Grace Viall Gray.

Every Step in Canning online

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| | |
KINGFISH | | |
| | |
Average | ½-1 | 60 | 70
| | |
LEMON SOLE | | |
| | |
Large | 2½-3½ | 80 | 90
Small | ¾-2 | 60 | 70
| | |
MACKEREL | | |
| | |
Average | ¾-1½ | 60 | 70
| | |
MACKEREL, SPANISH | | |
| | |
Average | 1½-2½ | 100 | 110
| | |
PERCH, WHITE | | |
| | |
Average | ¼-¾ | 100 | 110
| | |
PERCH, YELLOW | | |
| | |
Average | ¼-¾ | 90 | 100
| | |
POLLACK | | |
| | |
Average | 5-7½ | 60 | 70
| | |
SALMON | | |
| | |
Average | 13-19 | 90 | 100
| | |
SEA BASS | | |
| | |
Average | 1-1½ | 60 | 70
| | |
SQUETEAGUE | | |
| | |
Large | 2½-4 | 80 | 90
Small | ¾-2 | 50 | 60
| | |
SMELTS | | |
| | |
Large, per lb. | 5-7 | 60 | 70
Small, per lb. | 15-20 | 50 | 60
| | |
SNAPPER, RED | | |
| | |
Large | 10-15 | 110 | 120
Small | 5-6 | 90 | 100
| | |
SUCKER | | |
| | |
Average | ½-1½ | 80 | 90
| | |
TILEFISH | | |
| | |
Average | 6-12 | 90 | 100
| | |
WHITING | | |
| | |
Average | ½-1 | 50 | 60


FRIED FISH

1. Clean the fish and remove entrails. Split along the back and remove
backbone.

2. Place in brine strong enough to float an Irish potato. Allow fish
to remain in this brine from 10 minutes to 1 hour according to the
thickness of the flesh. This draws out the blood and hardens the meat.

3. Draw, wipe dry.

4. Cut in pieces that can go through jar or can openings.

5. Roll in cornmeal or other flour, dip into beaten egg and roll in
flour again.

6. Then put into frying basket and fry in deep fat until nicely
browned, or it can be sautéd in bacon or other fat until well browned.

7. Drain well by placing pieces on coarse paper to absorb excessive
fat.

8. Pack into hot jars or enameled tin cans.

9. Add 1 teaspoonful salt per quart. Add no liquid.

10. Partially seal glass jars. Completely seal tin cans.

11. Process 3 hours in hot water bath outfit. Process 1½ hours in
steam pressure (10 to 15 lbs. pressure).

12. Remove from canner. Seal glass jars. Cool quickly as possible.


BAKED FISH

Prepare and bake fish same as for table use until half done. Pack in
hot jars, add salt and sterilize three hours in hot-water-bath outfit
or 1½ hours in steam pressure or pressure cooker, 10 to 15 lbs.
pressure.


ANOTHER FORMULA FOR MISCELLANEOUS FISH

Rub the fish inside and out with a mixture made as follows: to 50
pounds fish, mix 2½ pounds salt, 2½ pounds brown sugar and 2½ ounces
saltpeter. Let the fish stand in a cool place for 48 to 60 hours with
the mixture on, then wash and drain. Fill into glass jars or enamel
lined tin cans and add the following sauce until cans are nearly
filled: ¼ pound whole black pepper, 1½ pounds salt, 1 pound of onions
chopped fine, ½ ounce bay leaves, ¼ pound whole cloves, 2 quarts cider
vinegar and 25 quarts of water. Soak the pepper, cloves and bay leaves
for 48 hours in the vinegar. Put the water, salt and onions in a
kettle. Bring to a boil and cook 30 minutes, then add the vinegar and
spices. Let boil for one minute. Strain and it is ready for use.

Sterilize for 3 hours in hot-water-bath outfit.

Sterilize for 1½ hours in steam pressure or pressure cooker (10 to 15
lbs. pressure).


CANNED FISH IN OIL

Rub fish with salt, brown sugar and saltpeter as above directed. Wash
and dry thoroughly in the sun. Spread on wire screens and dip in oil
heated to a temperature of 300 degrees. Use a strap handle plunge
thermometer to determine heat of oil. Cottonseed oil may be used for
this purpose, although olive oil is best. As soon as the fish are
cool enough to handle, pack tightly in cans, filling up with the hot
oil.

Sterilize 3 hours in hot-water-bath-outfit; 1½ hours in steam pressure
or pressure cooker (10 to 15 lbs.).


CANNED FISH IN TOMATO SAUCE

Handle same as specified under "Another Formula for Miscellaneous
Fish," except pour in the following sauce instead of pepper, cloves,
onions, etc.: Ten gallons of tomato pulp (mashed tomatoes and juice
with cores, seeds and skins removed); 1 gallon cider vinegar, 1 pint
Worcestershire sauce; 2½ pounds red sweet peppers; 2½ pounds sugar, 2
cups salt, 2 pounds onions (chopped fine); 1 pound West India peppers
and 1 ounce Saigon cinnamon. The fish are processed same as "Fish in
Oil." Enamel lined cans or glass jars must be used.


FISH CHOWDER

The cleaned heads of any fish, the backbones cut out of large fish
with what meat adheres to them and all other fish scraps may be used
for fish chowder. Put all these parts in cold water (to cover) and
cook until all the meat can be easily removed from the bones. Pick all
the meat from the bones, strain the fish liquor and return it with the
picked fish meat to the kettle. Add the following ingredients: To
every two pounds of fish picked from bones and the liquor in which
fish was cooked add 6 onions, diced or sliced thin; 6 potatoes, diced
or sliced thin; 2 tablespoonfuls fat; 1 teaspoonful paprika; 2
teaspoonfuls salt or salt to taste.

Cook vegetables, fat and seasonings until vegetables are half done.
Pack hot in cans and sterilize same as all other fish. When the
chowder is opened, heat and add milk according to taste.


FISH ROE

For canning be sure to use roe of freshly caught fish and only such
roe as is known to be good to eat. The roe of some fishes, such as the
garfish, is not eaten.

Clean the roe by removing the shreds and strings adhering to it and
wash well in cold water, being careful not to break the roe. Soak for
2 hours in a brine made of 6 quarts of water and 6 ounces of salt.
Drain and pack in hot glass jars or enameled tin cans. Can for the
same length of time as other fish.


OYSTERS

Be sure all oysters that are to be canned are absolutely fresh, have
not "soured" and contain no spoiled oysters. Oysters are opened by
hand. All oysters should be rejected that have partly open shells, as
this is a sign that the oyster is dead and consequently not fit to
eat.

Rinse the oysters to prevent any pieces of shell or grit from getting
into the cans. Blanch 5 minutes. Cold-dip. If the canned oysters are
to be sold it is required by law to mark on each can the net weight of
solids or meat exclusive of liquids.

There have been a number of standard grades of oysters recognized on
the Baltimore market. They are given as follows: "Standard Oysters"
(four kinds).

No. 1 cans, containing respectively 1½, 3, 4 and 5 ounces of meat,
after being processed in the cans.

No. 2 cans, containing respectively 3, 6, 8 and 10 ounces of meat.

"Select" and "Extra Select" Oysters contain respectively 6 ounces and
12 ounces for No. 1 and No. 2 cans. The above are the net weights of
meats only that have been drained over a strainer with a wire bottom
of ½ inch mesh. These are the only grades that have so far been
recognized by the trade. An even balance scale, with one platform for
graduated weights and another for articles to be weighed, is used to
weigh oysters or clams. It is suggested that those who are going to
can clams or oysters find out from their prospective customers just
what requirements are as to weights and then make their pack meet the
occasion. Under no circumstances is it advisable to make any
misstatements or misbrand in any respect.

After oysters have been packed in the can, fill with boiling brine
made of 5 quarts of water to ¼ lb. salt to within ½ inch from top of
can. Sterilize as other fish.


CLAMS

If clams are received in a muddy condition, it is advisable, though
not necessary to wash them before opening. After opening, discard
broken or discolored clams. Do not can any clams unless absolutely
fresh. Blanch. Cold-dip. Weigh out the amount of solid meat, after
draining, that is to go into each can. Weigh and label just as oysters
are weighed and labeled.

Fill can to within ½ inch from the top with boiling brine made of 5
gallons of water and 1 pound of salt. Sterilize.


CLAM BROTH AND CHOWDER

Place the clams, after being opened, in a kettle with enough cold
water to cover. Add a few stalks of celery. Boil for 10 minutes.
Season with salt, and pepper to taste and add 1 tablespoon butter to
every 50 or 60 large clams. Can. Clam chowder can be made according to
any recipe and then canned.


SHRIMPS

Shrimps when first caught are a grayish white color. They are very
delicate and spoil quickly if allowed to stand for any length of time
in a warm place. There are two general methods of canning shrimp - the
"dry pack" and "wet pack." Nearly all the trade now calls for "wet
pack" because the other always has a rather offensive odor and the
meat is never so fresh and sweet of flavor as the "wet pack." Canned
shrimp is very pleasing to the taste and is preferred by many to
lobster for salads and stews.

Wet Pack. Medium sizes are preferable as very large shrimps are apt
to be too tough and too dry. Put the shrimps into a wire scalding
basket and lower into a boiling hot salt water solution made by mixing
one pound of salt to each gallon of water. Allow the shrimps to remain
in this bath for about five minutes, then remove and drain thoroughly.

Peel and remove viscera (entrails). The boiling and the salt will
harden the meat and make the peeling comparatively easy. Pack into
enameled tin cans or glass jars. Nos. 1 and 1½ cans are used almost
exclusively. These sizes should contain 4½ oz and 9 ounces of meat
respectively. It is unsafe to put in more meat than above directed,
for it might cake and become solid when processed.

Add a very mild brine to within ½ inch from top of can. For the brine
use 1 teaspoonful salt to 1 quart of boiling water. Sterilize.

Dry Pack. Handle same as above, except do not pour into the cans any
brine. The fish is packed in the cans and processed as follows without
the addition of any liquor.

Drying of Shrimps. After shrimps are boiled and peeled they may be
dried. Spread on a drier of any kind and dry at a temperature of from
110°F. to 150°F. When thoroughly dry pack in dry clean glass jars or
in parchment-paper lined boxes.


SALMON

Scale fish, clean and wipe dry. Do not wash. If the fish are large cut
in lengths to fill the cans and in sizes to pass through can openings
easily. Salmon is usually packed in No. 1 cans or in flat cans. Fill
cans with fish after it has been blanched 5 minutes and cold dipped.
Sterilize as other fish.

Many salmon packers lacquer the outside of their cans to prevent
rusting. This is a very advisable point. The test for unsound salmon
is the nose. If the contents issue an offensive odor, it is unsound.
Freezing does not hurt canned salmon.


AMERICAN OR DOMESTIC SARDINES

The fish taught and used for packing domestic sardines belong to the
herring family and are said to be of the same species as the sardines
of France, Portugal and Spain. There are two methods generally used in
canning sardines. First, when the fish are put in a sauce such as
mustard dressing or tomato sauce, and secondly where they are packed
in oil.


CANNING SARDINES IN SAUCE

The heads are cut off, the scales taken off and the fish cleaned.
Blanch 5 minutes; cold dip; drain and pack into the cans dry. Cover
with sauce, either mustard or tomato.


SARDINES IN OIL

The fish are prepared in the same manner as above described but
instead of blanching them, they are put in wire baskets and immersed
in boiling peanut or cottonseed oil until tender. Olive oil might be
used, but is rather expensive. When cooked, they are drained, packed
into cans in order, and the cans filled with olive oil. It is often
advisable to salt the fish while fresh and before cooking as it
improves the flavor.


CRAB MEAT

Put 5 gallons of water in a large kettle. Add ¼ lb. of baking soda to
it. When boiling vigorously throw the live crabs in it and boil
quickly for 20 minutes. Remove crabs and wash them in cold water. Pick
out all meat. Wash the meat in a brine made of 1 ounce of salt
dissolved in three quarts of water. Drain and pack in enameled No. 1
flat cans. Sterilize. As soon as the time of sterilizing is up, plunge
the cans immediately into cold water, otherwise crab meat discolors.
For this reason, glass jars are not so well adapted to crab meat
canning as tin cans.


FLAKED CODFISH

The fish are first cleaned and the entrails removed, then the fins are
cut off. The fish are then soaked for about two hours in a salt brine
to remove the blood. This brine is made with about 10 lbs. of salt to
8 gallons of water. The brine is then rinsed off and the fish are
cooked, either boiled or cooked by steam. When codfish are thoroughly
cooked, the meat will drop off of the bone in pieces, and it is very
white in color and crisp in texture. These pieces are then broken in
suitable sizes and are ready to place in the cans. The cans are filled
as full as possible, because after processing the fish will shrink
some.


CRAWFISH

The best way to can crawfish is to put it up in a bouillon as follows:
Water, 2 gallons; vinegar, 1 quart; cloves, 10; carrots in slices, 6;
onions in slices, 6; cloves of garlic, 3.

To the above should be added a good quantity of pepper to suit the
taste, a little salt and bunch of parsley and a little thyme. Boil
slowly for about an hour. Throw in the crawfish after the intestines
have been extracted; to do this take the live crawfish in your hand
and tear off the wing which is in the middle of the tail; it will pull
out at the same time a little black intestine which is very bitter.
Boil one or two minutes, never longer, put in cans and process.

TIME-TABLE FOR BLANCHING AND STERILIZING FISH




[A] SCALD OR BLANCH
[B] HOT WATER BATH OUTFIT 212°F
[C] CONDENSED STEAM OUTFIT 212°F
[D] WATER-SEAL OUTFIT 214°F
[E] STEAM PRESSURE 5 TO 10 POUNDS
[F] PRESSURE COOKER 10 POUNDS

NUMBER OF MINUTES TO STERILIZE
PRODUCT | [A] | [B] | [C] | [D] | [E] | [F]
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Fish of all kinds |3 to 5| 3 hrs.| 3 hrs.|2½ hrs.|2 hrs. |1½ hrs.
| min. | | | | |
| | | | | |
Shell fish of all |3 min.| 3 hrs.| 3 hrs.|2½ hrs.| 2 hrs.|1½ hrs.
kinds | | | | | |




CHAPTER IX

EASY METHODS OF CANNING IN TIN


If the proper sanitary requirements are provided and instructions of
the cold-pack method of canning are followed, it is entirely safe and
practical to use tin cans for all kinds of fruits, vegetables and
other food products. Food poisoning - commonly called ptomaine
poisoning - and the effects ascribed to "salts of tin" result from
improper handling and improper preparation of the product before
packing, or from allowing the product to stand in the tin after it has
been opened. The raw food products used for canning in tin must be in
sound condition, just as they must be if put into glass containers.

It is true that canned foods may be rendered unfit for use by improper
handling of the product before packing and that decomposition may
occur after canning, owing to insufficient processing, improper
sealing or the use of leaky containers. This condition, however, is no
more likely to be encountered in foods put up in tin than in products
canned in other types of containers. You run no more danger of poison
from your own tin-canned products than from tin-canned food bought at
the store. Most canned foods if in a spoiled condition readily show
this condition by the swelling of the can or by odor or taste. Canned
foods showing such evidences of decomposition should not be used.

Certain foods which are high in protein, such as meats, peas, beans
and fish products, may undergo decomposition without making this
condition obvious to the senses. It is essential, therefore, that the
greatest care be taken to subject such products to proper preparation
and ample processing. It should be remembered that canned foods, after
opening the containers, should be treated as perishable products and
should be handled with the same precautions that are applied when
fresh products are being used.


ADVANTAGES OF CANS

Many housewives ask, "Why can in tin when we have always used glass
jars?" There are many advantages in canning in tin which we can well
consider. There is no breakage as in glass; you can handle the tin
cans as carelessly as you choose and you will not hear a snap or crack
indicating a lost jar. Furthermore, tin cans are easier to handle not
only in canning but in storing.

The expense each year of new tin covers or new tin cans is no more
than the purchase of new rubbers and the replacement of broken glass
jars. Furthermore, one big advantage of tin over glass is that tin
cans can be cooled quickly by plunging them into cold water
immediately upon removal from the canner, and thus the cooking is
stopped at the proper moment. The product is consequently better in
form and flavor than when the cooking is prolonged, as it must be in
glass jars. Many women like the large openings of cans because they
can make better packs than when using narrow-necked jars.

If you do not care to bother with the soldering you can purchase a
safe and simple device that will do the work for you. This device is
called a tin-can sealer. With a sealer no soldering is necessary.
Even an inexperienced person, by following directions carefully, can
seal a can as well as an experienced one. The sealed cans look exactly
like those purchased at the store. Two or three cans a minute can be
sealed with this device.

This is the way to operate a can sealer: Prepare the fruits and
vegetables as for any canning, following directions formerly given for
cold-pack canning.

After the fruits or vegetables have been properly prepared, blanched
and cold-dipped if necessary, place them in sanitary, solderless cans.
Put water or sirup on, according to directions. Put the top on the can
and place the can in the sealer.

Raise the can into the chunk by swinging the raising lever at the
bottom of the machine against the frame. Turn the crank, rapidly at
first, with the right hand, and at the same time push the seaming-roll
lever very slowly with the left hand until it will go no farther. This
is one of the most important steps in the use of the machine. Continue
to give the crank several turns after the seaming-roll lever has gone
as far as it will go. This completes the first operation or seam.

Continue turning the crank with the right hand, and with the left hand
pull the seaming-roll lever until it will go no farther in this
direction. After this has been done give the crank several more turns,
and the second and final operation is complete. Bring the seaming-roll
lever back to the middle position and remove the can. The can is then
ready for sterilization.

Before sealing a new lot of cans or after changing for a different
size of can, one or two of the cans about to be used should be tested
for leaks. If this is done and the cans stand the test it will be
unnecessary to test the remaining cans of that same lot. The following
is a simple and safe test:

Put one tablespoon of water into an empty can and seal. Have on hand a
vessel containing enough boiling water to cover the can. Set aside
and, as soon as bubbles disappear from the surface, immerse the can in
the hot water. This heats the water in the can and creates a pressure
within the can. Keep the can under the surface for two minutes, and if
by that time no bubbles rise from the can the can has been sealed
air-tight.


ADJUSTING THE SEAMING ROLLS

If bubbles rise from the can the seam is not sufficiently tight. If
this seam is not sufficiently tight the _second_ seaming roll needs
adjusting, provided the directions regarding seaming rolls given below
have been observed. To set the rolls proceed as follows: Loosen the
nut on the bottom of the seaming-roll pin. With a screw driver turn
the seaming-roll pin counter clockwise - that is, from right to left.
Turn very slightly and, while holding the seaming-roll pin with the
screw driver in the left hand, tighten nut with the right hand, and
test as before.

Occasionally it is well to compare the seam after the first operation
with the sample can which is sent with the machine.

If seaming rolls cut into the can they are set too close, and the
seaming-roll pin should be adjusted in the opposite direction from
above.

After adjusting, always test cans as suggested above before canning.
The seaming rolls are set before the machine leaves the factory and
should not require adjusting for some time, but I have found that
slight variations in cans may make adjusting necessary.

If for any reason the second seaming roll is brought into contact with
the can before the first operation is complete it may injure the can
seriously, thus preventing an air-tight seam.

If the first seaming roll is forced in too rapidly it may ruin the
seam. Push the seaming-roll lever gently and steadily, while turning
the crank with the right hand. This rolls the seam gradually. There is
no danger from bringing in the second seaming roll too quickly if the
first seaming roll has completed its work.

There are thus, as you see, two kinds of tin cans used in home
canning: The sanitary or rim-seal can, which is used with a sealer,
and the cap-and-hole can. The latter consists of a can, and a cover
which carries a rim of solder and is fastened on the can by the
application of heat.

The sanitary can has a cover a trifle larger than the diameter of the
can, thus leaving the full diameter of the can open for filling. That
part of the cover that comes into contact with the can is coated with
a compound or fitted with a paper gasket or ring which makes a perfect
seal when the cover is crimped on the can. Some mechanical device is
necessary for sealing this can, and this is the sealer.

Cans may be had with inside enamel or plain without any enamel. The
following fruits and vegetables should be canned in enamel-lined cans:
All berry fruits, cherries, plums, rhubarb, pumpkin, beets and squash.
All highly colored products should be canned in enamel-lined cans to
prevent the bleaching effect induced by their action upon the plain
tin. Some prefer to can fish and meat in the enamel-lined cans. Other
products not mentioned here may be canned in plain cans, since they
are less expensive than the enamel-lined cans.

Covers are lined in two ways, with the paper gasket and the compound
gasket. The compound gasket is merely a preparation, scarcely visible,


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Online LibraryGrace Viall GrayEvery Step in Canning → online text (page 8 of 17)