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Bequests to take part in this competition must reach the Minister

of Posts and Telegraphs not later than the 10th December. The

'Cars themselves are to be presented in June, 1908 : they will be

required to do at least 2,000 kilometres on any sort of carriageable

road.



TURKEY.

H.M. Consul-General at Constantinople (Mr. H. C. A, Eyres) has

^- . • received an application fix)m a firm in that city

' 1?"^ i ^ ^^^ ^""^ willing to represent British manufiu^

nqmry. turers, chiefly in the following lines : — Worsted

yams, sewings, sail-cloths, tarpaulins, groceries, safes, bedsteads,

cast-iron pipes, gas pipes, paint brashes, paints, army doth, te.
Commimications from British firms relative to the above should

be sent to H.M. Consul-General, Constantinople.

UNITED STATES OF AMERICA.

The British Commercial Agent in the United States (Mr. E.

Seymour Bell) reports that there is a consider-
Fuller's Earth, able demand in the so-called rice belt in the

Southern States for talc powder, which is used
in the process of polishing rice. " Rice Industry " (Houston) calls
iittention to the fact that recently there has been a great scarcity
of talc powder in the district, and states that it is proposed to



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Dec. 6, 1W7.] THE BOAHD OF THADE JOUHNAL. 449



Openings for British Trade.



employ Fuller's earth as a substitufe. A certain amount of
Fuller's earth, says Mr. Bell, is found in Texas, but there ought to
be an opening for the impoii;ed article provided it can be delivered
in Galveston or New Orleans at a sufficiently low price.

MEXICO.

The *' Diario Oficial" of 16th November notifies applications made

Plant for Mannfoctare of ^ ^^^ Mexican Government by Sr.

Leather and Production ^^^^ Alonso to establish new industries,

r^f T«««{«« ^^A iw^««^ viz.: — (1) The manufiswture of leather;

^Ste^a (2) the production of tanning and

dyeing materials from different plants.

ARGENTINE REPUBLIC.

H.M. Minister at Buenos Ayres has forwarded a copy of a Law,
Mnnie'nal Lo published in the "Boletin Oficial" of 16th
fAi. T>nM4 w w? October, authorising the Municipality of that
fl^—il i^^™ city to contract a loan of 15,000,000 dollars
at imenoB Ayres. ^^j^ (3,000,000Z.), part of which is to be applied
iyiter alia as follows : — Reconstruction and municipalisation of the
markets ; canalisation of the streams Medrano and Maldonado ;
acquisition of lands for and the installation of crematory ovens or
other system of destroying rubbish ; reforming the Liniers
abattoirs, &c.

It is understood that the loan is not likely to be issued at
present, the state of the money market being considered
unfavourable.

H.M. Consul at Buenos Ayres (Mr. A. C. Ross, C.B.) reports that
-. the Welsh Colonists at Chubut have revived the

CbmL^cLUi scheme mooted a couple of years ago of con-

^ structing a steam tramway from Gaiman to
Sanja, a distance of 70 kilometres (45 miles). The construction of
such a line will, he says, provide transport for produce raised in the
Chubut valley which, at present, has to be taken to the railhead in
carte. Further, a considerable saving will be effected in the cost of
transporting goods imported which are at present landed at Port
Madrjm and carried by rail vid Trelew to the railhead. When
the new line is made, goods will be landed at Rawson and the rail
journey f»x)m Madryn saved. The ocean freight to Madryn is the
same as that to Rawson.

A considerable amount of capital has already been promised by
private individuals and by the Co-operative Mercantile Association,
and the Association has been entrusted with the preparation of
plans, the purchase of material, &c.

ECUADOR.

Tew'ia"^ See notice on p. 480.



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450



THE BOARD OF TRADE JOURNAL.



[Dec. 5, 1907.



CENSUS OF PRODUCTION.

The third meeting of the Advisory Committee for the Coal
, lEining Industry was held, on the 28th November, at the offices of
the Board of Trade. Those present were : — Mr. A. Wilson P6x,
C.B. (presiding) ; Mr. T. Ratcliffe Ellis ; Mr. R. Baird ; Mr. R.
Gnthrie ; Mr. GhBis(»yne Dalziel ; Mr. A. H. Heath ; Mr. 6. J.
Binns ; Mr. W. S. Barrett ; Mr. W. N. Atkinson, Superintending
Inspector of Mines ; Prof. S. J. Chapman ; Mr. M. Delevingne of
the Home Office ; Mr. G. J. Stanley, C.M.G. ; Mr. H. W. Macrosty,
and Mr. G. C. L. Maunder (acting Secretary).



COAL PRODUCTION AND CONSUMPTION IN
PRINCIPAL COUNTRIES OF THE WORLD.



THE



The following particulars relating to the production and con-
sumption of coal in the principal countries in the world are
extracted from a Return fOoal Tables, 1906 — Statistical Tables
relating to the production, consumption, Ac., of coal, &c., &c. —
349/1907] recently issued by the Board of Trade :—

Production. — ^The production of coal in the five principal coal-
producing countries of the world in 1904, 1905, and 1906 was
as follows : —



Countries. , i904.


1905.


19(X;.


United Kingdom

Germany

France

Belgium

United States of America


Tons,*

232,428,000

118,874,000

32,964,000

22,395,000

314,122,000


Ton8.»

236,129,000

119,850,000

84,652,000

21,506,000

350,821,000


Tons.*

251,068,000

134,914,000+

3a,762,D0Of

23,2S2.000t

369,672,OC0t



Tons of 2,240 lb.



t ProTisional figures.



The production of coal in 1906 in the United Kingdom, Germany
and the United States, was greater than in any previous year.

In Frftnce, owing doubtless to the labour dispute in the nortJiem
coalfields in the early part of the year, the output for 1906 shows
a decline of nearly one million tons. It should be noted, however,
that whilst the French output for the first half of 1906 was only a
little over 15 million tons, the output of the second half of the
year amounted to 18^ million tons. In Belgium the decline in
the production, which had been in progress from 1902 to 1905,
appears tc have been checked, and the output in 1906, viz.,
23^ million tons, has only been exceeded by that of 1902 and
ld03. Of the remaining countries included in the tables, Russia
alone has a production exceeding 20 million tons.

It will be seen that the production of the United States now
exceeds that of the United Kingdom by nearly 50 per cent., but



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Dec. 5 1907:]



THE BOARD OfF TBAD^ JOITBNAL.



45^1



Ooal Pfoduetion amd Conswrn-piUm in tfue PrhicijyJil Countries
of the World.



the pvbduction of Grermany represents only about a half, iand that*
of France and Belgium together rather more than a quarter of the
production of this country.

The total known coal production of the world (exclusive of
brown coal or lignite) in 1906 was about 905 naillion tons, of
which the United Kingdom produced less than a third.

As compared with its population, the production of coal in the ,
United Kingdom still surpasses that in the United States. It.
amounts to 5f tons per head ; whilst in the United States it is
rather more than 4^ tons per head. In Belgium it amounts to
3^ t<ms per head, in Germany to about 2J tons, and in France to
under 1 ton.

The following statement shows the production of coal in the
principal British Colonies and Possessions in the yeara 19Q4, 1905,
and 1906. The amounts are in every case stated in: tons of
2,240 lb. :—

Production of Coal in Principal British Colonies and Potsesaions. .



Country.


1904.


1905.


1906.




Tons.


Tons.


Toas. \


British India


»,2 16,000


8,418,000


• 9,783,000*


Australian Conomon wealth ...


6.864,000


7,494,000


8^596,000*


New Zealand


1.588/100


1,586,000


1,730 000»


Canada


7,870,000


7,739,000


8,717,000*


TrailSTaal


2^51,000


2,327,000.


2^^3,000


Cape of Good Hope


154,000


147,000


128,000*


NAtal


858.000


1,129,000


1,289,000*



* Provisional figures. ;

No single British Colony or Possession yet produces as much as
10,000,000 tons per annum, although the Indian output now
approaches that figure.

In Australia the output per head of population daring 1906
amounted to just over two tons, in New Zealand and the Transvaal
to rather less than two tons, in Canada to . nearly one and a-hatr
tons, and in Natal to about one ton.

The statistics of lignite production show that *he principal
countries of production are Oermany, Austria, and Hungary, which
in 1905 produced 55,668,000 tons, 22,327,000 tons, and 5,991,000
tons respectively, whilst the provisional figures available for the
production of Germany in 1906 indicate a production of 55,508,000
tons. In Austria the output of lignite for 1906 was 23,779,000
tons, an increase compared with 1905 of nearly 1,500,000 tons.
The quantity of lignite produced in the United States is included
in the figures for the production of coal already given. The latest



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45a



THE BOARD OF TRADE JOURNAL.



[Dec 5, 1907.



Coal Prodticiion and Consumption in the Prineipal Countries
of the World.

available figures giving the production of lignite separately relate
to 1905, when it amounted to 6,149,000 tons, as against a produc-
tion in 1904 of 5,684,000 tons. In no other country does the
quantity produced reach 1,000,000 tons. In the United Kingdom
it has for some years been nil.

ConflumptioiL — The consumption- of coal in some of the chief
consuming countries is shown in the following statement, in
which the countries are given in the order of importance as coal
consumers : —





1904.


1905.


1906.


United SUtes

United Kingdom

Germany

France

Russia

Belgium ... ... ... ...

Austria-Hungary


Tons.

807,610,000

166,609,000

104,094,000

45,483,000

22,761,000

19,726,000

18,421,000


Tons.

843,281,000

169,017,000

106,716,000

45,915,000

22,680,000

19,661,000

19,814,000


Tons.

361,492,000

174,329,000

119,282,000

60,298,000

25,786,000*

22,509,000

21,181,000



* Provisional figures.
It will be seen from these figures that the total consumption of
coal in the United States is now tv^dce as great as that in any other
country; exceeding, in fact, the combined consumption of the
United Kingdom, Germany and France. The consumption of
coal per head of population in the United States now exceeds that
in the United Kingdom as appears from the following statement,
which applies to 1906 : —



United
Kingdom.


United
States.


Belgium-


Germany.


v^^^^ Austria-
^"^^*^- Hungary.


Russia.


Tons.
3-99


Tons.
4-30*


Tons.
317*


Tons.
1-94*


1

Tons. 1 Tons.

1-28* I 0-44*


Tons.
017*



♦ Proyisional figures.
It appears from the above that Belgium is the only other foreign
country in which the per capita consumption of coal exceeds 3 tons
per annum. Both in France and Germany the consumption per
head appears small, but in these countries a large quantity of fiiel
of other sorts^ such as turf, wood, lignite, and denatured spirits is
also in use*



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Dec. 6, 1907.]



THE BOABD OF TEADE JOUENAL.



453



CX)TTON PRODUCTION IN THE BRITISH EMPIRE.

The following table, showing the acreage of land nnder cotton,
a^d the quantity produced, in the various British Colonies,
Possessions and Protectorates in each of the years 1905 and
1906, has been prepared in the Board of Trade : —



Coloniw, Poasesiions and
Protectorates.



1905.



Production.



1906.



Production.



British India (a) {see fwte)

Ceylon

Queensland

Piji

Natal

llTyasaland (British Central Africa)

torate

Uganda Protectorate (n)

. British East Africa Protectorate (a) ,
l*A>tectorate of Northern Nigeria
Protectorate of Southern Nigeria
Colonv of Southern Nigeria (Lagos) .

Gold Coast

Sierra Leone

Gambia

Bahamas ... ... ...

Jamaica (a)

St. Lucia

St. Vincent (a)

Barbados

Grenada

LeewMrd Islands

I'riDidad and Tobago {n)

British Ouiana (a)

Malta (rt)

Cyprus («)



"ivoteo^



,;:)

;;;[



Acres.
•21.072,000

10
157

10,262



(*)



2,000



(*)



2,000

(*)
4,610

666

(*)



Lbs.
*1,S70,400,000
{0) 154,890
113,008

(*)

id) 2,877,760 I
(c) 96,096 I
(r) 99,456
(n 123,548
(e) 96,306
(c)*lf278.569
29,124
68,808
2,572
6,676
88,133
1,610
•138,150
344,232
212,722
392,917
14,951
1,121
162.448
782.712



Acres.

22,344,000

296

138

18

212

7,107

•(6)
«•) 400



(*)



183

(f) 5,000

6,050

(*)
10
670

(4)



.Lb<.
1.963,200,000
{c) 267,126
77.381

19,865

(rf)l,279,««l
(c) 391,244
(e) 80,000
(c) 856,107

(r) 2.695,923

92.886

87.805

129

13,ia'»

19.080

800

263,036

483,473

311,296

471,238

11,077

303

166,534

1,606,505



(f)
(r)
(r)
(c)

(«)

(c)

(")
U)
(c)



NoTK.— It is stated in the original returns that the figures giren for India are approximate onlv,
and that the estimates of production for 1905 wer^ very defeCtiye, the figures giren oeing generally
too low. The crop for that year was also unfavourably affected by the vei^ther and the ruragee of
inflect pests. Measures have been tikcn to obtain more reliable results.

{a) For the 12 months ended 3Ut Murch of the years following those stated.

(&) Cannot be stated.

{r) l>omestic ezporte, no figures for production being available.

\ ff) Unginned cotton.

» Approximate only.

* Bc\iaed figures.

AGRICULTURE IN THE TRANS-CAUCASUS.

H.lf. Consul at. Batoum (Mr. P. Stevens) reports that the
excessively dry spring, followed by a rainless spell during the
early summer while the cereal crops were in growth, resulted in
the harvest season im the Trans-Caucasus being much delayed.
Generally speaking, the production and yield is far below the
average in quantity and quality throughout almost all the provinces
included in that district.

The population of the eastern portions of the Trans- Caucasus
embarked on a more extensive cultivation of rice than in previous
years ; but, so far as can be ascertained at present, the crop will
only be an average one. ,

Only a limited quantity of cotton was sown during the year,
farmers being afraid to cultivate it on an extensive scale through
fear of locusts.

In spite of the dry season hay has yielded a medium crop in
the Eastern Caucasus ; it has, however, foiled in the Midland and
Western Provinces.



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454 THE BOAJO) OF TEADB JOURNAL. [Dec. 5, IftOT.



Agriculture in the Trans^Caucofnis



An average quantity of wheat was sown in 1907, but, owing to
the ravages of the locusts, the yield was a poor one.

Maize in the Western Caucasus is likely to give a crop which
will be above the average both in quantity and quality, although
the area under cultivation is not so great as in previous years.

A fair quantity of barley was sown during 1907, but, owing to
the ravages caused by locusts, the crop is reported to be bad.

The tM. crop is good and abundant, and the Imperial Domains
Authorities at Chakva continue to increase its cultivation. The
production this year is estimated to exceed 100,000 lb.

The area under vine cultivation is steadily on the increase, and
the production of wine is augmenting by leaps and bounds. The
vintage for this year is expected to be good and prolific, and, so far
as the production of wine is concerned, 1907 will probably be a
record year.

All varieties of fhiit are good and abundant. Vegetables are also
very plentifal, watermelons and muskmelons being exceptionally
good.

Owing to the successful cultivation of the young mulberry shoots
and leaves sown as food for the silkworm, the silk industry of 1907
has continued to make progress. The crop of cocoons in the
Caucasus was not quite so great as in the previous year, but, on
the other hand, a record crop was obtained in many parts of
Northern Persia and the bulk of the crop from that region was
sent to Batoum for shipment to the South of France.

On account of the defective cereal crop, the population of the
Eastern Caucasus had plenty of spare time during the autumn and
early winter months of 1906-7 to dig for licorice root, and it is
estimated that nearly 14,000 tons was dug, and delivered at the
licorice press factories.

As a result of the continued drought the tobacco crop of 1907
was not so abundant as that of 1906; the quality of the tobacco
grown in Batoum is, however, said to be good.

H.M. Consul at Novorossisk (Mr. A. Geelmuyden) reports that
the yield of sunflower seed is very abundant and the quality better
than ever before. The whole of the output of this commodity is
consumed by the oilmills in the interior.

The output of pilcake, which depends on the sunflower seed crop,
is also great,, and it is estimated that 800,000 tons will be shipped
from Novorossisk.

The abundance of sunflower-seed stalks promises a big output of
carbonate of iK>ta8l, and a considerable increase in the export of
that commodity is anticipated.

The tobacco crop in 1907 suflTered both in quantity and quality,
the output being estimated at only 8,000 tons.



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Deo. 6, 1907.] THE BOABD OF TBADE JOURNAL. 455

LYONS SILK MAKKET.

H.M. Consul at Lyons (Mr. E. R. E. Vicars) has forwarded- ^h©
following report on the present critical condition of the Lyons silk
market and the caases that have contributed to it. He says that,
although the market is in a state of utter stagnation, there have
not so far been any important failures — only one or two of the
minor houses having been submerged : —

Up to September last the trade in both silk and silk stuffs had
been very active for a year past, with the result that prices had
risen considerably, attaining the highest points in May and early
in September respectively. Factories had large orders on hand,
stocks of silk were low, and arrivals were for the most part absorbed
immediately they came on the market. Silk in fact was scarce,
and therefore dear.

After reaching their high- water mark in the first week in Sep-
tember, affairs became quieter as heavy shipments arrived from the
Far East and made their influence felt in the Lyons market —
dealers and consumers alike being chiefly engaged in coping with
existing contracts, and displaying no particular inclination to
embark on fresh ones. These heavy arrivals coincided with a
tightness in the money-market, and these two causes in combina-
tion had the effect of sending prices very slowly down.

The growth of consumption during the first nine months of 1907
may be seen by a glance at the French conditioning house returns
and export statistics for that period for each of the last three
yMurs: —



Janiuury to September.



Conditioning House
Returns.



Exports of Silk
Manufactures.



Lb.
1906 ' 11,632,400

1906 j 11,09.5,920

1907 ! 12,474,000



Lb.

8,477,920

8,43P,420

10,222,080



£

8,5o4,800

8,979,360

10,816,960



In October the fall in silver sent down the exchange in Shanghai
and Canton, thus lowering the cost of Asiatic silk, and sending
prices— already on the down grade — still lower. . This made an
unfavourable impression on buyers, who, in spite of the. reduction
in prioes, displayed no inclination whatever to purchase beyond
their immediate requirements. On the top of this distinctly neiv
vous state of the market came the violent financial crisis in the
United States, which produced a most diamoralising effect and
caused a heavy fall in prices that has continued steadily up to.
the present time. As an example of this decline, Mr, Vicars men-
tions Japan silk (filature Na li), which dropped from 59-60 on
7th September to 58-59 on 7th October, and on 20th November
stood at 48. He adds that this particular qualify has suffered
most of all, owing to its chief market being the United States,
but the decline has been all-round, only differing in degree.



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456 THE BOARD OF TRAUE JOURNAL. [Dec. 5, 1907.

Lyons Silk Market.

Notwithstanding this heavy fall in the price of the raw material,
the market has remained dull, and business has been slack. Such
a state of things as that which has existed in America for the last
few weeks was boand to react on European maricets, and in addi-
tion to the general feeling of unrest, fears have been entertained at
Lyons lest the crisis aci*oss the Atlantic should result in the can-
celling of existing orders for stuflfs, and that, moreover, the lessened
purchases of silk in the United States should have the effect of
throwing on to the European market more silk than it is capable
of assimilating.

The crisis may thus be said, Mr. Vicars remarks, to have had its
birth outside France, and to have sprung in the main from two
outside causes acting simultaneously on the market — the fall in the
exchange in the Far East when prices were ruling high, and the
chaotic state of affairs in the United States, with the almost
hysterical nervousness and timidity which it has engendered on
both sides of the Atlantic. The very considerable increase in the
production of silk which the year has seen has doubtless, he adds,
also played its part in bringing about the present situation, but
only in a minor degree. The only hope of improvement lies in
the re-establishment of confidence in America. Once this has
been brought about, the market has little to fear, for European
consumption of silk-stuffs continues satisfactory.



ELECTRICAL ENTERPRISES IN SPAIN.

The Commercial Attache to H.M. Embassy at Madrid (Mr. S.
P. Cockerell) reports that according to the Government returns,
there were in Spain in 1901 only 861 electric power stations, of
which 651 were restricted to public lighting and 210 to private
lighting. Since then the number of power stations for electric
lighting has increased considerably, and it may be added also that
the use of electricity in its multiple other applications has also in-
creased and become more general (transmission and distribution of
energy, electro-chemical industries, smelting furnaces, &c.), but
there is still a vast field for further industrial developments, as the
supply of power which the country affords is far yet from being
exhausted. Indeed, while some regions of Spain appear to be
almost over-developed, there are others which are completely
abandoned. This is due to the fact that Spanish capitalists are
distrustful as to all new business and therefore very unwilling to



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Dec 6, 1907.1 THE BOAKD OF TBADE JOURNAL. 457

Electrical Enterprises in Spain.

invest their capital in snch nndertakinga Then again they are not
used to the formation of companies in partnership, which circum-
stance entails the consequence that large industrial enterprises are
allowed to pass by. They find generally that it is more convenient
and less troublesome to invest in Government securities which
yield a fair interest without more trouble than cutting their
"coupons.** Foreign capitalists, however, have discovered that
electricity could be applied in Spain to great advantage. Belgian,
German and French financiers have taken this view, and they are
found to be interested in nearly all the larger electrical concerns
in Spain, whilst British capital is very scarce for such undertakings.
Spain is a country whose production is far below its consumption,
and as cheap motive power can be obtained, numerous industries
could be established which would prove to be good investments.

Most Spanish towns of any importance, Mr. Cockerell says, have
a fair service of public and private electric lighting, but business in
this direction is not by a long way yet exhausted, as many of the
existing installations are deficient and could easily be reformed, or
competition could easily be efiected under favourable conditions,
thanks to the improvements which the construction of electrical
machinery and material have undergone during late years. And,
furthermore, there are a considerable number of towns, some of
them of importance, which are not yet supplied with electric
lighting.

Leaving on one side the question of competition, there is, as
stated above, still much to be done by way of electric lighting for
smaller towns and villages, and, in Mr. Cockerell's opinion, an
investment in such undertakings would yield fair profits without
going to great expense. There are in Spain in its various provinces
over 400 towns and villages of over 4,000 inhabitants where there
are no electric power stations. British capitalists should, says
Mr. Cockerell, study carefully the advisability of installing electric
light plants in the larger towns and even in the smaller ones, and



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