by placing them in a wire basket and plunging them
into boiling water for one and a half minutes. Cold-dip them
immediately. After removing the core and stem end of the tomato, the
skin slips right off. Save all the tomato juice. Cut the tomatoes into
quarters. Put into a large pail or bucket with the juice. Blanch the
cabbage, carrots, turnip, string beans, okra and sweet red peppers
five minutes. Cold-dip. Of course you blanch and cold-dip each product
separately. Cut each vegetable after it is blanched and cold-dipped
into small cubes and add to the tomatoes.

Spinach must be carefully washed to remove all grit and sand. All
greens must be washed through several waters to cleanse them
thoroughly.

Instead of blanching the spinach in a kettle of boiling water, as we
do the other vegetables, we steam it by placing it in a colander over
boiling water or in a regulation steamer with tightly fitting cover,
such as is used for steaming suet puddings and brown bread. If you can
with a steam-pressure canner or a pressure cooker, then steam the
spinach there. If we boiled the spinach for fifteen or twenty minutes
we would lose a quantity of the mineral salts, the very thing we aim
to get into our systems when we eat spinach, dandelion greens, Swiss
chard and other greens. After the blanching or steaming comes the cold
dip.

There is something about blanching asparagus, either for soups or when
canned alone, that is worth knowing. Instead of blanching the whole
stalk of asparagus for the same length of time, we use a little
discretion, giving the tougher, harder ends a full four minutes'
blanching, but allowing the tender tip ends only two minutes. You are
possibly wondering how that is done.

Tie the asparagus stalks in bunches and put the bunches with all the
tips standing one way on a piece of cheesecloth. Tie the cloth or snap
rubber bands round it, and then stand the asparagus in boiling water
in an upright position for two minutes; next lay the asparagus
lengthwise in the blanching water for another two minutes, and you
have accomplished your purpose. You have given the tougher parts two
minutes' more blanching than the tender parts. Use a deep enough
kettle so the asparagus will be completely covered when laid
lengthwise. After the blanching, cold-dip the asparagus.

Wash the beets. Leave two inches of the top and all the tail on the
beets while blanching. Blanch for five minutes, then cold-dip. Next
scrape off the skin, top and tail. The tops can be put right into the
soup too. Any surplus tops can be steamed with the spinach and can be
treated similarly.

Blanch corn on the cob five minutes. Cold-dip. Cut the corn from the
cob, cutting from tip to butt end. Add the corn to the other
vegetables. Add no water. Pack the mixed vegetables into clean glass
jars; add one level teaspoonful of salt to every jar; partially seal;
cook one hour and a half in wash-boiler or other homemade outfit. At
the end of that period remove jars from canner, seal tight, and the
work is done.

Of course you are interested in the cost of this soup. Most of the
ingredients came right from our garden. We had to buy the okra and the
red peppers, but I figured everything just as if I had to buy it from
the market; and on this basis, the cost of our soup would have been
only seven and a half cents a can. We canned it in tin, using size
Number Two, which is the same as pint size in glass jars.

Another vegetable soup without stock, dried beans and peas being used,
is made as follows:

Soak six pounds of Lima beans and four pounds of dry peas over night.
Boil each thirty minutes. Blanch sixteen pounds of carrots, six pounds
of cabbage, three pounds of celery, six pounds of turnips, four pounds
of okra, one pound of onions, and four pounds of parsley for three
minutes and dip in cold water quickly. Prepare the vegetables and chop
into small cubes. Chop the onions and celery extra fine. Mix all of
them thoroughly and season to taste. Pack in glass jars or tin cans.
Fill with boiling water. Partially seal glass jars. Cap and tip tin
cans. Process ninety minutes if using hot-water-bath outfit or
condensed-steam outfit; sixty minutes if using water-seal outfit or
five-pound steam-pressure outfit; forty-five minutes if using pressure
cooker.

In many homes cream of tomato soup is the favorite. To make this soup
the housewife uses a tomato pulp and combines it with milk and
seasonings. You can can a large number of jars of this pulp and have
it ready for the cream soup. To make and can this pulp follow these
directions:

Tomato Pulp. Place the tomatoes in a wire basket or piece of
cheesecloth and plunge into boiling water for one and a half minutes.
Plunge into cold water. Remove the skins and cores. Place the tomatoes
in a kettle and boil thirty minutes. Pass the tomato pulp through a
sieve. Pack in glass jars while hot and add a level teaspoonful of
salt per quart. Partially seal glass jars. Sterilize twenty minutes if
using hot-water-bath outfit or condensed-steam outfit; eighteen
minutes if using water-seal, or five-pound steam-pressure outfit;
fifteen minutes if using pressure-cooker outfit.

Soup Stock. To make the soup stock which is the foundation of all
the stock soups, use this recipe:

Secure twenty-five pounds of beef hocks, joints and bones containing
marrow. Strip off the fat and meat and crack bones with hatchet or
cleaver. Put the broken bones in a thin cloth sack and place this in a
large kettle containing five gallons of cold water. Simmer - do not
boil - for six or seven hours. Do not salt while simmering. Skim off
all fat. This should make about five gallons of stock. Pack hot in
glass jars, bottles or enameled or lacquered tin cans. Partially seal
glass jars. Cap and tip tin cans. Sterilize forty minutes if using
hot-water-bath outfit or condensed-steam outfit; thirty minutes if
using water-seal or five-pound steam-pressure outfit; twenty-five
minutes if using pressure-cooker outfit.

Soups made with soup stock are many and varied. One can utilize the
things at hand and change the distinctive flavor from year to year. I
will give you a few good specimen recipes which if followed will give
good results:

Vegetable Soup. Soak a quarter pound dried Lima beans and one pound
unpolished rice for twelve hours. Cook a half pound pearl barley for
two hours. Blanch one pound carrots, one pound onions, one medium-size
potato and one red pepper for three minutes and cold-dip. Prepare the
vegetables and cut into small cubes. Mix thoroughly Lima beans, rice,
barley, carrots, onions, potato and red pepper. Fill glass jars or the
enameled tin cans three-fourths full of the above mixture of
vegetables and cereals. Make a smooth paste of a half pound of wheat
flour and blend in five gallons soup stock. Boil three minutes and add
four ounces salt. Pour this stock over vegetables and fill cans.
Partially seal glass jars. Cap and tip tin cans. Sterilize ninety
minutes if using hot-water-bath outfit or condensed-steam outfit;
seventy-five minutes if using a water-seal or five-pound
steam-pressure outfit; forty-five minutes if using pressure-cooker
outfit.

Cream of Pea Soup. Soak eight pounds of dried peas over night. Cook
until soft. Mash fine. Add the mashed peas to five gallons of soup
stock and bring to boil. Pass the boiling liquid through a fine sieve.
Make a smooth paste of a half pound flour and add paste, ten ounces of
sugar and three ounces of salt to the soup stock. Cook until soup
begins to thicken. Pack in glass jars or tin cans. Partially seal
glass jars. Cap and tip tin cans. Process ninety minutes if using
hot-water-bath outfit or condensed-steam outfit; eighty minutes if
using water-seal outfit; seventy minutes if using five-pound
steam-pressure outfit; forty-five minutes if using pressure-cooker


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Online LibraryGrace Viall GrayEvery Step in Canning → online text (page 4 of 17)