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82,824


148,064


Total values





96,828,812t





105,842,993



* Value of 141 tons only,
t Corrected figums.

I Exclusive of 443 tons of micaceous iron ore, used for paint, and placed under
the heading *• Ochre, umber, &c."

$ Exclusive of 436 tons of micaceous iron ore, used for paint, and placed under
the heading ** Ochre, umber, &c.**

II Value not yet ascertained.



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Oct. 2 i, 1907. J THS BOASD OF TEADB J0X7BNAL. 1 65



Mineral Prodnclion of the United Kingdom in 1906.



The increase in the total value of the minerals raised dnrin£( the
year is accounted for by the increased output of coal and a rise in
the avera^ price of coal, viz., from 6«. ll-38d. per ton in 1905 to
78. 3-49rf. in 1906.

The total output of coal — 251,067,628 tons— was the highest
hitherto recorded.

The qnantity of coal e3q)orted, exclusive of coke and patent fuel,
and of coal shipped for the use of steamers engaged in foreign
tnAe^ was 55,599,771 tons, an increase of more than 8,000,000 tons
on the exports for 190b. France received nearly 9,500,000 tons,
Germany and Italy each over 7,500,000 tons, Sweden over
3,500,000 tons and Eussia, Spain, Denmark, the Netherlands,
Egypt and Argentina each over 2,000,000 tons. Adding the
2,598,194 tons exported in the form of coke and patent fuel, and
the 18,690,213 tons shipped for the use of British and foreign
steamers engaged in foreign trade, the total quantity of coal which
left the country was 76,788,178 tons. The amount of coal remain-
ing for home consumption was 174,279,450 tons, or 3*992 tons per
head of the population. 20,694,641 tons were used in the blast
furnaces for the manufacture of pig-iron, as against 19,255,555 tons
in the previous year, 35,402,677 tons wej-e used in the manufacture
of coke and 1,399,542 tons in the manufacture of briquettes.
19,296,526 tons of coke were obtained in 1906, valued at
12,549,1 16i-, and 29,728 coking ovens were in use during the
year. 1,513,220 tons of briquettes, valued at 899,046i., were
produced.

The output of iron ore — 15,500,406 tons — shows an increase of
909,703 tons, and the value— 4,085,428i.— an increase of 603,244^.,
on that of 1905. The ore yielded 5,040,360 tons of iron, or nearly
one-half of the total quantity of pig-iron made in the country.
7,823,084 tons of iron ore were imported during the year, over
76 per cent, of which cama from Spain.

(kipper, iron, lead and tin show an increase on the figures of
1905 in both the amount and value of the metal obtained.



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166 THE BOARD OF TftADE JOUEXAL. (Oct. 24, IfW.



RAISIN EXPORT TRADE OF DENIA,

The following particnlara of the raisin export business at Denia
are extracted from a lengthy report received from the Oommereial
Attache to H.M. Embassy at Madrid (Mr. S. P. Cockereli):—

The exports to England from the Valencia raisin ports^ i.e.,
Denia, Valencia, Javea, Gandia and Alicante, represent well over
80 per cent, of the total imports of raisins into the British Islee,
and of these ports the export front Denia is considerably greater
than from any other Spanish port.

The lines on which the business is conducted in the En^ish
market are similar to those adopted in the orange trade (see
*' Board of Trade Journal " of 2l8t February last, pp. 379-80), the
fruit being bought from the formers by packers who send it in
boxes on consignment to brokers for sale by auction in the sale
rooms. In the raisin trade, however, brokers and packers hare
sufficiently controlled their transactions to cease making advances
to the growers. The only credit transactions nowadays are those
of the ** Banqueros " in the inland centres of Ondara, Oata, Vergel
and Pedreguer, who pack for farmers, consign the fruit and recover
their expenses and commission when the sales have been made.
The old established " Banqueros " get advances from brokers and
agents early in the year, against an undertaking to consign their
fruit to them in due season, but the more recently established do
not enjoy this privilege and the profession is dying out.

The fruit is generally scalded by the farmer and brought for
sale to packers in Denia whither it is sent from the surrounding
districts in carts or on mule back, the railways being rarely used
owing to high rates. In some cases, usually when packers are
offering bad prices or when a farmer has particularly fine fruit,* the
farmers do their own packing and either sell to dealers in Denia or
consign the fruit themselves to agents on the foreign markets.

The shipments of the 1905 and 1906 crops from Valencia,
Gandia and Denia to the different ports up to 8th May, 1906 and
1907, were 553,850 cwt. and 323,685 cwt., respectively, London's
share in the former year being 149,191 cwt. and in the latter
112,404 cwi;..

The London and Liverpool business, which is the most import-
ant, is done almost entirely through brokers, while shipments to
all other markets are made in execution of orders placed by buyers,
either directly or through the packer's agent. Shipments are
rarely made on consigment to Germany, where prices are bad.
Denmark buys direct. The leading Denia packers have com-
mission agents in Canada where the business formerly controlled
entirely by two firms is now divided among a number of packers.
Owing to competition from California the demand in the United
States for Denia raisins has almost ceased.

The finest fruit is sent to London, which pays the best prices.
Dublin is the only British or Irish market which buys the fruit



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Oct 24, 1907.] THE BOARD OF TRADE JOURNAL. 167

Baisin Export Trade of Denia.

packed in layers — a style adopted chiefly by Canadian and
American buyers.

Denia raisins for the English market are packed in oblong boxes,
made of pine-wood, holding 7, 14, or 28 lb. The American market
takes them packed in layers, four layers going to a box of 28 lb.

The most important manures used by the raisin growers are
snperphosphates of lime, sulphate of ammonia, and sulphur. The
bulk of the business is in the hands of a Valencia firm, who are in
a position to sell on easy terms, and who, being important raisin
shippers, are able conveniently to make suitable arrangements with
fEuroers for liquidation of accounts.

Land in the Denia district is divided into two classes — the
"** Palmar," or palm-growing land in the fertile plain, and the
second rate or *• Campuso " on the higher ground.

One Uanegada (1 acre = 4 4-5ths hanegadas) of land contains
on an average 220 vines producing 5 quintals (or cwt.) of raisins.
The average price per quintal is from 15 to 25 pesetas giving a
gross revenue per hanegada of 100 to 125 pesetas. The cost of
cultivating a hanegada and putting the produce in the packers'
warehouse is estimated at 50 pesetas or 10 pesetas per quintal.

The value of raisin growing land is estimated at 800 pesetas per
hanegada for first-class land, and anything from 150 pesetas up-
wards for cultivated ** Monte '* or mountain land.

As in Valencia there is a most remarkable lack of combination
among those engaged in the raisin trade of Denia, and here again
the wharfingers and stevedores have made most progress in this
direction. The Denia Labourers^ Union have fixed the following
tariff for loading into lighters : — Inside or outside the port 17 cents
per cwt., exclusive of the hire of the lighter (amounting to 13 cents
per cwt.), which falls upon the shipper. The only other example
of successful combination has been between the agents and brokers
in London who have cornered .the business in the last four years.
Agents receiving fruit on consignment cannot now sell direct to
buyers ; the business must go through the brokers. In the same
way brokers undertake to refuse to leceive any consignment except
through the agents. The sufferers by this arrangement are the
shipper and the consumer.

As in the case of oranges the bulk of the Denia raisin trade is
with foreign countries, only a small fraction of the production
being taken by Spain herself.

Some raisins (estimated in 1905 at 10,000 cwt.) are sent inland
by carts. The coasting trade in 1905 amounted to 828 tons, most
^f which is sent to Aguilas and the remainder to the Malaga
Cilleries.



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1 08 THE BOARD OF TRADE JOURNAL. [Oct. 21, IIW.

PETROLEUM IN ROUMANIA.

H.M. Minister at Bucharest has forwarded the following
niemorandum on the development of the petroleum industry in
Roumania : —

" Although petroleum can be traced back in Roumania to the
year 1832, when it was employed by peasants as a lubricant, and
although as early as 1856 a refinery was installed in Bucharest,
which claims the privilege of having been the first town in Europe
to be lighted by petroleum, it is only of late years that the industry
has attained universal repute. In 1866, owing to the rise in prices
of petroleum abroad, Roumania, in spite of its limited production of
5,915 metric tons, was able to export as much as 2,712 metric
tons to Marseilles alone. Shortly afterwards, however, owing to
the primitive means of extraction employed and to the absence of
railroads and general difiiculties of transport, Roumania found
herself unable to compete with other countries and the exploitation
of petroleum was abandoned. But it was renewed in 1882 and
continued on a small, though progressive, scale until 1898, when it
quickly began to assume considerable proportions, as the following
figures will show. From 1882 till 1897 the production increased
from 19,000 to 79,000 tons, while from 1898 to 1906 it rose from
106,470 to 887,554 tons, and the first six months of the current
year show a total of 555,482 tons. Roumania thus now comes
fourth on the list of petroleum-producing countries after the United
States, Russia and the Dutch Indies.

*' This rapid development has gi'adually attracted foreign capital,
the amount of which is now close upon 7,750,000/.; Germany
being responsible for nearly 3,000,000i., France for 1,250,000Z., and
Holland for 900,000Z. British capital which had been invested as
far back as 1885 in Glodeni, and subsequently in Provitza and
Bacau, was lost through want of experience, and its total now
amounts to only 120,000/.

"The exploitation of petroleum is at present confined to the
four districts of Prahova, Dambovitza, Buzeu and Bacau. The
fields of the Prahova valley alone supply 95 per cent, of the total
production, but there are other petroliferous regions as yet unex-
plored, the greater part of which belong to the State.

** The means employed for the extraction of petroleum are
sounds and hand-wells. At the end of 1906 there were 451
sounds and 591 hand-wells at work, the production of the former
representing 92 per cent, of the total. The depths at which the
oil is reached vary from 500 to 1,800 feet but about 900 feet is the
average. The average monthly production of a sound is estimated
at 150.8 metric tons, and that of a hand- well at 9.9 metric tons.

** The transport from the oil-fields to the refineries is carried on
by means of tank waggons or pipe lines, of which there are at
present 36 kilometros (22i miles). From the refineries to the
various centres of consumption the oil is transported in tank
waggons of 10 metric tons capacity. But the road and rail



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Oct. 24, 1907.] THE B0.4JtD OF TRADE JOUENAL.



169



Peiroleum in Uoumania.



commanications with the oil fields are inauflScient, and one of the
projects of the Government is notably to double the railway line
leading to Gampina (Prahova). In various stations and at the
ports on the Danube, reservoirs capable of holding 100,000 tons
have been erected for storing the oil. In Constantza, the
principal outlet to the sea, special reservoirs have also been
constructed, fitted with the latest appliances for shipping the
oil, &c. Further works are now in hand for which this year alone
a sum of 280,000Z. has been set aside, and, when completed, it is
calculated that 100,000 tons can be shipped annually from that
port.

'* There are a number of refineries capable of producing together
3,300 tons a day, or nearly IJ million tons a year. The most
important are ** Steauna Romana" with a daily production of 1,200
tons, " Vega " with 900 tons, " Soci6te Roumano-Am^ricaine " and
** Aurora*' with 600 tons each.

"The principal products derived from Roumanian petroleum are
benzine, lamp oil, lubricating oil, paraffin and ** Pacura," made of
the residues, and now used on nearly all Roumanian railways and
steamers instead of wood and coal as heretofore.

"The export of oils, which in 1897 amounted only to 21,387
tons, of a value of 42,764i^ rose in 1906 to 321,119 tons, worth
1,045,553^."

The following statement shows the output of petroleum in each
of the four producing districts during the first six months of the
vears 1905, 1906 and 1907 :—



First six months.





1905.


1906.


1907.


Prahova

Demhovitza

Buxeu

Bacau

Total


Metric Tods.

i 251.37.H

1 12,581

1 4,653

3,610


Metric Tons.

8S9,977

9,257

5.921

4.356


Metric Tons.

529,450

16,296

4,606

4,130


272,167


409.511


555,482



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170



THE BOABD OF TRADE JOURNAL.



[Oct. 24, 1917,



TARIFF CHANGES
AND CUSTOMS REGULATIONS.

BRITISH INDIA.

The "Indian Trade Joamal,** which was issued by the Indian



Dnty on Cotton
Wicks.



Government on 26th September last, contains
a notice to the effect that "cotton wicks"
will be assessed to duty at the rate of 3^ per

cent, ad valorem, nnder article 80 of Schedule IV. of the Import

Tariff, on importation into British India.



New Tariff

Proposals :

Comparison with

Old Rates, ftc.



AUSTRALIAN COMMONWEALTH.

With reference to the Supplement to the " Board of Trade JoumaP
for 19th September last, giving the new
Australian Tariff proposals with a comparison of
the rates of duty previously in force, the Board
of Trade have now received, through the
Colonial Office, a statement which has been
presented to the Commonwealth Parliament, embodying the Tariff
and giving the old rates in somewhat greater detail than in the
above-mentioned Supplement.

The statement, which also gives the recommendations of the
Tariff Commission, the amount of the importations under each
heading, and the duty paid in respect of the various articles
imported into the Commonwealth in 1906, may be seen at the
Commercial Intelligence Branch of the Board of Trade, 73 Basing-
hall Street, London, E.C.

The undermentioned new rates of duty should be substituted for
the rates given in respect of Tariff No3. 64, 119 and 301 in the
Supplement in question : —



New Bates of Duty.



Item in
Tariff.



Article.



General
Tariff.



Tariff on
United King-
dom Goods.



64
119



301



Potato flour p^rlb.

Curtains, blinds, n.e.i. (not including blinds
attach^ to rollers) ; curtain clips, bands,
loops and holders ; and blind tassel** and
acorns ad vol,

c''"" \^\:i



2d.



7*. 6rf.

*30%



I



U,



20%
7*. 64/.
•30%



* Whichever rate returns the higher duty.

A copy of a cablegram from the Commonwealth Government has
been received, through the OflScer-in-charge of
the Commonwealth offices in London, notifying
that the duties under items 28 to 34 and 36-^

(viz., on sugar, living animals, sago and tapioca, blue, brooms.



CuBtoms Duties
Passed.



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Oct 24, 1907.]



THE BOABD OP TEAI^£ Jb=CJRNil^.



171



Tarijf Changes and Customs Regulations.



AUSTRALIAN COMMON WE ALTH-<?on^'it^^.

corn, millet, rice root, butter, and cheese) have been passed-^tbe
duties under items 28 to 33 to come into force on the 17th October.
Biscuits, under item 35, are now accorded preferential ti'eatment —
and subject to a duty of \d. per lb. when of United Kingdom
production, and \\d, per lb. othenvise.

A duty of 10«. each has been imposed on horses, under a new
item 33d.

The excise duty of 5/. per lb. on saccharin has been postponed.

It is also stated that any reasonable proof will be accepted as
evidence of the British origin of imported goods
by the Customs Department, which will be
guided by the general probabilities of each case,
and will not be rigorous until the new Tariff



Evidence

letpecting Origin

of Imports.

has been settled.



It is further notified that the Bill which is being drafted in regard
T rtftf f *^ ^^^ importation and sale of patent medicines
« . ^ -, i?'^. will contain no leffislative power to demand a

Patent Medicmes. . ^ i. rxi. •..• i?xi- j* •

statement of the composition of the medicine.

UNITED STATES OF AMERICA.

The following is the jBubstance of some Decisions affecting the

C 8to application of the United States Customs Tariff,

«^. J^ which have recently been issued by the Treasury

iiecisions. Department at Washington :—



Articles.


Paragraph
of the Tariff
under which

dutiable.


Rate of Duty.


Pickled walnutM (walnuts plucked when green and
before the shell of the nut has formed, and
pickled in yinegar), dutiable as " pickles and
sauces of all kinds"

Irregular gaum pieces of talCy about 5 inches in
length, for use as pencils for marking on iron,
shown to be the same as French chalk, dutiable
as such

^ Black-eyed beauM or petu^^ or cou^peas, which,
although more closely resembling beans than
peas, are known in commerce as " black-eyed
peas," dutiable on that account as "pease,
dried, not specially provided for "

Siteet red peppers put up in liquid in tins, known
as pimientos, dutiable as preserved vegetables ...

Marmalade a ful berry jams aie not of the nature of
jellies, but are classed under " comfit 8,_sweet-
meats and fruits preserved in sugar, &c. ~


!

241 iO%advaL

i

13 1 cent, pef lb,

1

250 80 cents, per

bushel of 60 lbs.
241 I 40 % ad vol,

' 1 1 cent, per lb.
263 < and

I 35% ad vol.



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172 THE BOARD OF TRADE JOURNAL. [Oct. 24, l»a7.

Tarijf Changes and CusIotm Regulations.

TURKEY.

The Board of Trade are in receipt, through the Foreign Office, of

Pr h*Wti f telegraphic information to the effect that

■o-^ -X j?S ^ the exportation of com and barley, either

d B^il ground or in grain, from Erzeroum, Erzingyan,

an isar ey. Bayazid and Linis Sandjaks, is prohibited,

CHILE.

The Board, of Trade are in receipt, through the Foreign Office, of

M fhiWl f ^^Py ^^ * ^^ recently promulgated in Chile,

p^ - - by Article I. of which it is provided that import

T ^Jl^'i^ « duties and storage dues may be paid in gold in

import Daties ^j^^ manner established by the Law* of 31st

fitn *^ Till *'^^'y» 1898, or in paper money with the corres-

rage es* ponding increase necessary to obtain 18rf. per

peso in drafts on London at 90 days' sight. The President of the

Bepublic will fix the surcharge before the fourth day of each month,

taking as a basis the average of the international exchange in the

previous month. •

JAPAN.

H.M. Commercial Attache at Yokohama reports that a notice was

. ,. -. - issued on 13th September to the effect that

N Stt to ^^^^^ ^^^ October duties would be levied on

^ew 7^^ goods withdrawn from a bonded warehouse

00008 in Bona according to the rate in force at the time of

ware onses. withdrawal, and not according to the rate at

the time the application for warehousing was made, as was

formerly the case.



* The Law of 31st July, 1898, provided for the issue of notes which conld be nseil
in the liquidation of all obligations, with certain exceptions, among the latter being^
import duties and storage dues which were to be paid in gold at the rate of ISd.
per peso.



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Oct 24, W7.]



THE BOABD OF TRADE JOUBNAL.



173



SHIPPING AND TRANSPORT.

GERMANY.



The Board of Trade have received, through the Foreign Office,
from H.M. Representative at Berlin, a copy
of a Notification, dated 29th August, and
published in the " Reichsgesetzblatt " of 7th
September, on the subject of the provisions
for sanitary treatment and disinfection of

seagoing ships in German harbours.
A copy and translation of the Notification may be seen at the

Commercial Intelligence Branch of the Board of Tirade, 73, Basing-

hall Street, London, E.G.



Sanitary

Treatment of

Seagoing Ships in

GermanHarbours.



FRANCE.

H.M, Consul-General at Havre (Mr. H. L. Ghurchill) reports an

TTiwA n wi announcement in the ** Bulletin de la Gom-

flAWfl*^ i!^' Pag^e G6n6rale Transatlantique " of 15th

8«i?^ October, to the effect that from the month of

September their Havre-Bordeaux-Golon Line

was accelerated to a speed of 15 knots, in consequence of the two

new steamers " Guadeloupe '* and " Perou " having been placed on

that run. The journey between Bordeaux and Colon has thus

been reduced to 19 days, and between Bordeaux and Guadeloupe

and Martinique to 10 and 11 days respectively.



GUATEMALA.

With reference to the notice on p. 373 of the " Board of Trade
Faciliti f f h Journal " of the 22nd August last, and previous



Transport of

Xerchandise to

the Capital



notices, relative to the Guatemala railway, a
despatch has now been received from H.M.
Legation at Guatemala forwarding a translation
of an advertisement of the Guatemala Eailway
Company announcing that merchandise for transport over the
company's lines would at the end of September be received at and
carried to a village named Aguacaliente, distant about 24 miles
irom the City of Guatemala. " The importance of this announce-
ment," according to H.M. Legation's despatch, "consists in the fact
that from this point on there is a good cart-road, making the route
by Puerto Barrios for the first time available for the importation of
packages of all sizes and weights intended for the capital. Little
more than seven miles of track only remain to be laid after this in
order to complete the railway through to the coast, as construction
has been pushed from the other end as well. But in this short
distance there are five bridges, the erection of which, although the
material is already on the ground, will probably retard the actual
opening of the line until towards the end of November.



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Shipping and Transport.



** There can be no cloubt," the despatch adds, " that the Atlantic
route will be almost exclnsively used in future for all imports into
this country from Europe as well as from the eastern and
southern ports of the United States, affording a new and impmiant
field for the employment of British shipping."

ARGENTINA.

5.M. Consul at Buenos Ayres (Mr. A. C. Ross) has forwarded
TraiMportoathe Particulars of a company that is W
^p.*^ - organised to carry on transport on the Rio

^^ * Negro by means of light draught steamers. It

is proposed at first to run the river vessels from Patagones to
Choele-Choel, and if the undertaking proves successful to send
them further up the river. At Patagones the vessels will connect
with the steamers of the Lloyd Bahia Blanca from Bahia Blanca
or Buenos Ayres.

. It is estimated that the round trip from Patagones to Choele-
Choel and back will take 10 days — 4^ days up stream, 2^ dowu
stream, and 3 days for loading and discharging. It is intended to
employ steamers drawing 3^ feet loaded when with 70 tons of cargo.
The freight up has been quoted at 40 dollars paper, or about
3i. lOs. per ton. The company expect to be working in December
next., when the wool clip is coming in.



MINERALS, METALS AND MACHINERY.

GERMANY.

H.M. Ambassador at Berlin has forwarded a translation of an
r ♦* ♦ ^ n 1 extract from the " North German Gazette "
contract ror toai grating that the Prussian State Railway
fitot ^n***^ Administration and the Rhenish Westphalian
e ways. q^^| Syndicate have agreed upon terms whereby
the Syndicate shall supply the railways with coal and briquettes
during a period of three years.

Adverting to the notice on p. 560 of the ** Board of Trade

-_ Journar* of the 21st September, 1905, relative

-,, . i^^T^. to the decision of the ** Vulcan Shipbuilding

Y ^ t^ Company," of Stettin, to establish an extensive

TT ^\\ * branch building yard at Hamburg— ;the area

^* thus occupied to be a free Customs district —

a further despatch has now been received from H.M. Consul-

General at Hamburg (Sir W. Ward, C.V.O^, reporting that the

preparatory works for the yard in question, begun in 1905, are



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Oct. »♦, 1907.] THB BOAKD OF TRADE JOTTRNAL. 176

Minerals, MekilSy and Machinery .



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