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Sea is alive, for which a motor such as described, used as an
auxiliary means of propulsion, would be most useful to enable
them to navigate at all states of the tide, which rushes through
the Inland Sea and causes them to be hung up for hours and days
when the wind is unfavourable. The writer has convinced himself
by personal experience that the motors made in Japan answer this
purpose very well. They are, however, roughly made : on the
other handy Uiere is no delicate machinery to get out of gear. They
are also very heavy, a 12 horse-power motor weighing 2,000 to
2,500 lbs., whereas an American motor of the same horse-power
would weigh only about half that weight. The weight is, however,
not a drawback.

Gasoline motors will not find favour in Japan. Not only are
they more dangerous, but they are unsuitable for commercial
purposes, as gasoline is very dear and can be obtained only in the
important towns or ports. As already stated, kerosene of the
commonest kind can be got anywhere in Japan. In the port of
Kobe, however, petrol motors are now increasing in number, but
they are found expensive to run.


H.M. Consul at Milan (Mr. W. M. Tweedie) has forwarded a copy

KilanEzMb'tion* ^^ General Keport recently published by

T 1.4^ Af A«l ;?• ' *^® International Jury for the Milan Exhibition,
JiiBt or Awards. jgQg^ containing a list of the Exhibitors who

obtained awards.

This report may be seen by persons interested at the Commercial

Intelligence Branch of the Board of Trade, 73, Basinghall Street,


Note. — The Report of the British Commission on the British

section of the Exhibition, which gives the list of awards to British

Exhibitors, was published some time since (see " Board of Trade

Journal" of 4th April last, p. 11.)


With reference to the notice on p. 401 of the " Board of Trade
Journal " for the 1st March, 1906, relating to the sugar industry
in Brazil, Argentina, Peru and Mauritius, the Commercial
Intelligence Branch of the Board of Trade have now received from
H.M. Consular Officers information in regard to sugar estates,
with details of the power used in the manufacture of sugar, in
Reunion, Tahiti and Guadeloupe.

This information is available for the use of British merchants
and traders interested at the Commercial Intelligence Branch of
the Board of Trade, 73, Basinghall Street, London,, E.G.

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Oct 3, 1907.] THE BOABD OF TEADB JOITRNli;. 17


Osaka. — H.M. Gonsul at Kobe (Mr. H. A. C. Bonar), writing on
the subject of industrial conditions in Osaka, states that there is a
great future for industrial undertakings there by foreign manufiBu;-
turers, or with the support of foreign capital. ** Bel^^ian and French
money," Mr. Bonar continues, "with a very small proportion of
British (privately subscribed) has been instrumental in bringing
about the formation and installation of at least one enterprise, which
is about to commence operations, namely, the manufacture of glass.
If British manufacturers would carefully study the import returns
given in the Consular reports every year, they should have no
difficulty in perceiving, not what outlets they have for their
manuflBkctures in this country, but what the prospects are of profit-
able manufactures on the spot, such as the customs tariff is
specially directed against, and which, owing to want of expert
knowledge and capital, the Japanese are as yet unwilling to
engage in. For the last few years Japan has seen a number of
agents of British financial houses or syndicates offering to provide
money for this or that undertaking, but the British manufacturer
or his expert has been conspicuously absent. Manufacturers'
agents are not referred to. There is good ground for believing
that those who decide to venture on industrial undertakings which
Japan does not yet possess, or only to a degree of mediocrity, will
have reason to be satisfied with their experiments. In any case,
it would certainly pay to send out experts, though these, unless
properly introduced and provided with full powers to treat with
Japanese — should a good opening be found — will have difficulty
in obtaining access to Japanese industrial establishments. By
visiting tho country such experts might gain much information
as to what is doing in Japan, and in Osaka especially."

Chefoo. — H.M. Consul at Chefoo (Mr. H. F.Brady), in his report
for 1906, gives the following remarks on the subject of commercial
travellers in China, supplied to him by a resident in Chefoo
formerly engaged in the import trade : — " In many specific articles
for which there is only a limited demand, it would not pay manu-
facturers to send an agent to represent them in their line alone ;
but if an enterprising man representing a group of manufacturers
of suitable articles were to establish a central depdt for exhibiting
them, advertised well by means of posters, which is now being
generally done throughout the North of Chinay and if he sent out
active agents to travel through the districts he was working, I
believe he would soon build up a good business, provided he was
content with a reasonable profit. At first he would possibly not
meet with a ^reat measure of success, but in time the Chinese
would get to know him and trust him, if he and his goods were
trustworthy, and small buyers would then buy from his stock,
while larger dealers would have an opportunity of seeing samples
of what tkej wanted and would order freely on commission."
{Foreign OfieCy Annual Series, 3,929.)

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The following memorandum regarding the use by some British
manufacturers of fancy names for their textile products has been
received from the British Commercial Attache at Yokohama
(Mr.' E. F. Crowe) :—

'' Certain British textile manufacturers are in the habit of giving
f Ancy names to some of their productions which have no peculiarly
novel characteristics as regards the actual material entering into
their composition. This may be a useful way of attracting custom
at home and in other countries, but it serves no particular purpose
in Japan, where no attention is paid by customers to fancy names-
On the other hand it has the grave disadvantage of causing trouble
and delay at the Customs, as the appraisers who do not know the
goods- under their fancy names require time to analyse them, or, at
any rate, to see what they look like. I have even heard of one
extreme case where there was difficulty in persuading a Customs'
official that * Corkscrews ' were not always to be classed as hard-
ware. Most of the big firms dealing with Japan are aware of this,
and they are careful to avoid the use of fancy names when invoicing,
confining their descriptions to generally recognised names. The
foregoing is written for the benefit of those firms who only deal
occasionally with Japan."


The British Commercial Attache at Madrid (Mr. S. P. Cockerell),
reporting on the machinery trade of Galicia, remarks that the
machinery for the sardine factories there is largely French, which
is natural considering the former importance of this industry in
France. The United States of America appear to do considerable
business in tin-cutting machinery, and apparatus for mechanical
soldering comes from Germany.

The numerous saw mills throughout Galicia use band saws,
British makes being conspicuous by their absence ; this is the case
not only in Galicia but also in the important saw mills on the east
coast of Spain. Most of the business is done by Valencia houses.
A certain number of saws are supplied by German firms. Steam is
generally used as motive power, the sawdust and waste serving as
fuel for the boiler. In the sardine and other factories at Vigo gas
engines are found to answer well, using the town gas supply.

Galicia is notably a province of small properties, and, therefore,
agricultural machinery of the most primitive kind only is usually
found. There appears to be some market for hand-threshing
machines (desgrcmadorX German machines are being sold at
Corunna. Marine engines, steam windlasses, &c., for use in the
small steam fishing bcMits built at Vigo are almost entirely bought

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Oct S, 1907.] THE BOABD 07 TRADE JOVVSAL, 19

Machinery cmd Tinplate !Prad6 of Oalicia.

in England. Although Vigo and Corunna are now well provided
witii ice factories, the fishing industry all along the coast is still
comparatively in its infancy, and other ports are still in need of an
ice supply. Barcelona also appears to be about to enter seriously
into llie fishing business, and English makers of ice plant might
well keep an eye on this market. Steel cables for ships are dealt
in by several firms to whom price lists, Ac, might be sent. Iron
wire is used for the keys on sardine tins. It is also noticeably
replacing wood trellis work for the training of vines throughout
Galicia Thinner wire is also used for the manufacture of gridirons
for roasting the sardines. The rapidity with which the coating of
zinc wears off these latter is a source of trouble.

With regard to the tin-plate trade of Galicia, Mr. Cockerel!
Btates that the quality most generally used is of 74 kilogs. the box
of 112 plates. It is estimated that about 300,000 boxes are
consumed annually in the Vigo market, and, as in slack times the
hands in the sardine factories are engaged in making tins, the
sales vary little from year to year.

The total importation, practically all from England, during the
last two years was 217 tons, to the value of 6,707Z., in 1905, and
723 tons, worth 25,394Z., in 1906. Assuming the total annual
consumption to be about 2,000 tons it will be seen that the
Spanish makers have acquired a considerable share of the business.
T^eir plates have not the smoothness, equality of thickness and
thickness of tin as the English, and a Vigo lithographer declares
he would always pay an extra 50 cents, per box for the British article,
which needs less varnish and less paint and produces more effective
decoration. But fluctuations in the market make it sometimes
more profitable to buy from Spanish makers, who have the advantage
of a 14 pesetas (gold) protection per 100 kilogs. As regards
communication Swansea has the advantage, being only four or five
days distant from Vigo by sea. Freight for large quantities
amounts to about 10^. per ton. When smaller quantities are
required freight will amount to as much as 17«. per ton, and it is
this which keeps the business as a rule in the hands of the
lithographing firms who are in a position to import large
quantities. Proposals have been made offering to lithograph
plates supplied by customers, but these have met with no

Canners as a rule do not demand any special class of plate
from the lithographers, contenting themselves with defining the
dimensions and weight. English plates are^ generally speaking,
only bought when prices are favourable.

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The following report on the mohair goats of the Konia district
has been drawn up by the Acting British Vice-Consal there
(Capt. Doughty Wylie):—

" By the last returns of the 'agnam' tax for 1906 there were
then in Konia province 566,100 mohair goats alive, not counting
that year's kids. Of these the severe winter and spring of 1906
and 1907 have killed about 30 per cent. Of this loss it is
estimated that 15 per cent, were males, 40 per cent, females, and
the rest yearlings. They died from wet, weakness induced by
starvation, and from abortion. However, about the same quantity
of mohair is on the market this year as last year, most of the dead
goats having been clipped, after death. The general quantity of
mohair from the Konia market is about 200,000 okes (oke =»
2.83 lb.), of which 145,000 okes have gone already to Con-

•* The quality this year is below the average. The hair of dead
goats cut off in the winter is neither so long nor so strong as that
of live goats clipped in the spring.

" The present year is said to be bad for the following reasons : —

'* 1. The hair of the dead goats has in many cases been mixed
with that of the live ones, which brings down the general average
of quality. Also where goats were housed in the bad weather
their hair was stained by overcrowding.

*' 2. The winter wet and starvation killed the weaker goats,
which are the females and young, and these give the best hair.
For this year and next there is left a surplus of older coarser-
haired goats, which will again bring down the average of quality.

" 3. The wet breeding season caused much miscarrying, and the
loss of the kids will give a loss of 30 per cent, in next year's clip.

" 4. The market is congested. The buyers told me in the end
of August that there were 24,000 bales accumulated in Constanti-
nople, since when 1,500 only have been sold. They say that the
English market is holding back for a better price, and perhaps is
distrusting this year's quality; that the American buyers are
taking the place of the English, but that they (the buyers here)
expect the price to fall before the stocks on hand are disposed of.

** The general tendency of the trade is to increase. The price is
one to two piastres (piastre = 2id, about) higher than last year.
Prices here are calculated at pts. 108 to the Turkish pound, as
against pts. 100 in Constantinople. The difference pays the carriage,
so that no allowance need be made on Konia prices for cost of
carriage to Constantinople. At the end of August prices were in
Konia : —
Finest, 17 to 17i pts. the oke ... 1 Add 3 pts. for
Second quality, 15 to 16 pts. the oke... > Angora and 2 pts.
Third (mixture), 14 pts. the oke ... ) for Akshehr.
Brown or yellow (Tshellengi) —

Finest quality, 14^ to 15 pts. the oke— deduction made
according to percentage of bad hair mixed.

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Mohair Industry of Konia.

" The white mohair is best in the Eastamuni and Angora
districts. In the Konia district it is found along the hills from
Konia to Akshehr, and in the next vilayet at Karahissar and
neighbourhood. Towards Nigdeh there are some tiftik goats, but
I think they are mostly brown. Towards Seidishehr and Beyshehr,
the majority of goats are black, and very little white tiftik comes
from there. Within eight hours from Konia the best villages
are Mabass, Baghri Kurd, Meidan, Biledjik, Bashara Kavak,
Kourshoumli, Tal Kenyi, Aahriz, Silleh, Killik Euren, Shandir,
and Sismeh.

'* In Angora and Kastamuni the hair is longer and thicker, but
not so fine as nearer Konia. An Angora goat in December, when
his hair is at its heaviest, can give five pounds of hair, but in
Konia only three. The weight of a bale of Angora mohair will be
70 to 75 okes, one of Konia mohair only 60. The length of
Angora hair might be put at 6 ins., as against three for Konia.
As is natural with the shorter hair, Konia mohair is thinner and
finer. The price rises, however, with length and weight, and is
progressively higher from here to Karahissar along the Anatolian

*' The reason of the difference in quality appears to be that while
at Konia the hills are bare of trees and bushes, further on they are
covered with ' meshellik,' an oak shrub. The goats feed freely on
this (they will eat nearly anything) and thus it secures them both
pasture and, what is equally important, shade in the summer.
After the clip in particular, hair grows longer and quicker in cool
shady places than on bare hot hills.

" I hear that at Karahissar some trouble is taken to feed the
goats in the winter, and to prevent inbreeding. Here there is
practically nothing done. Occasionally in wet weather, the goats
are housed, but in such a case they are enormously over-crowded,
which stains and spoils their hair, and they are not fed. From
time to time they are driven out to pick up what they can, which
if there is much snow, is very little. Black and brown goats stand
the winter better than the white ones, which are more delicate even
than sheep. Wet is their greatest enemy, especially after shear-
ing, and in the breeding season, when it causes ab<)rtion. Here
breeding is left very much to chance. There is a curious power in
the white stock when crossed with the brown. Thirty years ago
there were no white goats in Konia, but now there are many. The
first cross with a white male produces a white kid with slight
brown markings. The second cross is pure white. The females
drop their young (usually one) in March.

'* The clip takes place at the end of April, about ten days earlier
than with the sheep. Males are clipped first, to give the females
more time after kidding. The kids are not clipped, as are the
sheep, in the autumn of their first year. A black goat gives about

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22 THE BOAU) OF TRADE JOUBNAL. [Oct. 8, 1907.

Mohair Industry of Konia.

1 lb. hair (not exported), a brown IJ lb., a white 3 lb. in Konia,
5 lb. in Angora. A yoong goat gives no hair his first year, but
after that for 12 or 13 years gives a good clip. From then onwards,
though he may live for 20 years, his hair deteriorates every year.
Females and young give the best hair. Mohair is never washed
before export, whereas wool always is.

" The Cape goats do not give such fine hair as those of Anatolia.
There is no winter there comparatively, and the hair does not grow
so well. There is a great want of Angora blood, and if the export
were not forbidden a male goat would fetch 1002. or more. In
California there are now between 300 and 400 goats, but no
^oroughbreds. There also there is a great want of Angora blood,
a male goat having fetched 1,000 dollars.

" Mohair pays 480 pts. a ton to Haidar Pasha, and 10 pts. for
quay dues. There is no rebate given on a quantity. Buyers com-
plain that they pay here at the same rate as at Kutahia and Kara-
hissar, no reduction being made proportional to the distance."



The " Canada Gazette " of 26th August last contains a copy of the

Reenlations regulations governing the inspection of meat

■^^^^ in the Dominion of Canada which have been

u J -«-j^^ f made with effect from 3rd September last, Under

MeSg wldclimed ^^^ " Inspection of Meat and Canned Foods Act

-^ , A ♦ tQM » of 1907," notices of which have appeared in the

JTOoos Act, i»a7. ,, 3^^j.j ^f rp^^ Journal " for 7th March last

and subsequent dates.

The regulations are not applicable to any establishment within
the meamng of the Act in which the sole products prepared for
food for export or stored for export are fish, fruit or vegetables.
They provide, however, that every animal slaughtered and all
carcases, or products therefrom, prepared for food purposes, shall be
inspected and handled as required.

These regulations, which are given in considerable detail, may
be seen by persons interested at the Commercial Intelligence Branch
of the Board of Trade, 73, Basinghall Street, London, B.C.

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Oct 3, 1907.]



Tcaif Clumgei and Customi Regulations.


The Board of Trade have received a copy of a Notice (No. 1 ,132)

PI . issued on 19th June last, laying down the

-^^j^ regulations to be observed respecting the intro-

A68:iuaciO]iB« duction of trees, fruits and plants into the State

of South Australia. The introduction of any grape-vine, or portion

thereof, from any country is absolutely prohibited, and all other

living trees and plants, and any portions thereof, may only be

impcNTted, under certain conditions, through the Port of Adelaide^

except in the case of tubers of potatoes and bulbs of onions which

may be imported overland from any Australian State. Other

living trees, plants or portions thereof (not being fruit) may be

intrcduced by parcels post at Adelaide.

These regulations may be seen at the Commercial Intelligence
Branch of the Board of Trade, 73, Basinghall Street, E.G.

The Egyptian •*


Valuation Tariff

for Black



Journal Officiel" for the 18th ultimo contains a
revised Valuation Tariff for use in assessing
import duty on black pepper, which came into
force on the 20th ultimo, and is to remain in
operation until the 19th March next, or until
denunciation : —


Valuation per kilog.*



Black pepper of any origin (net weight with a tare of
2 per cent, for single hags and 4 per cent, for
doahle hags)



MiUi^mee. f


* Dnt J is levied on this valuation at the rate of 8 per cent,
t 1,000 miUiemes = £B1 as U. 0#. 64.

Treatment of


A recent French Customs Circular states that in virtue of a
Decision of the Comiti coTtsultatif des Arts et
Mcmufadwres, customs duty is to be levied on
heliotropine imported into France at the rate of
1 franc 60 centimes per kilogramme, corre-
sponding to the consumption duty on the 2 litres of alcohol (80 cts.
per litre) employed in the preparation of 1 kilogramme of helio-
tat)pine. Crude heliotropine in a crystalline mass of a yellowish
colour, which has not been purified by means of alcohol, will
continue to be classified under the head of " Chemical products not
specially mentioned, other than those with an alcoholic basis."

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Tarijf Changes and Customs RefftdoHans.

In virtue of a further Decision of the Comiti consuUatif, mild steel

-j^, in bars, cold-pressed, presenting a smooth and

Tr tmA t f polished ajppearance similar to that obtained by

n ij^ -Or , cold-drawing, is to be dutiable as mild steel in

toitt-wessaa ^^^ cold-drawn, under No. 212 of the Customs

Steel Bars. rp^^j^

A French Presidential Decree of the 29th June last provides that a

-. ^^. , ^ i»«.^« bureau is to be opened at Morteau

^tM^JtiufSttJ (^^"^') ^^"""^ ^^^ Ist January, 1908, for
I rtati f Gold ^^^ assay and marking of gold and silver
impormion o W)itt ^^^^g ^j^^ f^j. ^y^^ importation and re-
ana Silver wares. _j. i.* i* i.

importation of such wares.


With reference to the notice which appeared at pp. 368-9 of the
CtkvHfi tfm f " Board of Trade Journal " for the 22nd Augnait
TM i f^ # ^^ ^^^ subject of the disinfection of hides
iiwin^on ror ^^^^^^^ i^^o the United States, it should be
B '^ ^ Ansfid ^^^^ ^^*^ ^ Circular has now been issued by
^Sl ^^^'"^ the Treasury Department at Washington stating
?^. ^ /L^^'" that upon the recommendation of the Secretary
tarn conditiong. ^^ Agriculture, hides taken from cattle at
abattoirs in Great Britain, Norway, and Sweden, at which Govern-
ment inspection is maintained, will be admitted without the
production of certificates of disinfection therefor, provided the
same are accompanied by a certificate issued by the official Govern-
ment inspector stationed at the abattoir at which such hides are
taken, showiiig that the animals from which they were taken were
healthy at the time of slaughter, and that such hides are free from
infection or disease, and also by an affidavit from the owner or
shipper showing that such certificates refer to the identical hides

The hides of cattle exported from the United States to Great
Britain and slaughtered separately in this country will also be
admitted without requiring the production of certificates of die-
infection therefor.

A recent Circular of the Treasury Department states that small
ft n T Tta importations of free goods, and of all other
ti*^ ftiT^'ttfid S^^^ when the duty does not exceed 5 dollars
Jnth" tF^rn^ °^^y ^ admitted without a formal entry.

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Tariff Changes and Customs Regtdations.


The following is the substance of some Decisions affecting the

-^^^ application of the United States Customs Tariff,

«^. which have recently been issued by the Treasury

•"'•""^"^ Department at Washington : —


of the Tariff
under which


Bate of Duty.

Scrap or refuse ijtdiarubber, worn out bj use,
Msorted and ground for convenience in trans-

Online LibraryGreat Britain. Board of TradeBoard of Trade journal, Volume 59 → online text (page 8 of 112)