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^,'i';'v/i:;,'i'i »/.')'


. \'i
















Notes on Transliteration


a has the sound off? in 'woman.'

a has the sound of a in ' ftither.'

c has the vowel-sound in ' grey.'

i has the sound of/ in 'pin.'

1 has the sound of / in ' police.'

o has the sound of o in ' bone.'

u has the sound of u in ' bull.'

u has the sound of ?/ in ' flute.'
ai has the vowel-sound in ' mine.'
au has the vowel-sound in ' house.'

It should be stated that no attempt has been made to distinguish
between the long and short sounds of c and o in the Dravidian
languages, which possess the vowel-sounds in ' bet ' and ' hot ' in
addition to those given above. Nor has it been thought necessary
to mark vowels as long in cases where mistakes in pronunciation
were not likely to be made.


Most Indian languages have different forms for a number of con-
sonants, such as d, /, r, &c., marked in scientific works by the use
of dots or italics. As the European ear distinguishes these with
difficulty in ordinary pronunciation, it has been considered undesir-
able to embarrass the reader with them ; and only two notes are
required. In the first place, the Arabic k, a strong guttural, has
been represented by k instead of g, which is often used. Secondly,
it should be remarked that aspirated consonants are common ; and,
in particular, dk and th (except in pjurma) never have the sound of
//i in 'this' or 'thin," but should I)c pronounced as in ' wuudhousc '
and ' boathook.'



Burmese Words

Burmese and some of the languages on the frontier of China have
the following special sounds : —

aw has the vowel-sound in ' law.'
o and ii are pronounced as in German,
gy is pronounced almost like 7 in 'jewel.'
ky is pronounced almost like ch in ' church.'
th is pronounced in some cases as in ' this,' in some cases as in

w after a consonant has the force of uw. Thus, yiva and pive
are disyllables, pronounced as if written _)'«z£/« 2a\6i pinve.

It should also be noted that, whereas in Indian words the accent
or stress is distributed almost equally on each syllable, in Burmese
there is a tendency to throw special stress on the last syllable.

The names of some places — e.g. Calcutta, Bombay, Lucknow,
Cawnpore — have obtained a popular fixity of spelling, while special
forms have been officially prescribed for others. Names of persons
are often spelt and pronounced differently in different parts of India ;
but the variations have been made as few as possible by assimilating
forms almost alike, especially where a particular spelling has been
generally adopted in English books.

Notes on Money, Prices, Weights and Measures

As the currency of India is based upon the rupee, all statements
with regard to money throughout the Gazetteer have necessarily been
expressed in rupees, nor has it been found possible to add generally
a conversion into sterling. Down to about 1873 the gold value of
the rupee (containing 165 grains of pure silver) was approximately
equal to 2i'., or one-tenth of a £ ; and for that period it is easy to
convert rupees into sterling by striking off the final cipher (Rs. r,ooo
= £100). But after 1873, owing to the depreciation of silver as
compared with gold throughout the world, there came a serious and
progressive fall in the exchange, until at one time the gold value of
the rupee dropped as low as \s. In order to provide a remedy for
the heavy loss caused to the Government of India in respect of its
gold payments to be made in England, and also to relieve foreign
trade and finance from the inconvenience due to constant and
unforeseen fluctuations in exchange, it was resolved in 1893 to close
the mints to the free coinage of silver, and thus force up the value of
the rupee l)y restricting the circulation. The intention was to raise


the exchange value of the rupee to \s. 4^., and then introduce a gold
standard (though not necessarily a gold currency) at the rate of Rs. 1 5
= £1. This policy has been completely successful. From 1899 on-
wards the value of the rupee has been maintained, with insignificant
fluctuations, at the proposed rate of \s. 4d. ; and consequently since
that date three rupees have been equivalent to two rupees before 1873.
For the intermediate period, between 1873 and 1899, it is manifestly
impossible to adopt any fixed sterling value for a constantly changing
rupee. But since 1899, if it is desired to convert rupees into sterling,
not only must the final cipher be struck off (as before 1873), but
also one-third must be subtracted from the result. Thus Rs. 1,000
= £100 — ^ = (about) £67.

Another matter in connexion with the expression of money state-
ments in terms of rupees requires to be explained. The method of
numerical notation in India differs from that which prevails through-
out Europe. Large numbers are not punctuated in hundreds of thou-
sands and millions, but in lakhs and crores. A lakh is one hundred
thousand (written out as 1,00,000), and a crore is one hundred lakhs
or ten millions (written out as 1,00,00,000). Consequently, accord-
ing to the exchange value of the rupee, a lakh of rupees (Rs. 1,00,000)
may be read as the equivalent of £10,000 before 1873, and as the
equivalent of (about) £6,667 after 1899; while a crore of rupees
(Rs. 1,00,00,000) may similarly be read as the equivalent of
£1,000,000 before 1873, and as the equivalent of (about) £666,667
after 1899.

Finally, it should be mentioned that the rupee is divided into
16 annas, a fraction commonly used for many purposes by both
natives and Europeans. The anna was formerly reckoned as i^d. ;
it may now be considered as exactly corresponding to xd. The
anna is again subdivided into 12 pies.

The various systems of weights used in India combine uniformity
of scale with immense variations in the weight of units. The scale
used generally throughout Northern India, and less commonly in
Madras and Bombay, may be thus expressed : one maund = 40 seers ;
one seer = 16 chittaks or 80 tolas. The actual weight of a seer
varies greatly from District to District, and even from village to
village; but in the standard system the tola is 180 grains Troy
(the exact weight of the rupee), and the seer thus weighs 2-057 lb.,
and the maund 82-28 lb. This standard is used in official reports
and throughout the Gazetteer.

For calculating retail prices, the universal custom in India is to
express them in terms of seers to the rupee. Thus, when prices
change, what varies is not the amount of money to be paid for the


same quantity, but the quantity to be obtained for the same amount
of money. In other words, prices in India are quantity prices, not
money prices. When the figure of quantity goes up, this of course
means that the price has gone down, which is at first sight perplexing
to an English reader. It may, however, be mentioned that quantity
prices are not altogether unknown in England, especially at small
shops, where pennyworths of many groceries can be bought. Eggs,
likewise, are commonly sold at a varying number for the shilling.
If it be desired to convert quantity prices from Indian into English
denominations without having recourse to money prices (which would
often be misleading), the following scale may be adopted - based
upon the assumptions that a seer is exactly 2 lb., and that the value
of the rupee remains constant at \s. ^d. : i seer per rupee = (about)
3 lb. for 2S. ; 2 seers per rupee = (about) 6 lb. for 2s. ; and so on.

The name of the unit for square measurement in India generally
is the blgha, which varies greatly in different parts of the country.
But areas have always been expressed throughout the Gazettee/^ e\t\\QX
in square miles or in acres.


Hyderabad Statf, ...... /o face p. 2,o-\



Gyaraspur (or Garispur). — Village in the Gwalior State, Central
India, situated in 23° 40' N. and 78' 7° E., 24 miles north-east of
Bhilsa. Population (1901), 754. Although little is known of the
history of the place, the remains of ancient buildings show that its
importance, as commanding the pass through which runs the old route
from Mahva to Bundelkhand, was recognized at an early date. In the
sixteenth century it fell to the Gonds of Garha Mandla, but was taken
from them by the Mughals. The actual destruction of the temples is
attributed, as usual, to Aurangzeb, but may have commenced earlier.
At the end of the eighteenth century it fell to the Chandel Thakurs
of Bhilsa, and under Thakur Kesri Singh regained some of its lost
importance. The remains are considerable and cover a large area.
The most important are those now known as the Ath-khamba, or ' eight
pillars,' which stand to the south of the present village, and are all that
remains of a once magnificent temple. The pillars and also the ceiling
slabs, which are still in situ, are richly carved, and a pilgrim's record of
A.I). 982 has been cut on one of the pillars. Two other very similar
collections of pillars are standing in the village, also covered with
elaborate carving, one belonging to a Saivite and the other to a Vaish-
navite temple. The finest ruin, however, is that of a large temple
known as the Mala Devi. It is magnificently placed on a great artificial
platform, on the very edge of the hill-side, with its back against the
rock, and from its style must belong to the ninth or tenth century.
Though originally a Vaishnavite shrine, it now contains Jain images,
all belonging to tiie 1 )igambara sect. The i'>ajranath temple, with three
shrines placed abreast, has also been approi)riated by Jains, though
originally Brahmanical. North of the village lie two tanks, the larger
known as the Mansarowar, having a fine old stone dam, which is said
to have been built by Man Singh, a Gond chief. A school and a State
post office are situated in the village.

[A. Cunningham, Archacoloi:;ical Si/n

Online LibraryGreat Britain. India OfficeImperial gazetteer of India .. (Volume 13) → online text (page 1 of 47)