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^ , . State now helps the peasant to purchase up-to-

^' date machines for reaping, threshing, Ac., by

making him advances on his land, produce and stock, it may be

hoped that there will be a still greater demand for this class of

^oods from the United Kingdom.

" The continued activity of the building trade provides another
"R '\ii * good opening for British manufacturers rf

MktfiriAl window-glass, iron bars and sheets, girders,

bolts, screws and nails.

" The Bulgarian Government is, moreover, rapidly extending its

Coft.1 Rft.*l system of railways, and an opening thus

X^' ^*r •- ^ presents itself for the supply of coal, locomo-

Ibtenal, fte. ^^^^ roUing-stock. iron bridges and rails.

" Besides Government requirements, there are various municipiJ

PI f Am» enterprises in which British contractors and

Flant, sc.y manufacturers should obtain a share, such as

^"^"^ . '^^ electric lighting and traction, water supply,

Bnterpnsei. paving of streets, drainage, &c., and, together

with these improvements, a better class of hotels will be built in

the principal towns of Bulgaria to replace the existing ones, which

are primitive in design, construction and sanitation. . . .

^* In conclusion, it should be stated that British manufacturers of
tool steel, corrugated iron, files, iron and steel
Oeneral Openings, plates, oils, paints, chemicals, leathers, canvas,
laundry soaps, biscuits, cutlery, stationery, glass-
ware, liosiery and sewing machines should have every chance of
competing ajgainst other foreign importers.'*



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ITOT. 28, 1907.} THE BOA£D OF TRADE JOURNAL.



408-



Openingt for British Trade.



MEXICO.

The "Diaries Oficiales'' of 29th October and 4th, 6th, and 7th^



November contain the following particulars of
applications made to the Mexican Government
by various persons for appropriating water fronf
certain rivers for motive power : —



Hydro-Electric
Plant



"Diftrio."


Applicant.


River.


State.


29th Oct.
4th Nov.

ethNov.
7th Nov.


Sr. P. Crenier

Sr. Luis G. Zaldivar

8p. Jo8^ de Jesns Garcfa ...

Sr. Alberto Stein

Sr. J66U8 J. Portugal


de los Remsdios ...
La Ci^ega and de
Lenna

de la Laja

del Presidio

Tlapaneco


Mexico.
Mexico.

Guanajuato.
Sinaloa.
Between States

of Puebla and

Guerrerot.



Bridge and
Bnilding Material



CHILE.

See notice on p. 413.



BRAZIL.

H.M. Consul at Santos (Mr. R. Casement, C.M.6.) reports that
hams are imported into that port chiefly from
Hams and Bacon, the United Kingdom, and that an opening
certainly exists for the extension of this trade,
wherein Irish dealers might profitably share. So, too, with bacon,
which at present is chiefly imported from the United States^
There is, adds the Consul, a distinct want of food-stuS^^ of this kind
in Santos and Sao Paulo.

Note.— See p. 452 of the "Board of Trade Journal" of 6th
March, 1902, and p. 76 of the " Joumal" of 10th April, 1&02,
witii reference to the requirements of the Brazilian Law respecting
the importatipn of food-stufis.



CHINA.

H.M. Consul-General at Shanghai (Sir Pelham Warren, K.C.M.G.)



Besigni for
Municipal

Buildings at
Shanghai



has forwarded particulars relative to an invita-
tion issued by the Municipal Council of the
French Concession at Shanghai, for designs
and plans for the construction of various muni-
cipal buildings. The competition closes on the



15th February next. Designs, in sealed envelopes, should be



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404i THE BOilBb OF TBADE J0T7RNAL. [Not. 28, 1907.

Openings for British Trade,

addreflsed to '^ Monsieur le President da Oonseil d'Admimstration
Municipale de la Concession Fran^aise, Shanghai.

The conditions of the competition, together with a plan of the
site of the proposed buildings, may be seen by British firms at the
Ck>mmercial Intelligence Branch of the Board of Trade, 73,
Basinghall Street, London, E.C.



EXHIBITION.
RUSSIA.

With reference to the notice on p. 208 of the " Board of Trade

Intamatioiial Journal" for 1st August last respecting an

I dnitrid International Exhibition of Furnishing and

E^bitioiL at Decorative Arts to be held at St. Petersburg

flf p^x^^^v-^ next summer, the Board of Trade have now

91. rewrBDurg. received, through the Foreign Office, copies of

the programme and regulations, together with lorms of application

for space. These may be obtained by intending British exhibitors

on application at tiie Commercial Intelligence Branch of the

Board of Trade, 73, Basinghall Street, E.G.



AGREEMENT BETWEEN THE UNITED KINGDOM AND

FRANCE RESPECTING THE CUSTOMS TREATMENT OF

QOMMERCIAL TRAVELLERS' SAMPLES.

The Board of Trade have received, through the Foreign Office,
a copy of an agreement recently concluded between His Majesty's
Government and the Government of France for the purpose of
&cilitating the accomplishment of the formalities referred to in
Article 6 of the Anglo-French Commercial Convention of 28th
February, 1882, which provides for the duty-free admission into
either country of samples and patterns brought by commercial
travellers of the other country. The full text of this agreement
will shortly be published in the " Treaty Series " issued by the
Foreign Office.

For notices of similar agreements concluded by His Majesty's
Government with the Governments of Belgium and Switzerland
see " Board of Trade Journal" for 29th November, 1906, p. 399,
and 7th March, 1907, p. 477.



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Not. 28, 1907.] THE BOARD OF TRADE JOURXAL. 405

BBITISH TRADE ABROAD.

Spain.— Mr. S. P. Cockerell, Commercial Attache to II.M.
Embassy at Madrid, commenting upon trade in Spain, remarks
that Spaniards are very conservative, and prefer to continne with
an article of fair quality only, which they know, rather than try
experiments with the unknown, although it may be better. They
druft instinctively along the line of least resistance — a characteristic
which it is most important to appreciate in dealing with them,
and which makes it desirable to eliminate wherever possible the
difficulties and details which are usually left to the importer to
deal with. For this reason also the use of British measurements
and monev places those who use them at an even greater dis-
advantage m Spain than in many other countries, in competition
with those who employ the metric system.

" A considerable development," Mr. Cockerell continues, ** has
taken place in recent years; railway facilities are greater, and
commercial travellers — especially Germans — ^are to be found every-
where, ^ievertheless, there are still many places out of touch
with the big centres. . . .

" Spaniards are not enterprising in business, and few care to
venture on a new industry or undertaking. But no sooner has
one done so with success than his example is certain to be copied
by many others, and over-supply rapidly ensues.

"Combinations for regulating prices and production have so
often proved to be agreements made to be broken, that such
arrangements are rarely made, ami are generally unsuccessful.
The characteristic above referred to draws, therefore, in its trail
the ruin of all except those who went in early enough to have
time to strengthen their position before the cut-throat competition
began.

** Spain is remarkable for its lack of advertising, and the expla-
nation appears to be that the comparative poverty of the market
makes any large expenditure of money in this direction exception-
ally speculative. Yet in the few instances where advertising
by posters and signs as we know it has been resorted to,
the effect has been successful, and it is satisfactory to state
tiiat in this form of enterprise the chief exponents have been
British firms. Of foreign firms, the most noticeable is
a Grerman-American steamsnip company, whose posters are to
be seen everywhere in seaports and in railway stations and other
places where they are likely to attract the notice of intending
emigrants; their posters are attractively got up and are often
framed in expensive frames. The tramcars, which are to be found
in every Spanish town of importance, are almost neglected as
media of advertisement and railway stations are very sparsely
covered, if at all. There is an advertising firm in Madrid, but its
energies appear to be directed rather to the daily press, and even
there full page advertisements are rarely to be seen and are usually
badly presented. Engineering journals, such as the ' Revista de
Obras Publicas,' the ' Revista Minera,' &c., do contain a eood
many advertisements of engineering firms, among which, it is
wortii noting, those of German firms largely predominate."



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406



THE BOARD OF TRADE J0X7RNAL.



[No?. 28, 1907.



AGBICULTURAL RETURNS OP GREAT BRITAIN, 1907.
(Produce of Crops.)
The following preliminary statement showing the estunated total
produce and yield per acre of Wheat, Barley, and Oati in Great
Britain in the year 1907, with comparisons for 1906, and the aver-
age yield per acre of the ten years 1897-1906, has been received
from the Board of Agriculture and Fisheries : —





WHEAT.




Estimated ToUl
Produce.


Acreage.


Aywme Bsti-

mat^ Yield

per Acre.


Avenge

of the

Ten




1907.


1906.


1907.


1906.


1907.


1906.


Years
1897-
1906.


Bngland

Wales

Scotland


Quarters.
6,636,769

187,969

286,428


Quarters.
6,977,980

168,514

?49,977


Acres.
1,587,208

89,921

48,807


Acres.
1,661,147

44,403

50,089


Bush
88-97

27-65

89-16


Bush.
33-61

28-56

89-95;

3.3.66


Bush.
3115

26-0^

88-83


Great Britain


6,901,166


7,386,471


1,625,436


1,755,609


33-97


3122




BARLEY.




BsUmated Total
Produce.


Acreage.


Average Esti-
mated Yield
per Acre.


Average

of the

Tea




1907.


1906.


1907.


1906. '


1907


1906.


Yean
1897-
1906.


Bngland

Wales

Scotland


Quarters.
6,290,730

349,622

904,714


Quarters.
6,246,063

377,576

946,640


Acres.
1,411,168

90,622

210,809


Acres.
1,439,708

92,834

218,681


Bush.
35-66

30-86

34-41


Bush.
84-71

32-54

84-59


Bush.
82 88

31-27

86-81


Great Britain


7,645,066


7,569,179


1,712,094


1,751,223


35-26


34-58


83-14




OATS.




Estimated ToUl
Produce.




ATenue Eiiti-

mated Yield

per Acre.


Average

of the

Ten




1907.


1906.


1907.


1906.


1907.


1906.


Years
1897-
1906.


Bngland

Wales

Scotland


Quarters.
11,476,709

954,263

4,369,313


Quarters.
10,191,564

977,079

4,254,462


Acres.
1,967,671

203,908

951,011


Acres.
1.881,081

205,110

956,816


Bush.
46-66

87-44

86-76


Bush.
4334

88-11

35-57


Bush.
41-38

34-22

S6'38


Great Britain


16,800,285


16,423,105


3,122,590


3,042,967


43-04


40-65


89-2*



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Not. 28, 1907.] THE BOABD OF TRADE JOURNAL. 407

MACHINERY TRADE OP SPAIN.

Mr. S. P. Cockerell, Commercial Attache to H.M. Embassy at
Madrid, reports that up to the enforoement of the new tariff
the United States paid 5 pesetas 70 c. per 100 kilos, more
on agricultural machinery than countries enjoying the minimum
tariff". This disappeared with the new tariff, in which the
duties were in bolJi cases the same, and it would in any case
have disappeared with the Spanish-American agreement. Ploughs
are imported largely from Germany, but cheaper ones firam
tiie United States are being introduced. In the course of
the last year the introduction of American disc ploughs has
increased, but the heavy freight (from California), added to their
high initial cost and the slowness of the Spanish farmer in
grasping the details of complicated machinery, impede the
business. The question of complexity also applies to binders and
reapers. This business is in the hands of American makers. The
American Harvesting Trust push their machines so much and
give such favourable purchase terms — a risky business when
dealing with a machine which is likely to go out of order quickly
unless carefully handled. There are one or two British and
Canadian houses that do a little business. Their machines are
heavier than the American ones. The American sales amount
to perhaps 5,000Z. j^r annum. There are no reapers or binders
made in Spain.

Although electricity generated by hydraulic power is daily in-
creasing as the motive power in Spain, the increase of mechajiical
{steam or gas) power as an auxiliary is as great as or greater than was
the case before electricity reached its present development. Owing
to the cHmatic conditions of Spain, water power varies greatly in
summer and vrinter, and until a cheap and efficient method of
storing electric power can be found, there must always be a choice
of evils : either of seeing a great deal of power run to waste in
winter or of using that power in winter and supplementing it in
summer by gas or steam. Only with streams flowing from moun-
tains high enough to retain their snow supply throughout the
summer is this not the case, the water power then sometimes actu^
ally increasing in summer. Apart from this the conditions
usually attaching to concessions . for electric lighting in Spain
impose heavy fines for failure of current for more than a eliort
period. It is therefore essential to lighting stations to secure
themselves by having an auxiliary mechanical plant to fall back
tipon when they are exposed to droughts such as have been
experienced in recent years in Spain. A competent authority has
estimated that, taking Spain as a whole, there is an average
of 10,000 horse-power available in nearly every province of Spain
excepting Castile, of which only some 2,000 to 3,000 horse-power
is at present used. Whether this estimate be accurate or not
it gives an idea of the latent power which may reasonably be
supposed to exist in the country.



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408 THE BOARD OF TBADE JOURNAL. [Nov. 28, 1907.

Machinery Trade of Spain,

Preference for foreign machines may often be attributed
to the fact that foreign firms, or their agents, are readier in
accepting the terms of payment ofiered by Spanish sellers for
the purchase of their engines. Theoretically the usual terma
are one-third with order, one-third on leaving the works, or on
arrival, and the remaining one-third three months later ; but, in
practice, one would be fortunate to get normal terms of this kind,
buyers liking to pay as much as possible from the profits derived
from the machine purchased. The custom of long credits has been
introduced within the last eight years by Continental firms, and it
is now common to give one, and sometimes up to two years. Under
these circumstances, it can be readily understood that '' cash with
order," which is often asked by British houses, is not very acceptable
in Spain.

There is a further reason for the increased business of foreign
firms in steam engines, namely, the tendency in erecting electrio
power stations to purchase the motive power from Qie same
country as the dynamos. British electrical machinery is practically
unknown in Spain, and many foreign steam and gas engines
owe their presence directly to this fact. Moreover foreign engineers
are far more numerous in Spain than British ones, and they
naturally have a preference for their own machinery.

In cotton spinning machinery the United Kingdom has the
monopoly, while Belgium and France provide the machinery for
wool spinning. No such machinery is made in the country.
Owing to its heavy cost, the duty is not excessive, as in the case of
looms. These latter are imported from the United Kingdom,
France, Germany, and Switzerland, and are also manufactured in
the country, there being some dozen manu&cturers in Barcelona,,
with an estimated annual output of from 1,000 to 1,500 looms.
The cotton industry employs a large proportion of the 60,000
looms which it is estimated there are in the country. The loss of
the Colonies, followed now by the fftll in exchange, has prevented
any briskness in the trade in recent years. There is, however, a.
steady tendency to substitute automatic for ordinary looms.



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Not. 28, 1907.1 THE BOASD OF TBADE JOUBNAL. 409

PROPOSED TARIFF CHANGES.

BELGIUM.

The Board of Trade are in receipt, through the Foreign Office, of a

«^^ . -jj, copy of the Belgian Budget Bill for 1908, which

^r'^ftd TarifP ^*^ recently been submitted to the Belgian
w^^i +4^^*^ Legislature. The Bill makes provision for the
Hoomcations. following alterations of the Customs Tariff,

which, if sanctioned by the Chambers, are to take effect from 1st

January next : —

(1) Pieces of wood sawn on the four sides, measuring at least
25 cms. square, to be assimilated for tariff purposes to sawn beams.

[Note. — Sawn beams (other than of oak or walnut) are
dutiable at the rate of 2 francs per cubic metre. At the pre-
sent time, the Tariff defines sawn beams as trunks of trees,
squared, dressed with the saw on all four surfaces.]

(2) Steel wire for the manufacture of umbrella and parasol
frames, imported in rolls, to be admitted free of duty under condi-
tions to be prescribed by the Minister of Finance.

[Note. — At the present time steel wire (other than hollow
wire) for the manufacture of umbrella and parasOl frames is
not admitted free of duty unless it is cut into lengths {dSeoup6
d dimension). Such wire imported in rolls is dutiable at the
rate of 2 francs per 100 kilogs.]

(3) Tubes and pipes of iron or steel in a sheath of tissue coated
with tar or asphalt to be assimilated for tariff purposes to iron or
steel tubes or pipes simply tarred or coated with r^ lead.

[Note. — ^At the present time, tubes in a sheath of tissue
coated with tar or asphalt pay duty at the rate of 4 francs per
100 kilogs. On the other hand, tubes simply tarred or coated
with red lead, to which it is proposed to assimilate such tubes,
pay duty as follows : —

Butt- welded or welded 2 francs per 1 00 kilogs.

Drawn, of an exterior diameter of:

More than 25 mm 2 „ „ „

25 mm. or less • 4 „ „ „ ].



TARIFF CHANGES
AND CUSTOMS REGULATIONS.

DOMINION OF CANADA.

A copy of a cablegram has been received, through the Colonial

T rtati f Office, fix)m the Governor-General of Canada,

fiAtbJm^thi^ff stating that donations of worn clothing for

secuers uouung. g^|.|jigj.g j^ Canada are entitled to free entry

upon the receiver declaring on the entry form that he is a settler
in Canada, that the clothing has been sent by a friend named, and
that it is for the use of himself or family.



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410 THE BOARD OF TEADE JOURNAL. [Nov. 28, 1907.

Tari-ff Changes and Customs Regtdaiions.

AUSTRALIAN COMMONWEALTH.

With reference to the notice which appeared in the " Board of
Pft-tmit Xfidi • Trade Journal " for 7th November last, reepec-
Bill intr An^d^ *^^^ ^^® importation and sale of patent med-
^ icines in the Australian Commonwealth, the

Board of Trade have now received, through the officer-in-charge of
the Commonwealth offices in London, copy of a cablegram from
the Commonwealth Government, stating that the Patent Medicines
Bill was introduced last week, but will probably not be proceeded
with before Christmas. It is further stated that the Bill practically
reverses section 16 of the Commerce Act, and requires a trade
description to disclose the relative formula, unless special exemp-
tion is granted.

Note. — Section 16 of the Commerce Act reads : —

*' The refirulations under sections 7 and 11 of this Act shall
not prescribe a trade description which discloses trade
secrets of manufacture or preparation^ unlesd in the opinion
of the Governor-General the disclosure is necessary for the
protection of the health or welfare of the public."

The "Commonwealth Gazette" for 12th October last contains a

Bra hack f Notice, dated Ist October, 1907, which has been

« . issued in accordance with the provisions of

P h t Customs Regulation No. 131, and which pro-

p vides for a drawback of duty, under certain

^ ' specified conditions, on the under-mentioned

imported material used in the manufacture of articles within the

Commonwealth upon their exportation : —

Parchment paper used in the manufacture of butter-wraps, Ac.

SOUTH AFRICA.

With reference to the notice published in the " Board of Trade

•o^^ ^. Journal" for 19th September last, respecting

..Aegoift ions ^j^^ regulations to be observed on the impor-

respecnng tne ^^jon of second-hand clothing into Natal,

SJ^Th d ^^® ^^""^ ^^ '^^^^ ^^® ^^^ received, through
a \h\ *^® Colonial Office, copy of a despatch from

^* the High Commissioner for South Africa, for-

warding similar regulations which have been issued, with effect
from 1st June last, by the Government of the Cape of Good Hope.

It is stated in the despatch that the Governments of the Cape of
Good Hope and Natal have consented to enforce their regulations
m respect of all second-hand clothing introduced into South
Africa, and consigned to places within the Transvaal, the Orange
River Colony, Basutoland, the Bechuanaland Protectorate and
Swaziland, and have undertaken to Inspect, and, where necessary,
to disinfect, all such clothing at the port of entry. As regurds



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Not. 28, 1907.J



THE BOARD OF TRADE JOURNAL.



411



Tariff Changes and CvMoms RegulaHani.

SOUTH AFRlCA-eoyUinued,

Southern Bhodesia, the Customs law of that territory strictly
prohibits the importation of second-hand clothings and the
Administration state that it is not intended to jdepart from their
present position in regard to the matter.

The "Cape of Good Hope Government Gazettes" for 25th

October and 5th November, contain Customs

Decisions. Notices (No. 57-8), giving the following

Tariflf Decisions which have been agreed to by

the yarious parties to the South African Customs Union

Convention : —



Articles ftnd how classed.


Tariff
No.


Rates of Duty.


upon GkMds, the
praduoe or maao-

faotnre of the
United Kingdom

OolwdeT^


•Shredded wheat

Triscuit

Bacon slicing machines


46

46

175


25% ad val
15 % „


S%ad val.

if :



* Eevised decision.



TRANSVAAL.



The



'Transvaal Government Gazette" for 2oth October last
T •♦ « contains a Government Notice (No. 1,150 of

ofSft ^^^^^' ^^^f^ \'^^ October, 1907, amending

the regulations issued under Government Notice
No. 32 of 1907*, respecting the importation of cattle, vid Natal,
into the Transvaal.

These amended regulations provide, hUer alia, that no person
shall import any cattle from the Colony of Natal, except cattle
which have been imported for breeding purposes from over-sea,
and which have passed through Natal by rail direct under special
permit, and under conditions prescribed by the Minister of
Agriculture.

The regulations may be seen at the Commercial Intelligence
Branch ot the Board of Trade, 73, Basinghall Street, London, E.C.

The



same issue of the *' Gazette " contains a further notice
(No. 1,168 of 1907), dated 17th October last,
laying down, under Ordinance No. 16 of 1904,
a regulation^ in addition to the regulations
issued under Government Notice No. 809 of

1907, for the purpose of preventing the introduction of the plant

disease known as ** vine mildew" into the Colony.



ImportatioiL of
Plants from
Cape Colony.



* See p. 432 of the " Board of Trade Journal '' for 28th February last.



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412 THE BOARD OF THADE JOITRXAL. [Not. S8, 1907.

Tarif Changes and Cuitoms Regulations.

Tho new regnlation provides for the prohibition of the importation
of any consignment of vinegar, wine or brandy — in bottle or cask —
from certain parts of Cape Colony, except under certain conditions
as to the sterilization of the bottles or casks.



GERMANY.

The Board of Trade are in receipt, through the Foreign Office, of
T .f 4^ Am information to the effect that the Bundesrat has
f^2i recently authorised the duty-free importation

Ai^el d«r ^^ re-importation of the following articles,
"rmproveTent" ^i""*. JJ^de"" - ^^^ governing "improve-

Trade Conditioni. ""^^"j^ ^^^l' ^^^ ^,^ sheet-iron (Tariff
No. 786) for the purpose of being worked up by rounding, stamp-
ing, coring and clipping (Tariff No. 790).

(2) Rough non-malleable cast iron (parts of mash machines,
cooling vats and similar articles) (Tariff No. 782) ; and rough iron
forgings (Tariff No. 798) for the purpose of being worked up by
turning and planing (Tariff Nos. 783 and 799) — within the



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