Great Britain. India Office.

Imperial gazetteer of India .. (Volume 4) online

. (page 1 of 63)
Online LibraryGreat Britain. India OfficeImperial gazetteer of India .. (Volume 4) → online text (page 1 of 63)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook


«









m







#




THE

IMPERIAL GAZETTEER

OF INDIA



THE INDIAN EMPIRE

VOL. IV
ADMINISTRATIVE



NEW EDITION

PUBLISHED UNDKR THE AUTHORITY OF HIS MAJESTY'S
SECRETARY OF STATE FOR INDIA IN COUNCIL



OXFORD

AT THE CLARENDON PRESS
1909



HENRY FROWDE. M.A.

PUBLISHER TO THE UXIVERSITV OF OXFORD

LONDON, EDINBURGH, NEW YORK

TORONTO AND MELBOURNE



3)5



PREFACE

In this volutiic, being llic Administrative volume of
'The Indian Empire,' chapters i, ii, vi, viii, ix, and xvi are
based on materials supplied by Mr. R. Nathan, CLE. ;
chapters iii and iv were written by Sir William Lec-
Warner, K. C.S.I. ; chapter v was written by Mr. H. W. C.
Carnduff, CLE. ; chapter vii by Mr. E. D. Maclagan ;
chapter x is based on materials supplied by Mr. G. H. D.
Walker, CLE.; chapter xi on materials supplied by Lieut. -
General Sir Edwin Collen, G.C.I.E. ; chapters xii, xiii,
and xiv were written by Mr. Nathan ; chapter xv was
written by Major W. J. Bythell, R.E., and the appendix
on Marine Surveys by Captain T. \\. Heming, R.N.
(retired), with assistance from Colonel A. W. Alcock,
CLE.






INTRODUCTORY NOTES

Notes on Transliteration

Voivei-Souiids

a has the sound of a in ' woman.'

a has the sound of (? in 'father.'

e has the vowel-sound in ' gic).'

i lias the sound of /' in ' jjin.'

1 has the sound of i in ' police.'

o has the sound of o in ' bone.'

u has the sound of 71 in ' bull.'

u has the sound of 11 in * flute.'

ai has the vowel-sound ni ' mme.'

au has the vowel-sound in ' house.'

It should be stated that no attempt has been made to distinguish
between the long and short sounds of e and o in the Dravidian
languages, which possess the vowel-sounds in ' bet ' and ' hot ' in
addition to those given above. Nor has it been thought necessary
to mark \owcls as long in cases where mistakes in pronunciation
were not likely to be made.

CoNsouaiifs

M(jsl Indian languages have different forms for a number of con-
sonants, such as (/, /. ;-, &c., marked in scientific works by the use
of dots or italics. As the I'Au-opean ear distinguishes these with
difficulty in ordinary pronunciation, it has been considered undesir-
able to embarrass the reader with them ; and only two notes are
required. In the first place, the Arabic k, a strong guttural, has
been represented by k instead of g, which is often used. Secondly,
it should be remarked that aspirated consonants are common ; and,
in particular, dh and th (except in Burma) never have the sound of
th in ' this ' or ' thin,' but should be pronounced as in ' woodhouse '
and ' boathook.'



vi IXTKODUCTORY NOTES

Burmese Words

Burmese and some of the languages on the frontier of China have
the following special sounds : —

aw has the vowel-sound in * law.'
6 and ii are pronounced as in German,
gy is pronounced almost like j in ' jewel.'
ky is pronounced almost like ch in ' church.'
th is pronounced in some cases as in ' this,' in some cases as in

' thin.'
w after a consonant has the force of iiw. Thus, viva and pive
are disyllables, pronounced as if written iv/'^'r? and///7£'ritish dominion

imperilled ........ 9

Lord Cornwallis. Maratha and Mysore complications . 10
Lord Wellesley. Extension of the power and territories of

the Company . . . . . . . . 10



TABLE OF CONTENTS



Lord Hastings. The last Maratha War . . . .

The north-western and eastern frontiers. The Burmese
and Sikh Wars. Acquisition of Sind, the Punjab,
and Baluchistan .....



PAHE
12



Acquisilion of Lower liurma, Nagpur, Oudh,
Burma ......

The administrative system of British India,
remaining part of the chapter .

The executive Government. The Regulating

Pitt's Act of 1784

The Charter Act of 1 833 ....

Transfer of government to the Crown, 1858.

Relations of the Govcrnmenl of India with the
Governments .....

The Council of the Governor-General

Conduct of business ....

Redistribution of 1905 ....

The Foreign Department

The Home Department ....

The Department of Revenue and Agriculture

The Finance Department

The Commerce and Industry Department

The Legislative Department

The Public Works Department

Army and Military Supply Departments .

The Provinces

Status of I>ocal Governments

Madras and Bombay

Lieutenant-Governorships

Chief Commissionerships

Regulation and non-regulation

The Home Government .

The Board of Control

Transfer of the government to

The Secretary of State

The Council of India

The establishment of the India

Control of Parliament

The Indian Civil Service .

The employment of natives in the Civil Service

The Provincial and Subordinate services

Specialized departments .

Bibliography .....



\ct of



Prov



Provinces



the Crown



Office



ind



Ian



Uppe
of thi



177



incial



13
14
15
IS
16

16
18
20
21
21

23
24

25
26

27
27
28

29
30
30
31
32
33
34
34
35
36

39
39
40
42
43
44

45



TABLE OF CONTENTS



CHAPTER II

ADMINISTRATIVE DIVISIONS

The major Provinces

Regulation and non-regulation Provinces .

The head-quarters offices in regulation Provinces

Territorial subdivisions — Districts .

Commissioners of Divisions ....

The Collector-Magistrate ....

Duties of the Collector as such

Duties of the Collector as District Magistrate .

Other duties of the Collector ....

Other District officials .....

Subdivisions, tahslls, and \illagcs

Judicial administration .....

The non-regulation Provinces ....

The minor Provinces .....



PACE

46
46

47
48

49
49

49
50
50
52
52
54
54
5^



CHAPTER III



THE NATIVE STATES



Introductory 58

Outer limits of the Indian Empire ..... 58
The States under British suzerainty are in ' India,' but not

in 'British India' ....... 59

Attributes of sovereignty divisible ..... 60

Striking differences as regards situation and distribution of

Native States 61

Division of States into ancient and modern ... 63

Kalat 63

Kashmir 64

Nepal, Sikkim, and Bhutan ...... 64

Manipur and Cooch liehar ...... 64

Rampur 64

Punjab States 64

Rajputana ......... 65

Central India 65

Bombay States and Baroda 66

Hyderabad and Mysore .66

Madras Slates . . . . . . . . . 67

Central Provinces and Burma States . . . . 67



xii TABLE OF COXTEXTS

PAGE

British poliry a departure from previous practice . . 67

The Muj^hals aimed at dominion, not suzerainty . . 6-ers of the East India Company and its Covernor-

General in regard to foreign relations
Occasional overlapping of the spheres of Indian and

Imperial diplomacy in the days of the Company .
Modifications consequent on the direct government of

India by the Crown ...,,,



104



J 06



TABLE OF CONTENTS



Spheres of the Company's authority outside India



Present responsibilities of the Indiai

India ....
The settlements of Aden and Perim
The tribal territory adjoining Aden
Sokotra .....
The Arab coast from Bab el Mandeb to Maskat
The 'Trucial' Chiefs
Odeid and Koweit .
Turkish Arabia
Islands in the Persian Gulf
Bahrein .....
Relations with Persia
Persia, Afghanistan, and India .
Relations with Afghanistan
Frontier delimitation
Kashgar .....
Relations with Tibet
With China ....
^^'ith Siam ....
Pecuniary liabilities of the Indian

India as determined in 1900
Foreign possessions in India .
Foreign consular agents in India
Bibliography ....



Government outside



Government outside



PAGE

106



10*7
107
108
108
109
no
no
III
III
III
112

113
1x6
117
118
118
120
121

122
123

124

I2C



CHAPTER V

LEGISLATION AND JUSTICE

I.aw

Indigenous law — Hindu, Muhanuuadan, and customary . 126
Extent to which Hindu and Muhammadan law have been

superseded by British su]">remacy . . . . 127

Statutory character of FJritish Indian law generally . . 128
Legislation in Parliament . . . . . . .128

Legislation in India . . . . . . .129

Legislation by the executive of each Presidency till 1834 . 129
Creation of one regular legislature by Charter Act of 1833 129
Enlarged by Act of 1853 . . . . . .129

Legislature remodelled, and sul)ordinate legislatures created,

by Act of 1 86 1 . . . . , , .130



XIV



TABLE OF CONTENTS



Legislatures enlarged, and election and interpellation per-
mitted, by Act of 1892

Powers of executive to legislate or supersede ordinary law
in special cases ....

Modern Regulations ....

Legislative Council of the Governor-General

Additional Members. Representation of non-officials and
natives .......

Powers and limitations of the Legislative Council

Rules of business, practice, and procedure

Stages of legislation .

Local Legislative Councils

Derivative legislation

British Indian Statute-Book

Acts of Parliament .

Regulations of Bengal, Madras, and Bombay

(jeneral Acts of Governor-General's Council

Local Acts of Ciovernor-General's Council

Regulations and Temporary Ordinar

Acts of Local Councils .

Statutory rules

Orders in Council .

Codification and revision

Military law ....

Legislation in Native States

Position of European foreigners



Native courts prior to British occupation .
Company's early courts ....
Add/at and Sadr (Courts ....
Supreme Courts .....
Su[)erior courts under present system
(Chartered High Courts ....
Chief Courts and Judicial Commissioners
Inferior criminal courts under present system
courts ......

Courts of magistrates in the Mofussil .

Presidency magistrates
Preventive jurisdiction ....
Juries and assessors ....

Appeal and revision ....

Inferior civil courts under present system .



Sessions



TABLE OF CO.YTE.XT^


>




XV


PAGE


District Judges 150


Subordinate Judges . . . *








150


Munsifs .....








150


Mofussil Small Cause Courts .








150


Presidency Small Cause Courts








• 151


Madras City Civil Court .








151


Village Munsifs








151


Insolvency courts








' i5t


Appeals








151


Native agency predominant








151


I'rivy Council ....








152


Language of courts ....








152


Revenue courts








153


Union of executive and judicial functions








153


European British subjects and the courts .








154


Coroners ......








155


Legal practitioners ...








^SS


Law Reports








156



Law Officers

Law Member and Legislative Department of Government
of India .........

Advocates-General, Standing Counsel, and Government
Solicitors .........

Legal Remembrancers and other officers of Local Govern-
ments .........

Sheriffs



157

157

157
iqS



Sta/istics



Civil suits

Criminal prosecutions

Punishments inflicted



158
158

158



Bibliography , . . . . , . , .159



CHAPTER VI

FINANCE

Preliminary remarks. The growth of revenue and expendi-
ture .........

Causes of the growth of revenue .....

Explanation of the large total revenue ....

VOL. IV. b



160
161
162



\V1



TABLE OF CONTEXTS



History of Indian finance

Vrom the beginning of the nineteenth century to the
Mutiny

1S60-5 ....

1866-72 ....

1S73-6 ....

1S77-83 ....

1884-91 ....

1892-4 ....

1895-1906
Details of revenue and cxpenditur
Revenue derived from taxation and from other source
The land revenue .
Tributes .
Forests .
Opium .
Salt

Excise .
Customs .
Assessed taxes
Provincial rates
Stamps .
Registration

Statement of net ordinary expenditure. Civil Administration
Land Revenue
Civil Departments .
Miscellaneous Civil Charges .
Post Oftice, Telegraphs, and Mint
Railways. History of financial policy in respect to railway
construction

(i) By guaranteed companies

(2) By direct state agency

(3) By assisted companies
Programme of railway expenditure since 1885
Present position of railway finance
Net result of railway policy
Railway Revenue Account ' .
Irrigation
Civil Works
The public debt
Interest charges
INIilitary expenditure
l''\traordinary charges
Military operations .



PAGE

1 6-.



TABLE OF CONTENTS

Famine .........

Railway construction from Provincial and local revenues
Provincial finance. General features of the system .
Periodical revision of Provincial settlements
Special contributions by the Provinces to the .Supreme
Government .......

Provincial and Local surplus or deficit

The Home charges .......

Method of meeting the Home expenditure. The loss by
exchange ........

Secretary of State's drawings .....

' AV'ays and means ' .

Conclusion. General review of the fuiancial position .

Bibliography ........

Table I. Revenue and expenditure, debt, and foreign
trade .......

„ n. Net revenue ......

„ HI. Net expenditure

,, IV. Public works ......



xvii

PAGE

1 88
189
190
191

192

193
193

194
196
197
197

199

200
201
202

2QX



CHAPTER VII



LAND REVENUE

The subject utterly strange to most Englishmen . . 204
Difficulty attending general description of Indian land

revenue systems . . . . . .205

Land revenue under native rule ..... 205

Subsequent development : zamindari and ryotwari . . 206
Areas in which the land revenue system is still in an un-
developed form . . . . . . .207

Three main branches of the subject ..... 20S

(i) 'The Cadaslial Record
The cadastral ma[j ........ 208

The fiscal record ........ 209

The record of rights in land . . . . . .211

Maintenance of the record . . . . . .212

(ii) The Assessment of tlic Land L\evenue
Evolution of the British fixed cash assessments . . 213

P'luctuating cash assessments . . . . . .214

Share of the gross produce represented by the land revenue 215
The assessment made on the net pruduce or net assets . 216

b 2



TABLE OF COXTENTS



Calculation of the net produce or assets in the various
Provinces ... ...

The results only approximate

Share taken of the net produce or assets in former days
Share taken of the net produce or assets at the present da
The actual assessments do not follow this standard rigidly
Special system of assessment in force in Bombay
Deductions from the revenue demand —

(i) Deductions to avoid sudden enhancements .

(2) Deductions to fiivour improvements .

(3) Deductions by way of assignment of revenue
Additions to the demand ; cesses ....
Term of assessment : the permanent settlement

Temporary settlements .....

Permanent versus temporary settlements .
Proposals for a simplified system of temporary settlement
Reforms resulting from the above ....
Characteristics of Indian land revenue

(iii) The Collection of the Land Revenue
Importance of the functions of land revenue collectors in

India

Instalments ......

Power of recovery .....

The Bengal sale law ....

Suspension and remission of revenue
The land revenues of the Mughals .
Development under British rule
Incidence of the present land revenue
Conclusion ......

Bibliography



TAGE

218
219
220
22 I
222
224

224
226
227
227
228
229
231
231
232
233



234
235

235
236
236
237
239
239
239
241



CHAPTER VIII

MISCELLANEOUS REVENUE
Opium

Division of receipts from opium under ' Opium ' and

' Excise ' revenue .....
Principal sources of supply ....
Production of Bengal opium ....
Revenue from Bengal provision opium
Malwa opium .......



242
242
242

243
244



TAHLE


Ui^ LU


l\ n\


NTS






XIX




PAGB


Consumption of opium in In


dia 244


Report of the Opium Commission of 1893






245


Supply of excise opium ,


.






246


Excise system .


.






246


Excise revenue


.






246


Burma ....


.






247




Salt


General ....


. . .247


Sources of supply .












248


Methods of production .












248


Geographical distribution












248


Monopoly and excise system


s .










249


Preventive measures












249


Administration












250


History of the salt duty .












250


General results












. 252




Excise.




General ....


,










252



Intoxicatifig Liquors
Use of intoxicating liquors in Hindu and Muhammadan

times 253

Excise policy of British India ...... 254

Main forms of consumption 254



Online LibraryGreat Britain. India OfficeImperial gazetteer of India .. (Volume 4) → online text (page 1 of 63)