Grace Viall Gray.

Every Step in Canning online

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applied to the under side of the cover and is not easily damaged by
handling. The paper gasket is a ring placed on the under side of the
cover and must be handled carefully. If the paper gasket becomes
broken the cover must be discarded. To sterilize covers having the
paper gasket, place them in the oven for a few minutes, but _do not
wet them_, before sealing cans. Do not remove or handle paper gaskets.

When the cans are removed from the cooker the ends should be raised;
this is caused by the pressure within. If they are not raised at the
ends the cans should be carefully examined for defects. After the cans
are sterilized they should be cooled off in water. This will cause the
ends to collapse. If they do not collapse the reason is probably due
to overfilling. It must be remembered that peas, beans and corn swell
a certain amount after water is placed in the cans; therefore, in
canning these vegetables the cans should be filled only to within a
quarter of an inch of the top. If the pressure of the air from without
will not cause the end to collapse, it should be forced in by hand.


THE TINNING OUTFIT

Tin-can sealers are made to handle the regular Number 2, or pint
cans, and the Number 3, or quart cans. The sizes are interchangeable,
so that in a few minutes' time a Number 2 machine may be changed into
a Number 3 machine with the necessary attachments. So it is economy to
buy a machine with these attachments, as you can then use either pints
or quarts as you desire.

If you are selling to boarding houses and hotels you also will want
half-gallon and gallon cans. If you use these larger-size cans and
want the sealer you can get it for these sizes, but you must tell
exactly what you want when ordering.

The prices which I give are 1919 prices and are of course not
stationary. A sealer that will seal the Number 2 sanitary tin cans
costs $14. A sealer for Number 3 cans will cost the same amount. But
the ideal arrangement is the combination machine which can be used for
both the pints, Number 2, and the quarts, Number 3. This type of
sealer costs $16.50. A special machine is used for sealing the Number
10 or gallon cans, and its price is $35.

The price of the "winter can opener" is $17.00 for smaller size and
$19.50 for the larger one.

Several standard sizes of tin cans are in common use for canning
purposes, as follows:

DIAMETER OF
NUMBER SIZE OPENING
INCHES INCHES
1 2-5/8 by 4 2-1/16
2 3-5/16 by 4-9/16 2-1/16 or 2-7/16
3 4-1/8 by 4-7/8 2-1/16 or 2-7/16
10 6/3/16 by 6-7/8 2-1/16 or 2-7/16

The cans are put up in crates holding 100 or 500 cans. If you are
canning for the ordinary market use Number 2 cans for berries, corn,
peas and cherries; Number 3 cans for tomatoes, peaches, apples, pears
and sweet potatoes.

In buying cans it is always necessary to state whether you desire
plain tin or lacquered - enameled - cans. In buying caps always ask for
the solder-hemmed caps and give the diameter of the can opening. For
whole fruits and vegetables, cans with two-and-seven-sixteenth-inch or
even larger openings are preferable. Since the size of the can opening
varies and it ordinarily will not be advisable to have more than one
capping iron, it is recommended that the larger
size - two-and-seven-sixteenth-inch - capping iron be purchased.

The tin cans come in lots of 100 or 500 cans. It is possible to buy as
few as two dozen cans, but that never pays. It is cheaper to buy a
larger quantity. Number 2 plain sanitary cans in 500 lots cost $3.45 a
hundred; in 100 lots, $3.65 a hundred. Number 2 sanitary
cans - enameled - in 500 lots cost $3.80 a hundred; in 100 lots, $3.95 a
hundred. Number 3, plain, in 500 lots are $4.50 a hundred; Number 3,
plain, in 100 lots are $4.70 a hundred. Number 3, enameled cans, in
500 lots, are $4.95 a hundred; Number 3, enameled cans, in 100 lots,
are $5.10 a hundred.

The gallons come twelve cans to a case. They are $1.40 a dozen if 100
cases are bought. If less than 100 cases are ordered they are $1.50 a
dozen.

The cans that you have to solder yourself run just about the same
price, Number 2 being $3.60 in 500 lots and $3.80 in 100 lots. Number
3 are $4.70 in 500 lots and $4.90 in 100 lots. The buyer must pay
express or freight charges on both sealers and tin cans.


PREPARING OLD CANS FOR REFILLING


Formerly, after using a tin can once we threw it away; but men with
brains, realizing this waste, have come to our rescue, and as a
consequence we can now use a can three times - that is, if we have a
sealer. The sealer that seals our cans will also open them for us, so
it becomes our winter can opener. With this can opener we can use our
tin cans three times, buying each year only new tops, which cost less
than good rubbers.

Cutting and Reflanging Tin Cans. Cutting off the can the first time.
First lift the spring pin in the top piece, push the lever from you,
drop the spring pin between the stop of the first operation roll and
the cutting-roll stop. Place the can in the sealer, push the
can-raising lever against opposite side of frame. Turn the crank and
gently push seaming-roll handle from you until you come against
cutting-roll stop, and the top of your can is cut off.

Reflanging. Remove standard can base and in its place put in the
reflanging base, lift the spring-pin and bring seaming-roll lever to
the original position. Drop the spring pin between the stops of the
first and second operation rollers, place the can in the sealer, open
end down, push raising lever round until the can engages with the
chuck, turn the crank and at the same time gradually push raising
lever round against the frame. The can is now ready for use again.

Resealing. The can is now three-sixteenths of an inch shorter than
originally. Remove the reflanging base, put one of the narrow washers
on the top of the can-raising lever, then the standard can base, and
the sealer is now ready. Proceed as with the original can.

Cutting the Can the Second Time. Proceed as at the first time, only
be sure to cut off the opposite end. The can may be cut open and
reflanged only twice, once on each end of the can body. In cutting and
reflanging the second time, leave the three-sixteenth-inch washer
under the can base and reflanging base.

Resealing the Second Time. Remove reflanging base and put the second
three-sixteenth-inch washer under the standard can base and proceed as
directed under resealing.


THE SOLDERING OUTFIT

The soldering equipment required includes a capping iron, a tipping
copper, soldering flux, a small brush, a porcelain, glass or stoneware
cup in which to keep the soldering flux: sal ammoniac, a few scraps of
zinc, solder, a soft brick and a file.

Soldering Flux. Soldering flux is a solution of zinc in crude
muriatic acid. It is used for cleaning the irons and for brushing the
tins and lead surfaces so as to make it possible for the melted lead
to adhere to the tin.

To Make the Flux. Purchase at the drug store ten cents' worth of
crude muriatic acid. Place this in a porcelain, stone or glass jar.
Add as much zinc in small pieces as the acid will thoroughly dissolve.
The flux is always best when it has stood from twelve to sixteen hours
before using. Strain through a piece of cloth or muslin. Dilute with a
little water, about half and half. This will make the soldering flux.
When using keep the flux well mixed and free from dust and dirt.

Tinning Capping Iron. Purchase five or ten cents worth of sal
ammoniac at the drug store; clean iron with file or knife. Mix a
little solder with the sal ammoniac. Heat the capping iron hot enough
so that it will melt the solder and convert it into a liquid. Place
the iron in the vessel containing the mixture of sal ammoniac and
solder. Rotate iron in the mixture until the soldering edge of the
iron has become bright or thoroughly covered with the solder. All
particles of smudge, burned material, and so forth, should be removed
from the iron before tinning.

Tinning the Tipping Copper. The tipping copper is tinned in very
much the same way as the iron. Sometimes it is desirable to file the
tipping copper a bit so as to make it smooth and to correct the point.
Heat the copper and rotate the tip of it in the mixture of sal
ammoniac and lead until it has been covered with the melted lead and
is bright as silver. The copper should be filed nearly to a sharp
point.

Capping a Tin Can. Use one tin can for experimenting. By capping and
tipping, heating the cap, and throwing it off and simply putting
another cap on the same can, you can use this one can until you become
proficient in capping.

When capping the full packs arrange the cans in rows upon the table
while the capping and tipping irons are heating in the fire. Take a
handful of solder-hemmed caps and place them on all cans ready to be
capped. Place a finger on the vent hole, hold cap in place, and run
the brush containing a small amount of flux evenly round the
solder-hemmed cap with one stroke of the hand. Do this with all cans
ready to be capped. Then take the capping iron from the fire. Insert
in center the upright steel. Hold the capping iron above the cap until
the center rod touches the cap and holds it in place. Then bring it
down in contact with all four points of solder-hemmed cap and rotate
back and forth about three strokes. Do not bear down on capping iron.
A forward and back stroke of this kind, if properly applied, will
perfectly solder the cap in place. Remove capping iron and inspect the
joint.

If any pin-holes are found recap or repair with copper. It may be
necessary to use a piece of wire lead or waste lead rim from a cap to
add more lead to the broken or pinhole places of a cap.

Tipping a Tin Can. Take flux jar and brush. Dip brush lightly in
flux and strike the vent hole a side stroke, lightly, with brush
saturated with flux.

Use the waste solder-hemmed cap rim or wire solder. Place point of
wire solder over vent hole. Place upon this the point of the hot,
bright, tipping copper. Press down with a rotary motion. Remove
quickly. A little practice will not only make this easy, but a smooth,
perfect joint and filling will be the result. The cans are now ready
for the canner. The handwork is all over, for the canner will do the
rest.

Precautions. Do not fill tin cans too full. Leave a one-eighth to
one-quarter inch space at the top of the can and see that the product
does not touch the cover. If any of the product touches the cover the
application of the hot iron produces steam, which may blow out the
solder, making it impossible to seal the can.


RULES FOR STERILIZING

Remember all fruits and vegetables are prepared for tin cans exactly
as they are for glass jars and the period of cooking or sterilizing is
the same. The following rules will help to avoid difficulties in the
operation of the various canning outfits:

For hot-water-bath outfits, whether homemade or commercial.

1. Support the cans off the bottom sufficiently to permit the
circulation of water under and round the cans.

2. Have the water cover the tops of the cans by at least one inch. The
heat and pressure must be equal on all parts of the cans.

3. Count time as soon as the water begins to jump over the entire
surface. Keep it jumping.

4. On removing the cans throw them into a sink with running cold water
or plunge them into a pail of cold water.

5. If the cans are laid on their sides the false bottom is not
necessary.

For steam-pressure and pressure-cooker canners the following
precautions should be observed:

1. Lower the inside crate until it rests on the bottom of the
steam-pressure canners. In the case of the pressure cooker put the
rack in the bottom of the cooker.

2. Have the water come to, but not above, the platform.

3. Tin cans can be piled one above the other.

4. When the canner has been filled fasten the opposite clamps
moderately tight. When this has been done tighten each clamp fully.

5. Have the canner absolutely steam-tight.

6. Allow the pet cock to remain open until live steam blows from it.

7. Close the pet cock.

8. After the gauge registers the correct amount of pressure, begin
counting the time.

9. Maintain a uniform pressure throughout the process.

10. When the process is completed allow the steam to escape gradually
through the pet cock. You can lift the pet cock slowly, using a pencil
or a knife. This can be done only with tin cans. If glass jars are
used the canner must be cooled before opening the pet cock. Blowing
the steam from the pet cock is likely to cause a loss of liquid from
the partly sealed glass jars.

11. Throw the tin cans into cold water.

12. If tin cans bulge at both ends after they have been completely
cooled, it indicates that they are spoiling and developing gas, due to
bacteria spores or chemical action. These may be saved if opened at
once and resealed or resoldered and processed again for ten minutes.

The following table will help you in estimating how many cans of fruit
and vegetables you will obtain from a bushel of product:


NUMBER OF CANS A BUSHEL FILLS

NO. 2 CANS NO. 3 CANS
Windfall apples 30 20
Standard peaches 25 18
Pears 45 30
Plums 45 30
Blackberries 50 30
Windfall oranges, sliced 22 15
Windfall oranges, whole 35 22
Tomatoes 22 15
Shelled Lima beans 50 30
String beans 30 20
Sweet corn 45 25
Peas, shelled 16 10




CHAPTER X

INTERMITTENT CANNING OR FRACTIONAL STERILIZATION


In some parts of the United States, particularly in the South, such
vegetables as corn, beans, peas, squash, spinach, pumpkin, etc., are
canned by what is known as the fractional sterilization, or the
so-called Three Days Process.

Southern canning experts have had trouble with certain vegetables,
such as those named, when they canned these vegetables in the wash
boiler by the cold-pack or one period method. They say that the
climatic conditions are so different in the South that what is
possible in the North is not possible in the South.

The vegetables are prepared, blanched, cold-dipped and packed as in
the cold-pack method and the filled cans or jars are processed in the
wash boiler or other homemade outfit a given length of time three
successive days.

After each day's processing the cans should be cooled quickly and set
aside, until the next day.

The method is as follows:

Process or sterilize glass jars for the required number of minutes on
the first day, remove from canner, push springs down tightly as you
remove the jar from the canner.

On the second day raise the springs, place the jar in the canner,
process or boil for the same length of time as on the first day.
Remove from the canner and seal tightly. Set aside until the third
day, when the process should be repeated.

For this canning a good spring-top jar is good, although the Mason jar
type of top will serve for one year; after one year of use it is
advisable to fit old Mason jars and similar types with new tops.

If using the screw-top jars, such as the Mason, do not disturb the
seal at the second and third processing unless the rubber has blown
out.

This method is only necessary when depending upon boiling water or
condensed steam to do the work.

A steam-pressure canner or pressure cooker is used in the South and
many other places to avoid bothering with vegetables three successive
days.

The steam canner or pressure cooker soon pays for itself in time,
energy, and fuel saved as the vegetables may be canned at high
pressure in one processing.

The following time-tables are those used in the South and will tell
you exactly how long to blanch and process all products. The
preparation of vegetables and fruits is the same as in the one-period
method, but the time of blanching and sterilizing differs as the
time-table indicates.

TIME-TABLE FOR PRODUCTS IN GLASS

(Hot-Water Canner)

Tomatoes | BLANCH | LIQUOR | SIZE | PROCESS OR
| | | JAR | BOIL
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
| 1 min. | No water |Quart | 30 min.
| | | |
Tomatoes | 1 min. | No water | Pint | 25 min.
| | | |
String beans | | | |
(very young |3-5 min. | Brine[1] |Quart |1 hr. 15 min.
and tender) | | | |
| | | |
Sweet potatoes| Cook ¾ | 2 |Quart | 3 hrs.
| done |tablespoonfuls| |
| | water | |
| | | |
Sauerkraut | | Brine[1] |Quart | 40 min.
| | | |
Baby beets | Cook ¾ | Hot water |Quart |1 hr. 40 min.
| done | | |
| | | |
Baby beets | Cook ¾ | Hot water | Pint |1 hr. 20 min.
| done | | |
| | | |
Soup mixture |Boil down| |Quart | 1½ hrs.
| thick | | |
| | | |
Apples | 1 min. | No. 1 sirup |Quart | 15 min.
| | | |
Berries | 1 min. | No. 1 sirup |Quart | 13 min.
| | | |
Figs | | No. 3 sirup |Quart | 30 min.
| | | |
Peaches |1-2 min. | No. 2 sirup |Quart | 25 min.
| | | |
Pears | 1 min. | No. 3 sirup |Quart | 25-35 min.
| | | |
Cherries | | No. 3 sirup |Quart | 30 min.
| | | |


[Footnote 1: Brine is made of 2½ ounces (1/3 cup) of salt to 1 gallon
of water. To make sirups recommended, boil sugar and water together in
proportions given below:

Sirup No. 1, use 14 ounces to 1 gallon water.
Sirup No. 2, use 1 pound 14 ounces to 1 gallon water.
Sirup No. 3, use 3 pounds 9 ounces to 1 gallon water.
One pint sugar is one pound.]

TIME-TABLE FOR PRODUCTS IN GLASS

The following vegetables should be processed the same length of time
on each of three successive days:

| | |SIZE |PROCESS OR BOIL ON
| BLANCH | LIQUOR |JAR | EACH OF THREE
| | | | SUCCESSIVE DAYS
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Corn |2 min. on cob|Water, salt |Pint | 1½ hr.
| | and sugar | |
| | | |
Garden peas|1 to 4 min. |Water, salt |Quart| 1½ hr.
| | and sugar | |
| | | |
Asparagus |1 min. |Brine[1] |Pint | 1 hr. and 20 min.
| | | |
Asparagus |1 min. |Brine[1] |Pint | 1 hr.
| | | |
Lima beans |2 to 4 min. |Brine[1] |Pint | 1 hr. and 25 min.
| | | |
Okra |3 min. |Brine[1] |Quart| 1½ hr.
| | | |
Okra |3 min. |Brine[1] |Pint | 1 hr. and 15 min.
| | | |
Squash | |Cook done |Quart| 1¾ hr.
| | | |
Squash | |Cook done |Pint | 1 hr. and 25 min.
| | | |
Pumpkin | |Cook done |Quart| 1¾ hr.
| | | |
Pumpkin | |Cook done |Pint | 1 hr. and 25 min.
| | | |
Spinach |4 min. |Brine[1] |Quart| 1½ hr.
| | | |
Spinach |4 min. |Brine[1] |Pint | 1 hr. and 15 min.

[Footnote 1: Brine is made of 2½ ounces (1/3 cup) of salt to 1 gallon
of water.]

TIME-TABLE FOR PRODUCTS IN TIN

(Hot-Water Canner)

| | |NO.|EXHAUST|PROCESS
|BLANCH | LIQUOR |CAN|MINUTES|OR BOIL

Tomatoes |1 min. | No water | 3 | 3 | 25 min.
| | | | |
Tomatoes |1 min. | No water |10 | 5 | 1 hr.
| | | | |
String beans |3-5 min. | Brine[1] | 3 | 3 1 hr.
| | | | |
String beans |3-5 min. | Brine[1] |10 | 3 | 2 hrs. and
| | | | | 20 min.
| | | | |
Sweet potatoes |Cook ¾ |2 tablespoonfuls| 3 | 3 | 3 hrs.
| done | water | | |
| | | | |
Baby beets |Cook ¾ | Brine[1] | 3 | 3 | 1½ hrs.
| done | | | |
| | | | |
Soup mixture |Boil down| | 2 | 3 | 1 hr.
| thick | | | |
| | | | |
Apples |1 min. | No. 3 sirup | 3 | 3 | 8 min.
| | | | |
Berries |1 min. |No. 4 sirup | 3 | 3 | 10 min.
| | | | |
Berries |1 min. | No. 4 sirup |10 | 3 | 32 min.
| | | | |
Figs | | No. 4 sirup | 2 | 3 | 25 min.
| | | | |
Peaches |1 min. | No. 4 sirup | 3 | 3 | 20 min.
| | | | |
Pears |1 min. | No. 4 sirup | 3 | 3 | 20 min.
| | | | |
Pears |1 min. | No. 4 sirup |10 | 3 | 35 min.

[Footnote 1: Brine is made of 2½ ounces (1/3 cup) of salt to 1 gallon
of water. To make sirup recommended, boil sugar and water together in
proportions given below.

Sirup No. 1, use 14 ounces to 1 gallon water.
Sirup No. 2, use 1 pound 14 ounces to 1 gallon water.
Sirup No. 3, use 3 pounds 9 ounces to 1 gallon water.
Sirup No. 4, use 5 pounds 8 ounces to 1 gallon water.
Sirup No. 5, use 6 pounds 13 ounces to 1 gallon water.
One pint sugar is one pound.]

TIME-TABLE FOR PRODUCTS IN TIN

The following vegetables should be processed the same length of time
on each of three successive days:

| | |NO.|EXHAUST|PROCESS OR BOIL ON
| BLANCH | LIQUOR |CAN|MINUTES|EACH OF THREE
| | | | |SUCCESSIVE DAYS

Corn |2 min. on |Water, salt| 2 | 10 |1 hr. and 15 min.
| cob | and sugar | | |
| | | | |
Garden peas |1 to 4 min.|Water, salt| 2 | 3 | 1 hr. and 15 min.
| | and sugar | | |
| | | | |
Asparagus |1 min. | Brine[1] | 3 | 3 | 1 hr.
| | | | |
Asparagus |1 min. | Brine[1] | 2 | 3 | 50 min.
| | | | |
Lima beans |2 to 4 min.| Brine[1] | 2 | 3 | 1 hr. and 10 min.
| | | | |


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Online LibraryGrace Viall GrayEvery Step in Canning → online text (page 9 of 17)