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Court, i.e., to a specially selected Judge of the High Court or to a
Lord Ordinary in Scotland, instead of as at present to the Judicial
Committee of the Privy Council. For the purposes of this Section,
the reasonable requirements of the public are not to be deemed to
be satisfied.

(a) If by reason of the default of the patentee to manufacture
to an adequate extent and supply on reasonable terms the patented
article or any parts thereof, which are necessary for its efficient
working, or to carry on the patented process to an adequate extent,
or to grant licences on reasonable terms, any existing trade or
industry or the establishment of any new trade or industry in the
United Kingdom is unfairly prejudiced or the demand for the
patented article or the article produced by the patented process is
not reasonably met ; or

(b) if any trade or Industry in the United Kingdom is unfairly
prejudiced by the conditions attached by the patentee before or
after the passing of the Act to the purchase, hire, or use of the
patented article, or to the using or working of the patented
process.

Ayoidance of certain conditions imposed by patentees in relation to

the sale or leaae of or licence to use patented articles or processes.

Attention is called to section 38 of the Act which deals with this
matter. Broadly speaking, the conditions prohibited are those
which have the efiect of preventing purchasers, lessees, or licencees
of patented articles and processes from buying or using other
artices or processes and availing themselves of other inventions, (^
of compelling them to acquire from the patentee or his nominees
articles that are not protected by his patent. Subject to certain
specified exceptions. Section 38 renders any conditions of this
character inserted in contracts made after the passing of the Act
null and void as being in restraint of trade and contrary to public
policy ; and enables existing contracts containing them to be
determined on payment of compensation. The section also pro-
vides that the insertion by the patentee in a contract made after
the passing of the Act of «ny condition which by virtue of the
section is null and void shall be available as a defence to an action
for infringement of the patent to which the contract relates
brought while that contract is in force.

Other Provisions.

The Act contains a large number of provisions which will
improve the position of existing and future patentees and pro-
prietors of registered designs.

For the details of these provisions the Act itself should be
consulted. Reference may, however, be made to Section 18, the
object of which is to reduce the cost of extending the time of a
patent where a patentee has been inadequately remunerated ;



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0«t 17, 1W7.]



THE BOABD OF TRADE JOUENAL.



117



Patents and Designs Ad, 1907.



Section 19, enabling patentees to obtain patents of addition in
reBpeet of which no renewal fees will be payable ;

Section 20, dealing with the restoration of lapsed patents ;

Sections 41 (2) and 55, protecting a patentee or proprietor of a
design against the consequences of unauthorized publication of his
invention or design ; and

Section 53, enabling copyright in a design to be extended for a
second or third term of five years.



TRADE OF FOREIGN COUNTRIES AND BRITISH

POSSESSIONS.
The following summary table has been prepared in the Board of
Trade, showing the total imports and exports of merchandise of
the principal countries for which t he particulars can be given up to
July, 1907, inclusive, and referring in all cases to the same
period, viz., the seven months ended July. The corresponding
figures for 1906 and 1905 are added for comparison : —





Imports (see Notb below).


Exports (Domestio) {see Notk

below).

Seyen Months ended July.




Seren Months ended Jaly.




1905.


1906.


1907.


1905.


1906.


1907.




£


£


£


£






Bdgfaun* ... ...


<».995,O0O


7 too


8 «0


47,446,000






Fnuioe


112,047,000


13 (GO


14 100


107,066,000






Spain


28,981,000


2 NK)


2 <M)


19,677,000






Anstna-Hongarx ...


51,746,000


5 m


5 lOO


47,820,000






UmSd^ates'.:.'


11,222.000


1 100


1 00


11,065,000






140,511,000


15 m


18 00


178,228,0U0






Japan

Bvi^ India


32,823,000


2 KX)


3 00


16,878,000






40,438,000


4 100


4 00


60,183,000






OmDwiA


30.214,000


3 100


i 00


18,639.000
not available






British S. Africaf ...


not available


1 too


1< 00






United Kingdom ..


272,017,000


29 KM)


82 00


188,527,000







* Value of principal articles only. + Including bullion.

A comparison of the total figures for eight months ended
31st August is possible for four countries, as follows, viz. : —





Imports {$ee Notk).
Eight Months ended August.


Exports (Domestic) {see Notx).
Eight Months ended August




1905.


1906. ^


1907.


1905.


1906.


1907.


Bdginn*

Vnaot

United States
XXnlted Kingdffltt


£

75,487,000

126,363,000

160.476,000

312,431,000


£

85,7S5,00U

147,859,000

176,177,000

340,600,000


£

98,847,000
160,104,000
208,706,000
363,546,000


£

58,949,000

122,957,000

197,371,000

213,045,000


£

60,247,000

134,803,000

225,406,000

247,529,000


£

68,905,000

146,707,000

245,138,000

284,125,000



* Value of principal articles only.

Note. — In the case of Belgium, France, Austria-Hungary,
Egjrpt, Japan, Canada, and United Kingd/mi^ the import
figures given in the above summaries represent imports for home
consumption. In all cases the export figures are intended to
represent exports of domestic produce. In most cases, however,



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118



THE BOABD OF TRADE JOUBNAL.



[Oct. 17, 1907.



Trade of Foreign Countries and British Possessions.

they include a certain amount of '* nationalised" goods, i.e., goods
originally imported for consumption, and which, if dutiable, have
been charged with duty, but which are subsequently re-exported.

The latest figures available as regards other countries from
which returns are received by the Board of Trade are as follow : —





Imports.


Exports (DomMtio).




1905.


1906.


1907.


1905.


1906.


1907.


RnBflla* (5 months}...
Otnxumj (6 montns)
SwitserlandlOmths.)
Italj (5 montiis) ...
MezkxH- (6 months) .
Australian Common-
wealthf (6 months)

Portugal (11 months)


£
21,303,000
163,331,000
24,364,000
32,178,000
8,961,000

notaTaHable

im.

12,777,000


26,190,000
201,648,000
26,840,000
41,137,000
13,527,000

20,556,000
12,649,000


28,780,000
213,256,000
29,909,000
48,695.000
12,736,000

23,968,000

1906.
12,492,000


M
38,650,000
129,467,000
17,941,000
26.104,000
11,369,000

not available

im-

6,389,000


£
38,145,000
142,859,000
20,289,000
31,411,000
14,218,000

29,580,000

1906,
5,982,000


£
33,223,000
165,550,000
22,176,000
29.939,000
13,285,000

32,510,000

IMd.
6,310,000



* European, Russo-Finnish and Black Sea Frantiers.
f Inoluiding bullion and specie.

For detailed particulars regarding the ti^de of the several
countries^ reference should be made to the '* Accounts relating to
the Trade and Commerce of certain Foreign Countries and British
Possessions, including figures received up to 30th September," to
be obtained from Messrs. Wyman & Sons, Limited, Fetter
Lane, London, E.C.



NOnCE TO TRAVELLERS TO OR THROUGH RUSSLA..

H.M. Consul-General at Warsaw (Mr. A. P. Murray) in a recent
letter calls attention to the strictness of the Russian Customs
examination of passengers' baggage at the frontier. He writes : —
" The Frontier Customs are now much stricter than they have, ever
been before, all trains arriving at Warsaw from two to four hours
late on account of the time taken by the Customs examination at
the frontier."

The Consul-General farther points out that there is no duty-free
transit through Russia, and that duty has to be paid on all new
articles according to the tariff. Guns, he adds, are allowed into
Russia only by special permission fJom the local Governor-General,
and on payment of about 32. duty and charges which are not
recoverable.

A translation of the Russian Customs Tariff may be obtained
from Messrs. Wyman & Sons, Ltd., Fetter Lane, London, E.C, at
a cost of 9d., ex postage (reference No., Cd. 2857/1906), and a
translation of the Russian Customs Regulations concerning the
Receipt and Release of Goods, from the same, at 2}(2., ex postage
(the reference being Consular Report, Miscellaneous Series, No. 569,
Cd. 786—5/01).



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Oct. 17, 1907.]



THE BOASD OF TRADB JdtJSNAL.



119



GERMAN IMPORT TRADE IN CATTLE FOOD.

H.M. Consul-General at Hamburg (Sir W. Ward, C.V.O.) has
forwarded the following report, based on oflScial statistics, on the
German import trade in feeding stuffs for live stock : —

There was a very considerable increase in the number of homed
cattle and pigs bred in Prussia during the year 1906 compared
with the figures for 1904, as will appear from the following
table: —





1904.


1906.


Increase +




or Decrease —


Horses

Horned Cattle

«g»

fibeep


2,964,408
11,156,188
12,563,899

5,660,851


3,021,087
11,630,672
15,384,762

6,426,851


4- 56,679
+ 474,539
+ 2,770.863
— 234000



This increase in the breeding and fattening of homed cattle and
pigs has, to a great degree, been due to the high prices of meat
prevailing in Germany during the year 1906 and part of 1905, and
it may, according to competent authorities, be assumed that it has
continued during the present year. The consequence of this
increase has been that, in spite of the abundant crops of all kinds
of fodder in Germany in 1906, there was last year, and will
continue to be so long as these conditions last, a considerable rise
in the demand in Germany for the leading descriptions of feeding
stuffs for live-stock, comprising oilcake and oilcake-meal, bran,
rice-meal, malt-sprouts and potato-residue, which are imported
from foreign countries.

The great importance of the German import trade in these
articles may be inferred from the fact that during the year 1906
the total value of such imports amounted to nearly ten millions
sterling : the imports of oilcake and oilcake-meal (601,293 metric
tons) being valued at 3,925,000/., the imports of bran (1,089,724
metric tons) at 5,074,5002. and the imports of rice-meal, malt-
sprouts and potato-residue (202,318 metric tons) at about 1,000,000Z.

The following table shows the countries whence these articles
are chiefly imported : —









Bice-meal,




Oilcake and


Bran.


Malt>8prouts,




Oilcake-meal.


and Potato-








residue.




Metric Tons.


Metric Tons.


Metric Tons.


Great Britain


16,393


42,946


10,446


British India


28,059





30,429


Anstria-Hnngary


30,411


136,860


29,586


Fiance


40,490








Holland


21,820


41,609


12.181


RussU ... •


186,897


530,133





United States of America


214,772


93.116


78,993


Argentine Bepnblic





126,726





Other Countries


62,951


118,846


40,683


ToUl for 1906


601,293


1,089,724


202,318


Total far 2905


583,107


982,846


136,583



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1 20 THE BOABD OF TBADE JOURNAL. [Oct. 17, 1907.

Oerman Import Ti'ode in Cattle Food,

It will be seen from the above figures tbat the feeding stufis
chiefly in demand in 1906 were bran and rice-meal, malt-sprouts,
and potato-residue, for the total imports of the first-named in-
creased by about 10 per cent, as compared with the figures for
1905, and those of rice-meal, &c., by nearly 50 per cent., whilst
the imports of oilcake and oilcake-meal increased by only 3 per
cent. The comparatively slight increase in the imports of oilcake
and oilcake-meal during 1906 is ascribed by some persons to the
exceptionally high price of raw materials, such as copra, palm
kernels, &c., and partly to the abundant crops of all kinds of
fodder in Germany last year. Others, however, are of opinion
that German agriculturists have apparently of late years begun to
be more and more in favour of using bran and rice-meal for feeding
purposes in preference to oilcake and oilcake-meal, and that the
causes of the comparatively smaller demand for the latter in 1906
are not, therefore, of a merely temporary character.



SERICULTURE IN CRETE.



The following report on sericulture in Crete has been forwarded
by the British Vice-Consul at Canea (Mr. E. C. Wyldbore
Smith) :—

** Sericulture in Crete is at present in a very primitive state,
owing, to a great extent, to the lack of energy in the temperament
of the natives. A want of capital also, no doubt, impedes many
would-be native sericulturists from establishing business on a large
scale. . . .

" The districts in which the culture is most seriously carried on
are the Prefectures of Candia and Lassithi in the Western, and the
Prefectures of Canea and Sphakia in the Eastern portion of the
island, but there would appear to be no reason whatever why the
industry should not be carried on with an equal prospect of success
throughout the island, the climatic conditions of which are all in
its favour, extremes of heat and cold being unknown. . . .

" At present there is a scarcity of mulberry trees for the sus-
tenance of the silkworms, but this defect is being gradually
remedied, and during the winter trees are daily planted, the soil
being particularly suitable to this class of tree. Seed is imported
in boxes weighing about one ounce avoirdupois and worth 2/?. 6d.
per box. About 4,000 of these boxes are imported annually — the
large majority from France, the rest from Prussia and Greece.
Eggs are also obtained from native cocoons, but, at present, with
but partial success, since at the end of the second year the cocoon
becomes orange coloured and of a bad quality, and is worth only
half its original value. It is estimated that in the Prefecture of



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Oct 17, 1907.] THE BOABD 09 TEADE 70ITBNAL. 121

Sericulture in Crete.



Candia about 140 lb. weight of eggs is obtained annnally. These
eggs of native production fetch about the same price as the French
imported article, and are exported chiefly to Persia.

" The average total annual production of f**esh cocoons from all
districts in the island is estimated at 2,410 cwt., but when dried
the cocoons would represent only about 803 cwt. or one-third of
their original weight. The local price for fresh cocoons is about

3 francs and for dried cocoons about 9 francs per kilo

" The dried cocoons are for the most part exported to France.
Buyers from Milan are reported to have been making enquiries
lately with a view to effecting purchases in the Cretan market
should prices be suitable. About one-third of the total production
of cocoons remains in the island and is used for the purpose of
manufacturing a common silk, which is sold locally and is also sent
to Tripoli, Smyrna and Alexandria. About 200 cwt. of this coarse
silk is thus produced, the local price being about 168, per kilo.

" In nearly every Cretan cottage stands a roughly-constructed
loom on which this native product is woven into lengths and
employed in the 'manufacture of shirts, sheets, curtains, &c. It is
of an' extremely durable nature and will stand frequent washing
without deterioration. This silk is, as a rule, of a creamy colour,
but the peasants, who are fond of gay colours, dye it in every
shade.

" The systems in current use, both for destroying the chrysalis
and for withdrawing the silk into threads from the cocoons, are of
flie most primitive description. In the former case, the fresh
cocoon is steamed until the chrysalis within is destroyed. In the
latter, the method locally employed is to place a small quantity of
cocoons (say 1 lb. weight) into a cauldron of water that is just at
boUing point ; the operator then takes each cocoon separately and
proceeds to spin the small silk threads on a rough wheel ; when a
akein of silk thread of sufficient weight (say 2 lb.) has thus been
apnn, it is placed in the sun to dry, after which it is ready for sale.
" To sum Dp then, the elements necessary to extend the silk
industry in Crete are as follows : — (1) a continuance of the present
state of political tranquility in the island ; (2) plantation of mul-
berry trees on an increased scale ; (3) the adoption of more modem
methods throughout the various stages of the industry.

" In view of the increased prices which the peasant silk-rearers
have been able to obtain for their products, they are without doubt
carrying on silk colture with redoubled vigour."

A list of the principal silk buyers in Crete and some patterns of
locally manufactured silk have been forwarded by the Vice-Consul :
they may be inspected at the Commercial Intelligence Branch of
the Board of Trade, 73, Basinghall Street, London, B.C.



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122 THE BOASD OF TKADE 70UBNAL. [Oct. 17, 1907.

BOYCOTT OP JAPANESE RE-REEL FACTORIES.

The Commercial Attache to H.M. Embassy at Tokio (Mr. E. F.
Crowe) has forwarded a memorandum on the boycott of three
Japanese re-reel factories by the Foreign Raw Silk Association,
from which the following is taken. Mr. Crowe points out that
raw silk* forms such an important item of Japanese trade that
anything affecting it should be of interest to British merchants,
even though they are not directly concerned in the trade : —

" A glance at any Japanese raw silk market report will reveal
the fact that there are three kinds of raw silk exported, namely,
filatures, re-reels and kakedas. Filatures, as their name shows, are
machine-reeled; re-reels are first of all hand-reeled and then
machine-reeled, while kakedas are hand-reeled. The proportion
in which they are exported is roughly: filatures, 80 per cent.;
re-reels, 13 per cent. ; and kakedas, 7 per cent. Now although one
would naturally suppose that * filatures' would always fetch a
higher price than re-reels of a similar grade, such does not appear
to be the case, the latter having gradually increased in value from
a position of 24 cents gold per lb. lens than filatures in 1896/97 to
124 cents gold per lb. more than filatures of the same grade in
1905/06. The reason for this is that the supply is limited and that
the American buyers prefer the re-reels, especially from selected
cocoons, because by careful manipulation in the process of re-reeling
they pass through a severe test as to their strength and nerve, and
are therefore considered in America to be more dependable than
ordinary filature silk.

^' The price has now fallen considerably and is again less than
that of * filatures,' but it is not clear that this result is caused by
the boycott, although it may have helped towards it, the main
reason being that owing to their high price for several seasons con-
sumers have been tempted to look elsewhere for a substitute.

** It is now necessary to say a word of explanation with regard
to the Yokohama raw silk market. Since the first days when
foreigners began to export raw silk, the custom of the trade has
been that all raw silk should be brought to Yokohama and be pur-
chased there by the foreign buyer from a Japanese intermediary or

* toiya.' These Japanese middlemen charge a small commission,
but, apart from their business as middlemen, it must be remem-
bered that they also occupy a position of quasi-bankers, and that
they finance most of the filature proprietors who require lai*ge
sums of money with which to buy their cocoons.

" It will be seen then that, bhanks to the power which the
middlemen thus obtain over the raw silk producers, they are an
extremely important force. They form a corporation known as the

* Japanese Silk Guild,' which is so powerful that it would be most
difficult for a foreign firm to oppose them and buy direct from the
producer in order to avoid paying them any commission.

" This system of pledging the crops in advance to middlemen is
. . . one which has existed in Japan for some centuries . . .

* The export of raw silk in 1906 amounted to 11,270,0002. out of a total import
and export trade ol 86,000,000Z.



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Oct. 17, 1907.] THE BOAXD OP TRADE JOUSNAL. 128

Boycott of J(ipanese R&^eel Factories.

and, judging by results, in the case of raw silk at least, it has been
Tery snccessfal. It has been instrumental in establishing the
present arrangement by which the foreign buyers, instead of
having to bear the cost of establishing agencies in all the produc-
ing districts in order to enter into direct dealings with the seri-
cnlturists, know that their market is limited to Yokohama, and
that all the silk for export must find its way there. In other
words, buying expenses are reduced to a minimum.

'* In the silk piece-goods trade the conditions are quite different —
for one thing it is a newer trade and the middlemen are not so
powerful as to hold the weavers in the hollow of their hand, and
therefore the foreigner can buy direct from the producer. This,
however, does not appear to be an advantage, for it means that he
must go to the additional expense of large staffs, more agencies,
more telegraphic expenditure, &c., as he has to be ready to buy in
any part of the producing disi^cts.

" The raw silk trade therefore may be said to be based on the
custom of buying on the Yokohama market through the Japanese
middleman, and the experts say that it is because of this custom
that the trade has flourished so exceedingly and that Yokohama
has acquired its dominating position.

" But some of the Japanese producers have now broken through
this trade usage and in doing so have considerably interfered with
the trade of the foreign exporters. These latter have therefore
decided to boycott them.

" The details shortly put are as follows : — Three of the most im-
portant re-reel factories, namely, the * Usuisha/ * Kanransha,' and
* Shimonita,' which turn out between them about 60 per cent, of the
total re-reel production (which amounts roughly to 1,000,000Z.),
have made arrangements to sell a portion of their produce direct to
the two leading Japanese silk exporting firms — the Mitsui Bussan
Kaisha and the Kuto Gk)mei Kaisha — without the intervention of
the Yokohama (Japanese) middlemen, thus saving the commission
and enabling these two Japanese firms to compete more success-
fully with the foreigner, while giving him no chance to compete
in the purchase. . . .

"The Foreign Raw and Waste Silk Association, therefore,
dreading that this might be the thin end of the wedge, in self-
defence determined to take strong measures, and on 9th August
they decided unanimously to abstain from buying the chops of the
three offending factories until further notice.

*• This, the foreign exporters hope, will compel the factories con-
cerned to return to the old arrangement, because, by forcing them
to dispose of their silks through one channel only, the value of
theirgoods must necessarily depreciate.

*' Tjp to the present moment (2nd September) there is no sign
o/ either party giving way."



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124 THE BOABD OP TSADE JOITENAL. [Oct. 17, 1507.



PROPOSED TARIFF CHANGES.

BRITISH EAST AFRICA PROTECTORATE.

A special issue of the " Official Gazette of the East Africa and
PronoMd Uganda Protectorates," dated 28th August last,

Co o^^AtLd ^^^ ^'^^^ received, which contains a proposed

Gufltoinfl Ordinance to make better provision for the

Ordi anea levying of Customs duties in the East Africa

^ ' Protectorate, and for the organization and

management of the Customs Department.

The Bill provides for the consolidation of the various Customs,
transit and re-export Begulations at present in force, and for
the imposition of various rates of duty on articles imported into
and exported from the East Africa Protectorate.

The export tariff is practically the same as that at present in
force, but it is proposed to modify the import tarift* by the
addition of various articles to the free list, viz., passengers' baggage
(including bicycles, cameras, sewing machines, &c.), horses and
mules, vessels for inland navigation, goods for H.M. navy, sheep
and cattle medicines (with effect from Ist January, 1906),
chemical manures and insecticides, and industrial machinery.

The duties on goods imported for tfansmission to the Uganda
Protectorate are to be paid on importation into the East Africa



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