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to photo^ph. The apple blossom melts so easily and
indistinguishably into the white sky ! Here again comes
into i>lay judgment and a ray-filter, douds and the right
direction.

Fruit trees in fruit are almost hopeless. The brilliant
red cherry is, alas, a flat black photographically. Sepa-
rate twigs of berry-bearing fruits, however, are often
charmingly photographed in the studio, with decorative
Intent. Okxasionally one can find a branch of a fruiting
tree in such position as to get it against the sky, and then
a good thing may result

The four branches of our subject, treated in the fore-
going ps^es, are intimately interwoven, and I can only
nope tnat the hints presented may smooth the path of
some nature-lovers wno may take up the delightful work.

Senrodnein^ Despite the attractiveness of flower
i^^A^m ^^^ *''®® photographs in monochrome, it
me \Aiion. ^^^^ without saying that the capabilities
of photcMgraphy in this direction would be enormously
enhancea if the colors, as well as the form, texture and
gradation of light and shade could be reproduced as the
eye sees them. The mere tinting of monochrome photo-
graphs will never satisfy the eye, even for decorative
purposes, because the peculiar delicacy, richness and
translucency of flower coloring are utterly lost in the
underlying monochrome. The only practically available
methods of photographic reproduction are the tri-chro-
matic processes, and of these, as sufficiently simple for
the amateur, the Ives* Kromskop system, now being
made commercially possible, deserves appreciative men-
tion. The tri-chromatic printing methods on paper are
for too complicated and costly for the amateur to attempt
their practice, nor have they yet proved conspicuously
succe^ul in reproductions from nature. The Kromskop
system does not produce color prints, it being necessarv
to blend the color elements by optical means ; but with
this limitation, it yields results which seem almost mir-
rored reflections of the objects themselves, and undoubt-
edly represent the highest achievement in photographic
reproduction.

The Kromskop system is too new to the American



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34 THE PHOTO-MINIATURE

public, and its practice has been too limited to permit of
going into the subject here as fully as it deserves. Suffice
It to say that there are already some enthusiastic Krom-
skopists, who declare that monochromatic photography
has quite lost its charm for them since they have fa^en
able to reproduce the colors of their flower subjects
together with their forms and light and shade effects.

TTie Joly and McDonough color reproduction methods
will also be recalled by the reader as possessing peculiar
advantages in the photography of flowers and foliage.

A^^^^^t^A^ It will interest the reader to know that
^^t ' *^ ^^^ ^^^^ w^ prepared by Mr. J.
Horace McFarland, whose photographs
of flowers are well known to those engaged in this branch
of photography. The information cpven is based upon his
personal experience, as well as nis knowledge of the
methods employed by other workers in this specialty.
The pictures, which so charmingly illustrate his argu-
ments, have been chosen from many examples '-sentoy
expert workers, and their willing help is hereby most
cordially acknowledged. Mr. G. H. Woolfall, an English
specialist in tree photographer, sent with the two illustra-
tions credited to him, an interesting account of his
methods of working, from which several useful sugges-
tions have been embodied in the last few pages. As this
number of The Photo-Miniature is the only work on
the subject, we cannot refer the student, as usual, to other
sources of information.



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NOTES

Consideriiig the increased attention given by amatenrs
of late vears to the photo^;raphic possibilities of street-
life ana urban scenes, it is surprising that, as yet, no
one has put out a guide to this interesting branch of
photographic work. The next number of thb Photo-
MiNiATURB, which will be ready within a fortnight, will
include a practical handbook on "Street Photography,'*
embodying all the information needed for successful
work^ and illustrated with some capital examples oi
how It should be done. The information it gives will
be equally applicable to work in big and litde towns^ at
home and abroad, the writer of the monograph going
very fully into his subject Unless we are mistaken, the
number will prove to be one of the most popular of The
Photo-Miniaturb series, and readers win do well to
place an order with their dealers as early as possible.

The reprints of Nos. i, 2, 3, 4 and 6 of Thb Photo-
MiNiATURB are selling almost as quickly as when they
appeared in their first editions. The second edition en
No. 7 is expected from the printers in a few days. A
list of all the numbers of The Photo-Miniaturb thus
far published is invariably given on the page facing inside
front cover in each issue.



The June number of The Photo-Beacon is received,
with 56 engravings from the pictures exhibited at the late
Chicago Sfion, and a " breezy '* review by the editor, Mr.
F. Dundas Todd. This is, in every way. the best issue
of The Photo-Beacon Mr. Todd has published, and pic-
ture lovers should make sure of a copy before the edition
is exhausted. (The Photo-Beacon Co., Tribune Bldg.,
Chicago. Ten cents.)

Talkine a few days ago with Mr. F. M. Frobisher, an
expert New York amateur, we learned that Mr. Fro-
bisher, after testing all the newer developers, has gone

(15)



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36 THE PHOTO-MINIATURE : NOTES

back to pyro as the 6i^^\op&t par excellence for cartridge
films. The examples we saw confirmed Mr. Frobisher's
decision in the matter. His n^;atives were of beautiful
printing color and quality, free from grayness and veiline,
and unusually sparkling for hand-camera exposures made
mider varying conditions. His developer is made up as
follows : I. Water, 12 ounces ; sodium sulphite, 3 ounces
(if **dryj" i}i ounces); ammonium bromide, 20 grains;
citric aad, 60 erains ; sulphuric acid, i ounce ; pyro, i
ounce. II. Water, 12 ounces; sodium carbonate, 4
ounces (if " dry," i ounce, 4 drams, 48 grains). For use
with normal exposure, take i dram each of I and II, and
add 2 ounces of water. Mr. Frobisher avers that this
developer will stain neither fingers nor plate, and keeps
well, we have not tried it, but the formula looks like
a good one, and the amount of " preservatives " included
should ensure both clearness and keeping quality.



There are at least two awkward blunders in The
Photo-Miniaturb No. ii : Developers and Develop-
ment^ which readers should correct on the margins of
their copies, as follows : In the Lovell pyro-metol for-
mula given on page 555, add )< ounce of metol to No. i
solutioa In the Imperial Standard formula^ given on
P&ge 556* add A5 grains of metol to No. i solution. How
such unspeakable blunders could occur under the eye of
so careful an editor as The Photo-Miniaturb retains, is
one of those things which he himself cannot understand,
and, therefore, cannot explain ! Mr. Henry Wenzel also
writes to point out that in the instructions concerning he
use of his orto-metol formula, given on page 557, that in
cases of under-exposure diluted developer is advanta-
geous, and not the »mliluted solution as there mentioned,
which is a matter of opinion and depends upon the
quality desired in the negative.

The fourth annual convention of the New England
Photographers' Association is to be held at B(^ton,
September 12 to 14, inclusive. Demonstrations in light-
ing and posing according to modem methods are among
the features already arranged, and great efforts are mak-
ing to ensure a pleasant and profits3)le meeting.



The May number of Anthonys Photo^aphic Bulletin
contains two papers worthy of preservation for reference.



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phers in all branches of the art. |

Bv«ryaMnDMibleABwtigBUitGanb«as«dfaithrMw«]r«x §

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The back lens only for takinc objects at a |

lent distance double the size the whole lens i

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As a hlffh-elaas, qnlek-woFkliif wldt aar !• i

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as long as the focus of the lens. |

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37 THE PHOTO-MINIATURE : NOTES

"Some Developers Compared: Experiments and Re-
sults/' illustrated by F. C. Lambert, and *<The Washing
of Negatives," by J. Gaedicke.

The Savannah (Ga.) Camera Club is busy with the
gum-bichromate method. Mr. Percy Sugden recently
gave a demonstration of the process before the members
of the club, and his display of its comparative simplid^
has awakened much enthusiasm in its practice. There is
so much that is peculiar about the gum-bichromate print
that we cannot forbear expressing the hope that the
results of Mr. Sugden' s work in Savannah ma)r not prove
fatal. The Savannah club is a thriving little institution,
and under the able leadership of Mr. Ben. }. Apple,

{>romises to be of great usefulness in the photographic
ife of its city.

The last number of Photography received gives the
subjoined method of making a portrait by lamplight,
such as the one given opposite page 381 in The Photo-
MiNiATURB No. o : Photography at Home. The method is
due to Mr. Ainsley, whose work has had much commenda-
tion. The subject was a gentleman, seated at a table, pen
in hand, apparentl>r reacSng a letter. By his side was
a standard lamp with a cardboard shade, white inside,
and green out, of the usual conical shape. The lamp
was alight, although its flame could not be direcdy seen
on accoimt of the shade. Two lengths of magnesium
ribbon, each of four inches, were also suspended under-
neath the shade. Everything beine got ready, and the
lens uncapped, the magnesium ribbon was ignited. A
properly exposed picture resulted, the room truthfully
shown m the gloom which it would present when lit by
one shaded lamp only, and the face and fi^re very clearly
illuminated from the lamp, and not, as is so often seen,
from some verv obviously extraneous source. We would
suggest this class of work as one in which there still
remains a great deal to be done which shall present
features of novelty, such as most landscape and figure
work is now without. The same issue of J^tograpfw
(Mav 17) also contains an attractively illustrated article
on ''^Flower Photography," by Mrs. Caleb Keene.



That photographers have no right to use the negatives
of their sitters, or exhibit prints therefrom without the



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38 THE PHOTO-MINIATURE : NOTES

sitters consent, has again been decided at the West-
minister (London) County Court. It is, of course, indis-
putable that the negative made by a photographer is his
property ; but it does not follow from this that he may
use the negative as he desires, if it oe a portrait ai
another person, without the individual's permission.

Readers who are planning a trip to the Paris Exposi-
tion may find the following notes useful. They are
extracted from a oaper on "Photography at the Exposi-
tion," by Mons. Mareschal, in the Photo- Gazette, As
already published, hand-cameras, i. ^., any camera which
can be manipulated in the hands, regardless of its size,
may be usea in and about the exposition at any time
without charge. Stand-cameras are admitted only on
payment of a fee of 2^ francs, the permit being; obtained
from the Administration Department (Quai d'Orsay,
near the Point d*Alma.) This permits the bearer to
photograph until i p. m.

Those who use a camera without a stand are free to
work from morning to night. These will do well to pro-
vide themselves with a hand-camera provided with a
rising front and a lens embracing a tolerably wide angle,
for many of the 'monuments, etc., in the exhibition are so
placed mat the photographer must take them, if at all, at
comparatively snort range. La Rue des Nations, which
presents some of the most interesting features, runs al-
most exactly from east to west. It will therefore get the
sun in the morning and evening; but, as it is almost
straight and planted with large trees, it will be almost
impossible to make instantaneous views in it. The pho-
tographer will find thin^ better arranged for him in the
pauaces on the north side, the main facades of which
point towards the Seine. The whole of them can thus
be taken in the morning from the Pont des Invalides, a
lens of long focus being advisedly employed. More de-
tailed views will also be obtainable earlv in the momine.
Le Palais de la Belgique, which is one of the most notable
and, which represents the H6tel-de-ville d'Audemarde,
can be obtained by means of a fi;ood rise of front. Le
Palais de la Hongne is likewise of great interest, but only
part of it can be obtained at a single exposure, as other
buildings intercept the view. Those who dislike rising
early in the morning can obtain a good view of these
palaces from the Pont de T Alma close on sunset, but they
should not attempt le Palais Belrique, the main facade of
which will then be illuminatea from behind. All the



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39 THB FHOTO-MINlATUR£ : NOTES

right bank of the Seine, being due south, will be easy to
photograph. The parts to be specially nofed are Old
Faris ana the Palais de la Ville cie Paris. On the Espla-
nades des Invalides, the principal artery of which runs
almost exactly from north to south, it will be difficult to
get a lighting other than one which gives one side sun-
shine and the other shadow. If the best time is to be
taken advantage of— about noon— turn the back on the
Ddme des Invalides, and secure a diffused lighting
rather than sunshine. Behind the principal gallenes of
the Esplanade will be found many interesting features :
to the east, les Mas Provencal, la Maison Bretonne, etc. ;
to the west the various foreign buildings will be found to
present difficulties in photographing.

Le Pont Alexandre can be taken from various points
along the left bank of the river. The front of the bridge,
on the side of the Champs Elys^s, can be taken at any
time. The statues and decorative work make it a most
interesting subject \ to include these, the camera should
be placea on one side of one of the footwajrs. The two
palaces on the Champs Elys^s stand behind it. The
larger is well lighted up to midday, the smaller all the
afternoon.

The position of the Champ de Mars is southeast and
northwest; ^ood lighting can therefore be obtained at
almost any time, but in sunshine the waterworks in the
background do not come out well ; for these diffused
light should be chosen.

Le Trocad^ro will be fully lighted most of the day, and
by taking one's stand in th^ central roadwa}^ the different
construction of the two sides can be obtained. Russia
stands out prominently, and behind it, by the left wing of
the Palace, is China, where, with a wioe-angle lens, an
excellent view is obtained.

It is obvious that, as almost all the buildings at the
exposition are largely composed of *' staff'* or plaster,
backed or nonhalation plates will be advantageous. A
few orthochromatic plates will also be found useful, as, in
some cases, the interiors fairly glow with color.

According to the BriHsh Journal of Fhotogra^l^^ the
English photographic societies could only exist with difi>-
culty were they deprived of the help and interest they
denve from lantern exhibitions, ana demonstrations of
trade novelties given by manufacturers. This may
account for the moribund condition of so many of our
American sodetiw, for h«re the lantern is by no means



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NON-HALATION PLATE

Should be used for landscapes,
street scenes, interiors, foliage
and all subjects giving great con-
trasts of light and shade.

It is a double -coated plate,
which not only prevents halation
but gives fine definition to the
most strongly lighted parts of the
subject, and the deepest shadows.

With correct exposure it gives
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40 THE PHOTO-MINIATURE: NOTES

as popular a society feature as in England, nor have
Amencan manufacturers yet appreciated the society
meetings as a valuable means of publicity for their goods.

The Ltixia platinum papers, just introduced in Eng-
land, in print-out and development varieties, are said to
"possess remarkable keeping qualities, and require no
more care than silver papers, being packed and stored in
the same way, the use of calcium tubes, etc., being
unnecessary."

The one man exhibition at the Royal Photographic
Society's rooms during May presented a collection of
architectural and interior photographs by Mr. F. H.
Evans. The exhibition now open consists of a large
number of photographs by Dr. P. H. Emerson.

The United States National Academy of Sciences, says
Naiure^ has decided to award the Barnard medal to
Professor ROnteen for his discovery of the X-rays. This
medal is awarded every few years for noteworthy dis-
coveries in physical ana astronomical science.

"Touchstone," whose fortnightljr philosophy gives a
touch of lightness now and again to the somewhat
pedantic pages of the English Amateur Photographer,
discourses in a recent issue upon "Reputations." We
extract :

You will appreciate that the reputation of many de-
pends to a great extent on mystery. Now, as every cook
and chemist will tell you, this is a most important in-
gredient in almost every concoction, and reputations are
generally concoctions. It gives excitement to the new
developer, and piquancy to the humble sausage, and it
will go a long way to do everything but wash clothes. I
know a man — a great man— at least, he knows me some-
times when he*s particularly affable — and he has a great
reputation. The other day someone said to someone
else, who knows most things, and a bit more, "Who is
So-and so?" (the man with the reputation^. "What
does he do ? Where does he live, ana who*s nis tailor ? "
"My dear boy," was the answer, "don't ask — don't
want to know — ^his mystery is his charm. If it were
known who he was and when he was married, and that



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41 THfc PH6TO-MINIATURE : NOTES

he went to the city every mornins;, and lived in Tedshzsn^
all his delightful attraction would be gone." So you see
if you, metaphorically speaking, mark a burnt cork
moustache on your face, and button your coat at the
back, people will wonder what it means, and you'll prob-
ably very soon have a reputation— or get run m.

There are heaps of men nowadays that are making
reputations. Mr. J. T. Keiley, in the New York Qtmera
JwUSf has been piling up bricks, and shying some as well,
but to some of us it seems as though his reputation
would have a better chance if he stucK to writing, and
didn't show his works. Now, that discretion is most
marked in some men. They write ten or twelve pages of
criticism every October, and tell us all our sins of omis-
sion and commission, and send copies free gratis to all
our friends, and publish litde line drawings of what we've
done, and where we've erred, and we look upon them as
heaven-sent critics, and their reputation eoes up to 90** in
the shade, and no shade available. And there it stands,
because they don't run any risks by showing us how to
do it, and how they do it in their own work. When you
are backing ** Precept" to win it's a great mistake to run
"Example" in the same race, for it might just manage
to give its stable<ompanion away, and then the crowd
would shout !

Mr. Basil Williams, in a paper read before the London
Camera Club a few weeks ago, gave many interesting
notes upon photography in Persia. During the trip Mr.
Williams succeeded, among other thin^, in obtaining
several pictures of harem life, a feat which has hitherto
been r^arded as a practical impossibility on account of
the jealousy with which the Easterners guard their home



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