Grace Viall Gray.

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is wasted.

Here are a few ways to utilize the cuts that are really "left-overs."


GOULASH

2 Pounds of meat scraps which can consist of beef, veal or pork.
2 Ounces of any fat.
2 Onions chopped fine.
1 Stalk celery, cut in small pieces.
2 Carrots.
2 Cups tomatoes either canned or fresh.
1 Bay leaf.
6 Whole cloves.
6 Peppercorns.
1 Blade mace or a little thyme or both.
A little flour.
1 Tablespoonful chopped parsley.
Salt and paprika to taste.

Cut the meat into one inch squares and roll in flour. Melt the fat in
the frying pan, add the vegetables (onions, celery, carrots) and brown
lightly: add the meat and brown. Stir with a spoon or fork to prevent
burning. When browned empty into a pan.

Put the bay leaf, cloves, peppercorns, mace and thyme into a
cheesecloth bag and add to the meat, add tomatoes. Cover with soup
stock or water and simmer 45 minutes if it is going to be canned. If
for immediate use, 2 hours will be necessary to thoroughly cook it.

Remove the spices, season with salt, paprika and the chopped parsley.
You can add Worcestershire sauce or soy sauce if desired. Use only
small quantities as these sauces are very strong in their distinctive
flavor. Put hot mixture into cans and sterilize.

If the different spices are not at hand a good goulash can be made by
using the meat, fat, onions, tomatoes, flour, salt and pepper and
omitting the rest of the recipe.


LIVER SAUSAGE

Beef, veal, or hog liver. Remove the membrane and cut away the large
blood vessels. Soak in water 1 to 2 hours to draw out blood. Boil
until done. When cooled put through a food chopper or grate finely.
Take half as much boiled fat pork as liver. Divide this fat into two
portions; chop one portion into one-quarter inch cubes; pass the other
portion through the food chopper; mix all together thoroughly; add
salt, ground cloves, pepper, and a little grated onion to taste. A
little thyme and marjoram may be added to suit taste. (For a liver
weighing 1½ pounds add ¾ pounds fat pork, 3 to 4 teaspoonfuls salt, ½
teaspoonful cloves, ½ teaspoonful pepper, 1 small onion, ¼ teaspoonful
thyme, and pinch of marjoram.) This mixture is stuffed into large
casings. (If no casings are available, make casings of clean white
muslin.) Cover with boiling water, bring to a boil, and boil for 10
minutes. Pack into cans, fill in with the water in which the sausages
were boiled. Sterilize.

This liver sausage may also be made from the raw liver and raw pork,
but in that case the sterilizing is for a longer period, as the
time-table indicates. This recipe is recommended by the United States
Department of Agriculture.


HEAD CHEESE

Cut a hog's head into four pieces. Remove the brains, ears, skin,
snout and eyes. Cut off the fattest parts for lard. Put the lean and
bony parts to soak over night in cold water in order to extract the
blood and dirt. When the head is cleaned put it over the fire to boil,
using water enough to cover it. Boil until the meat separates readily
from the bones. Then remove it from the fire and pick out all the
bones. Drain off the liquor, saving a part of it for future use. Chop
the meat up finely with a chopping knife. Return it to the kettle and
pour on enough of the liquor to cover the meat. Let it boil slowly for
fifteen minutes to a half-hour. Season to taste with salt and pepper
just before removing it from the fire. Bay leaves, a little ground
cloves and allspice may be added and boiled a short time in the soup.
Pack while hot in cans to within ½ inch of top. Sterilize. This head
cheese is always served cold.


CORNED BEEF

After beef has been properly corned for three weeks, remove the meat
from the brine. Soak for two hours in clear water, changing water
once. Place in a wire basket and boil slowly for half an hour. Remove
from the boiling water, plunge into cold water, and remove gristle,
bone and excessive fat. Cut into small pieces and pack closely into
cans. Add no salt and proceed as in other canning.


CANNED PORK

After the animal has been killed, cool quickly and keep the pork cool
for at least 24 hours. Can only lean portions, using the fat to make
lard. Place meat in a wire basket or cheesecloth and boil 30 minutes,
or roast in the oven for 30 minutes. Cut into small sections and pack
closely into cans. Add salt and proceed with remainder of process.

Other pieces of beef and pork: Hamburg steak, sausage, venison,
squirrel, raccoon, opossum, lamb, are canned as follows:

After cleaning, season and fry, roast, stew, or bake in oven as though
preparing for serving directly on the table. Cook until meat is about
three fourths done. Pack while hot into sanitary tin cans or glass
jars. Pour over the meat the hot liquids, gravies, dressings, etc., or
hot water. Add salt and proceed as in any other cold-pack canning.


HOW TO CAN POULTRY AND GAME WITH THE BONES REMOVED

Kill bird and draw immediately; wash carefully and cool; then cut into
convenient sections. Boil until the meat can be removed from the
bones; remove from the boiling liquid and take out all bones; pack
closely into glass jars or enameled cans; fill jars with the hot
liquid after it has been concentrated one half; add 1 level
teaspoonful salt to every quart of meat for seasoning; put rubbers and
top of jars in place but not tight. If using enameled cans completely
seal. Sterilize the length of time given in the time-table on page
108 of this book. After the sterilizing remove the jars; tighten the
covers if glass was used; invert to cool and test joints. Wrap with
paper to prevent bleaching.


FRIED SPRING CHICKEN

After cleaning and preparing the chickens, season and fry as though
for serving directly on the table. Cook until the meat is about
three-fourths done. If a whole spring chicken, break the neck and both
legs and fold around body of chicken. Roll up tight, tie a string
around the chicken and drop this hot, partially fried product into
sanitary tin cans or glass jars. A quart tin can (No. 3) will hold two
to four small chickens. Pour liquid from the griddle or frying pan
into the can over the chicken. Proceed, as in any other canning, with
the sealing, sterilizing and removing of the jars. Chicken fries
canned in the late fall preserve the meat at the most delicious stage
and furthermore we avoid the expense of feeding the chickens
throughout the winter.


HOW TO CAN COCKERELS

When cockerels reach the point in their growth where it is no longer
profitable to feed them, and when they are wanted for home use during
the winter months they should be canned. This method of handling the
cockerel not only saves money by cutting down the feed bill, but it
places in the pantry or cellar the means of a delicious chicken dinner
at a time of the year when the price of poultry is high.

The bird should not be fed for at least twenty-four hours before
killing. It should be killed by the approved method and picked dry.
When the feathers have been removed and the pin feathers drawn the
bird should be cooled rapidly. This rapid cooling after killing is
essential to a good flavor in canned meat. As soon as the bird has
been properly cooled it should be singed and washed carefully with a
brush.


CUTTING UP AND DRAWING CHICKENS

Mr. George Farrell, a most expert canner, tells us how to go about
this job of canning chicken.

In preparing the bird for canning, care should be taken in drawing it
so that the contents of the digestive tract do not come in contact
with the meat.

1. Remove the tops of the wings, cutting at the first joint.

2. Remove the wings.

3. Remove the foot, cutting at the knee joint.

4. Remove the leg, cutting at the hip or saddle joint.

5. Cut the removed portion of the leg into two parts at the joint.

6. Place the bird so the back of the head is toward the operator, cut
through the neck bone with a sharp knife but do not cut the windpipe
or gullet.

7. With the index finger separate the gullet and windpipe from the
skin of the neck.

8. Cut through the skin of the neck.

9. With a pointed knife cut through the skin from the upper part of
the neck, thus separated, to the wing.

10. Leave the head attached to the gullet and windpipe and loosen
these from the neck down as far as the crop.

11. With a sharp pointed knife cut around the shoulder blade, pull it
out of position and break it.

12. Find the white spots on the ribs and cut through the ribs on these
white spots.

13. Cut back to the vent; cut around it, and loosen.

14. Begin at the crop and remove the digestive tract from the bird,
pulling it back toward the vent.

15. Remove the lungs and kidneys with the point of a knife.

16. Cut off the neck close to the body.

17. Cut through the backbone at the joint or just above the diaphragm.

18. Remove the oil sack.

19. Separate the breast from the backbone by cutting through on the
white spots.

20. Cut the fillet from each side of the breastbone.

21. Cut in sharp at the point of the breastbone, turning the knife and
cutting away the wishbone with the meat. Bend in the bones of the
breastbone.


PACKING CHICKEN

Use a one quart jar. Caution: Do not pack the giblets with the meat.

1. Have the jar hot.

2. Pack the saddle with a thigh inside.

3. Pack the breastbone with a thigh inside.

4. Pack the backbone and ribs with a leg inside.

5. Pack the legs large end downward, alongside the breastbone.

6. Pack the wings.

7. Pack the wishbone.

8. Pack the fillets.

9. Pack the neck-bone.

10. Pour on boiling water to within one inch of the top; add a level
teaspoonful of salt; place the rubber and cap in position, partially
seal, and sterilize for the length of time given below for the
particular type of outfit used:

Water bath, home made or commercial (pint or quart jars) 1 hour
Water seal, 214° 3 hours
5 pounds steam-pressure 2 hours
10 to 15 pounds steam-pressure 1 hour

Remove jars; tighten covers; invert to cool, and test joints. Wrap
jars with paper to prevent bleaching.


PIGEONS

_Young_ pigeons. Dress pigeons, wash well, and roast for 30 minutes
basting frequently. Some pieces of fat bacon put over the breasts will
prevent them getting too dry.

_Old_ pigeons. Dress, wash, and fry pigeons.

Brown some onions in the fat with the pigeons, using a pound of onions
to a dozen birds. Cover with hot water after pigeons and onions are a
golden brown; simmer until the meat is tender and can be removed from
the bones. Add from time to time boiling water, if necessary, in order
to keep the birds covered. When tender, take meat from bones. Return
the meat to the liquor, salt to taste and pack while boiling into cans
or jars, fill with liquor to within one-half inch of top.

All small game birds may be canned like pigeons. Blackbirds may be
treated like pigeons. They make an excellent stew.


PLAIN CANNING OF TENDER COTTON-TAILS OR TWICE-SKINNED JACK-RABBITS

1. Blanch in boiling water until the meat is white.

2. Cold dip.

3. Pack tightly in sterilized jars.

4. Add boiling water and 1 teaspoonful salt to quart.

5. Adjust rubber and lid.

6. Sterilize in hot water bath for three hours.

7. Remove from bath and complete the seal.

Rabbit meat thus canned, may be served in various appetizing ways.


RABBIT SAUSAGE

For rabbit sausage and mince-meat only the backs and legs of the
carcass are used, discarding the sinews.

Grind together equal parts of rabbit and fat pork (or at least ¼ fat
pork). The pork may be salt pork if all salt is omitted from the
mixture.

To every ten pounds of the above add 6 teaspoonfuls salt, 1
teaspoonful of pepper, 2 teaspoonfuls powdered sage. Mix thoroughly.
Shape in flat cakes and fry till nicely browned. Pack tightly in jars,
pour over the fat in which the sausage was fried, and sterilize.


RABBIT MINCE-MEAT

Rabbit mince-meat is used a great deal on the plains and large
quantities of it are canned. The mince-meat may be made by simply
substituting the rabbit meat for beef in your favorite recipe. The
following is an inexpensive recipe:

1 Cup of rabbit meat which has been parboiled in salted water and
drained, then chopped finely.

1 Cup chopped apple.

½ Cup finely chopped suet.

½ Cup seeded raisins.

½ Cup currants.

1 Cup molasses or syrup.

2 Tablespoonfuls sugar.

1 Tablespoon cider, lemon juice, fruit juice or vinegar.

¼ Cup chopped watermelon pickles or green tomato pickles.

1 Teaspoon of cinnamon or nutmeg.

1 Teaspoon of salt.

½ Teaspoon cloves, mace or other spice.

Mix together all ingredients except the meat, add the meat broth and
simmer for about 1 hour. Add the meat. Pour into jars, and sterilize.
Remove and seal.


STEPS IN CANNING MEAT AND GAME

For all meat, poultry or game canning the following general
instructions should be kept in mind.

1. Sterilize the jars, caps and rubbers.

2. Grade the meat for size.

3. Cut up into convenient portions for cooking or canning.

4. Sauté, fry or bake, broil or stew as desired. This step can be
omitted if you are an experienced canner.

5. Pack in sterilized, hot jars or tin cans.

6. Add 1 level teaspoonful salt per quart of meat for seasoning if not
already seasoned.

7. If glass jars put on rubber and seal, not too tight. Seal tin cans.

8. Process in boiling water or steam under pressure.

9. Remove, completely seal the jar.

10. Invert to cool and test the joint.

11. Label and store.


If you can in tin use the enamel or lacquered cans. A slight amount of
water in the bottom of the jars of prepared meat will insure quicker
sterilization of the air remaining in the jar. Where meat has been
stewed the liquor can be poured into the jar for filling. If you use a
steam-pressure cooker outfit of course the time of cooking will be
much shorter than if you use a wash-boiler or some other homemade
outfit. If you cook in boiling water we call that the water-bath
method.

The following data will be of interest to those who contemplate
canning meat.

Hog on foot - weight 500.

Liver, heart and a part of the ribs were eaten at the time of
butchering, therefore, not canned. The remainder of the ribs canned
six No. 3 cans:

Ham 18, No. 3 cans

Shoulder 18, No. 3 cans

Roast 18, No. 3 cans

Sausage 26, No. 3 cans

Hash 4, No. 3 cans

Gravy 5, No. 3 cans

(which is also called stock)

The sausage weighed 52 lbs. before it was canned, making 2 lbs. to the
can.

There were 200 lbs. of fat for lard. After it was rendered there were
176 lbs. of lard and 20 lbs. of cracklings.

TIME-TABLE FOR CANNING MEAT, POULTRY AND
GAME

[A] IF USING HOT WATER BATH OUTFIT AT 212°F
[B] IF USING WATER-SEAL OUTFIT AT 214°F
[C] IF USING STEAM PRESSURE 5 POUNDS
[D] IF USING PRESSURE COOKER 15 POUNDS

TIME TO STERILIZE
PRODUCTS | [A] | [B] | [C] | [D]
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
PARTIALLY COOKED MEAT OF ALL KINDS


Roast beef | | | |
Corned beef | | | |
Sweetbreads | | | |
Tongue | | | |
Brains | | | |
Headcheese | | | |
Spareribs | 1½ hrs. | 1 hr. | 40 min. | 30 min.
Kidneys | | | |
Sausages and | | | |
other meats | | | |
Rabbits | | | |
Pigeon | | | |
Chicken | | | |

UNCOOKED OR RAW MEAT

Beef | | | |
Pork | 3 hrs. | 3 hrs. | 2 hrs. | 1 hr.
Veal and all | | | |
other meats | | | |
Poultry and game | | | |

All meat stocks | | | |
with or without | 1½ hrs. | 75 min. | 1 hr. | 40 min.
vegetables and | | | |
cereals | | | |

NOTE. - This time-table is for No. 2 and No. 3 tin cans or pint and
quart glass jars. If larger cans or jars are used more time must be
allowed for the sterilizing. If canning in tin, scratch on the can at
the time of sealing the initial of the contents. For instance - S.R.
means spareribs; G. means goulash; R.B. means roast beef. You can make
out your list and mark accordingly.




CHAPTER VIII

FISH


People in some sections of the country are interested in canning
mountain trout and others live where there is an abundant supply of
either fresh-water fish or salt-water fish. Heretofore we have been
wasteful and lax about the fish supply. But as we have learned to can
vegetables and meats so we are going to learn to can fish. Fish is
really canned the same in every step after preparation as peas and
corn are canned.

In order to have a good product, fish must be fresh when canned. No
time should be lost in handling the fish after being caught.
Putrefaction starts rapidly, and the fish must be handled promptly.
The sooner it is canned after being taken from lake, stream or ocean,
the better. Never attempt to can any fish that is stale.


PREPARATION OF FISH FOR CANNING

As soon as fish are caught it is advisable to kill them with a knife
and allow the blood to run out. Scale fish. This is easily done if the
fish is dipped in boiling water. For canning, most varieties of fish
need not be skinned. If the fish is very large and coarse, the large
back fin may be cut out and the backbone removed, but with most
varieties this is unnecessary. Cut off the head and tail, being
careful to leave no more meat than necessary on the parts removed.
Remove the entrails and the dark membrane that in some fish (e.g.,
mullets) covers the abdominal cavity. Thoroughly clean the inside. The
head may be cleaned and used for fish chowder.

If you wish to be sure that all blood is drawn out before canning,
place the fish in a brine made of one ounce of salt to one quart of
water. Allow the fish to soak from 10 minutes to 1 hour according to
the thickness of the fish. Never use this brine but once. If the meat
of the fish is very soft or loose, it may be hardened by soaking in a
brine (strong enough to float an Irish potato) for from 15 minutes to
an hour, depending on the thickness of the pieces and the softness of
the flesh.


CANNING THE FISH

1. Remove the fish from the brine where it has been placed in order to
draw out all the blood and to harden the texture of the fish.

2. Drain well.

3. Cut into can lengths.

4. Place fish in a piece of cheesecloth or in a wire basket and blanch
in _boiling water_ from three to five minutes. Three minutes for the
soft flesh fish, such as suckers, crappies, whitefish. Fish with a
firmer flesh, as pike, muskalonge and sunfish require 5 minutes
blanching. The blanching removes the strong fish flavor and cleans the
outside of the fish.

5. Cold-dip the fish by plunging into cold water immediately. This
makes the flesh firm.

6. Pack in hot jars or cans to within ½ inch from top. Add 1
teaspoonful salt per quart. Put on a good rubber and partially seal
the jar, completely seal tin cans.

7. Place jars or cans in canner and process in _boiling_ water for
three hours. Three hours sterilization will insure the keeping of all
varieties of fish, providing fresh products are used and the blanching
and other work is carefully done. If canning with a steam-pressure
canner or a pressure cooker sterilize for one hour and a half under 10
to 15 lbs. pressure.

8. At the end of the sterilizing period cool the jars quickly after
sealing completely. The tin cans may be cooled by immersing them in
cold water.

9. Store for future use.


SOFTENING OF BONES IN FISH

This can be done satisfactorily under pressure. The bones of fish are
composed of large quantities of harmless lime, bound by a matrix of
collagen, which is insoluble under ordinary conditions. When subjected
to a high temperature under pressure this collagen is converted into
gelatin and dissolved, leaving the bones soft and friable and even
edible. Bony fish, such as herring and shad, which are too small to
use otherwise are greatly improved when subjected to steam under
pressure.

The bones in herring are softened in 37 minutes at a temperature of
240 degrees; shad in 1 hour; flounder 1 hour. Other fish are fully
cooked and the bones softened in times approximately proportionate to
the size of the bones.

The following table was made after many experiments and gives the time
required to soften the bones in many common species of fish.

The term "softening" means the point in cooking when the small bones,
ribs, etc., are soft, but when the large vertebrae are not yet
sufficiently soft to be consumed along with the meat. In some of the
larger fishes where the large bones could scarcely be eaten, even if
they were softened, it would appear to be a waste of time and fuel to
carry them to a point of complete cooking, and in such cases it ought
to be sufficient to soften the small bones and sterilize the contents
of the can. For such a purpose, the "softening" rather than the "soft"
point, may be used.

The time periods are measured from the point when the given pressure
and temperature are reached (at the top of the cooker) to the time
when the heat is shut off. The heating-up and cooling-off period of
time are therefore not included. The fish were salted, but no water
was added.

Samples of fish canned during the course of these experiments were
kept six weeks at room temperature (about 68° F.) and were then
incubated at 98° F. for 48 hrs. All were sterile.

TIME REQUIRED TO SOFTEN THE BONES OF
VARIOUS SPECIES OF FISH IN QUART JARS
OR NO. 3 TIN CANS, 10 LBS. PRESSURE,
240° F.

|WEIGHT |SOFTENING|SOFT
|(LBS.) |(MINUTES)|(MINUTES)
| | |
BLACK BASS | | |
| | |
Large | 5-6 | 100 | 120
Small | ¾ to 1 | 100 | 110
| | |
BLUEFISH | | |
| | |
Large | 6-9 | 90 | 100
Small | 1-2 | 80 | 90
| | |
BUTTERFISH | | |
| | |
Average | ¼-½ | 60 | 80
| | |
CATFISH | | |
| | |
Large | 1½-2 | 70 | 80
Small | ¾ | 60 | 70
| | |
CERO | | |
| | |
Average | 10-13 | 80 | 90
| | |
COD | | |
| | |
Large | 6-16 | 80 | 90
Small | 1-2 | 50 | 60
| | |
FLOUNDER | | |
| | |
Large | 1-1¾ | 70 | 80
Small | ½-1 | 50 | 60
| | |
HADDOCK | | |
| | |
Large | 3-5 | 60 | 70
Small | 1-2 | 50 | 60
| | |
HALIBUT | | |
| | |
Average | 50-90 | 70 | 80
| | |
HICKORY SHAD | | |
| | |
Average |1½-2 | 60 | 70


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Online LibraryGrace Viall GrayEvery Step in Canning → online text (page 7 of 17)