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Calendar of the state papers relating to Ireland preserved in the Public Record Office. 1625-[1670] online

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3 1924 091 770 861

Cornell University

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Instructions to Editops.

The Master of the Eolls desires to call the attention of the Editors of Calendars
to the following considerations, with a view to secure uniformity of plan in the
important works on which they are engaged : —

He is anxious to extend, as far as is consistent with proper economy and
despatch, the utility of the Calendars of State Papers now publishing under his
control : 1st. As the most efficient means of making the national archives
accessible to all who are interested in historical inquiries ; 2nd. As the best
justification of the liberality and munificence of the Government in throwing
open these papers to the public, and providing proper catalogues of their
contents at the national expense.

The greater number of the readers who will consult and value these works
can have little or no opportunity of visiting the Public Eecord Office, in which
these papers are deposited. The means for consulting the originals must
necessarily be limited when readers live at a distance from the metropolis ;
still more if they are residents of Scotland, Ireland, distant colonies, or foreign
states. Even when such an opportunity does exist, the difficulty of mastering
the original hands in which these papers are written will deter many readers
from consulting them. Above all, their great variety and number must
present formidable obstacles to literary inquirers, however able, sanguine, and
energetic, when the information contained in them is not made accessible by
satisfactory Calendars.

The Master of the Eolls considers that, without superseding the necessity
of consulting the originals, every Editor ought to frame his Calendar in such
a manner that it shall present, in as condensed a form as possible, a correct
'index of the contents of the papers described in it. He considers that the
entries should be so minute as to enable the reader to discover not only the
general contents of the originals, but also what they do not contain. If
the information be not sufficiently precise, if facts and names be omitted or
concealed under a vague and general description, the reader will be often
misled, he will assume that where the abstracts are silent as to information
to be found in the documents, such information does not exist ; or he wiU
have to examine every original in detail, and thus one great purpose will
have been lost for which these Calendars have been compiled.

A. 2623. Wt. 2655. ^

As the documents are various, the Master of the Eolls considers that they
will demand a corresponding mode of treatment. The following rules are
to be observed : —

1st. All formal and official documents, such as letters of credence, warrants,
grants, and the like, should be described as briefly as possible.

2nd. Letters and documents referring to one subject only should be cata-
logued as briefly as is consistent with correctness. But when they contain
miscellaneous news, such a description should be given as will enable a
reader to form an adequate notion of the variety of their contents.

3rd. Wherever a letter or paper is especially difficult to decipher, or the
allusions more than ordinarily obscure, it will be advisable for the Editor to
adhere, as closely as is consistent with brevity, to the text of the document.
He is to do the same when it contains secret or very rare information.

4th. Where the Editor has deciphered letters in cipher, the decipher may
be printed at full length. But when a contemporary or authorised decipher
exists it will be sufficient to treat the cipher as an ordinary document.

5th. Striking peculiarities of expression, proverbs, manners, &c., are to be

6th. Original dates are to be given at the close of each entry, that the
reader may know the exact evidence by which the marginal dates are

7th. Where letters are endorsed by the receivers and the date of their
delivery specified, these endorsements are to be recorded.

8th. The number of written pages of. each document is to be specified, as
a security for its integrity, and that readers may know what proportion the
abstract bears to the original.

9th. The language of every document is to be specified. If, however, the
greater part of the collection be in English, it will be sufficient to denote
those only which are in a different tongue.

10th. Where documents have been printed, a reference should be given to
the publication.

11th. Each series is to be chronological.

12th. The Prefaces of Editors, in explanation of documents in the volume,
are not to exceed fifty pages, unless the written permission of the Master of
the Eolls to the contrary be obtained.

"jj* Editors employed in foreign archives are to transcribe at full length
important and secret papers.
















And to be purchased, either directly or through any Bookseller, from

EYRE AND SPOTTISWOODE, East Harding Street, Fleet Street, E.G. ; or

OLIYER AND BOYD, Edinburgh ; or

E. PONSONBY, 116, Grafton Street, Dublin. "'"


1903. . U



^< nU'iA'^


General Index








The Preface to this Volume should begin with an apology
for its abnormal size. The sheets up to page 725 had
already been passed through the press, and the index
was well advanced, when a considerable amount of fresh
material relating to Irish affairs, and falling within the
years of the Commonwealth, was discovered among the
entry books of the Council of State. This material
had not found a place in the Domestic Calendar for
the period, though it contains many entries relating to
Ireland. It was thought better to incorporate it in the
present volume than to keep it for another, and thus
hamper the Calendar of the years following the
Restoration with documents which properly belonged to an
earlier time. Accordingly, the addition was made. It
resulted in extending the text of this Volume by 150
pages, with a consequent increase of the Index. All the
documents dealing with Ireland in this period, except
those selected by the Editor of the Domestic Calendar^''
are, however, now presented to the reader. I hope
that the knowledge of this fact will compensate for the
inconvenience of having to deal with so large a book.

The principal part of this volume deals with the period
which commenced in August, 1647, when the Marquis of
Ormond retired from Dublin, and closed in June, 1660,
with the Restoration. It begins with the disappearance —
though not the final disappearance — of the authority of
Charles I. in Ireland and ends with the re-establishment
of kingly po\ver in the person of his son. The intervemng
years witnessed a succession of varied and comphcated

O The reader is referred for further details to an explanatory
note on p. 726.


episodes which it would be impossible to follow from the
records preserved in the Public Record Office only; but
if these be studied in connection with, or as a com-
plement to, that which has already been written or
published, they will be found to add much to our
knowledge of this period. The main events of the years
may be described in a few words. The Marquis oi
Ormond on his return to Ireland in 1648 was forced to
recognise that he could not make Ireland the centre of a
Royalist reaction against Cromwell and the Parliament. That
courageous and loyal nobleman did indeed patch up a
peace with the Confederate Catholics which was signed
in January, 1649, a few days before Charles I. paid the
last penalty for long years of mis-government; but the
alliance was not based on any real community of interest
and was unable to stand the test of the invasion with which
Oliver replied to it. Throughout the years 1649 and 1650
the Marquis of Ormond struggled with inadequate
means to support the cause of Prince Charles, who sent
friendly messages, but nothing more, from abroad, and
whose advisers ever pressed him to look to Scotland
rather than to Ireland as a stepping stone to the English
throne. Moreover, the idea of ousting Cromwell by means
of an army raised and commanded by a Protestant and
Royalist nobleman was distasteful to the Confederate
Catholics, more particularly to the clergy, whose independent
policy had by no means come to an end when the Papal
Nuntio withdrew from Ireland.^" The Marquis, feeling that
his task was hopeless, left the country, depositing the Vice-
regal authority in the hands of the Roman Catholic
Marquis of Clanricarde. Lord Clanricarde struggled on for
some months, and made a resistance which, considering
the means at his disposal, may be called heroic. He
was helped for a short time by the hope of subvention
from the Duke of Lorraine, whose desire to have an
irregular marriage sanctioned by the Pope led him for

(') Rinuccini left Galway Feb. 22, 1649.


a moment to think of undertaking a kind of Papal
crusade in Ireland. But the idea of this enterprise —
perhaps the strangest of all with which we come into
contact in the period — faded away when it became
evident that the only object for which it could have been
undertaken was not to be attained. Hemmed in by the
Parliamentary forces and ill-supported by his own fellow
countrymen, the Marquis of Clanricarde was compelled to
retire from Ireland at the end of 1652. Isolated forts
and towns still held out for the King or the Confederate
Government till April, 1658, but in that year the Parliament
of England was at length able to declare the war in Ireland
"appeased and ended." The retirement of the Marquis
of Clanricarde and the departure of a large part of the
Confederate army, under the command of different leaders,
for France and Spain, made it possible for Oliver and
his lieutenants to commence the constructive part of their
work. The Act of September, 1653, was passed. The
numerous civilian Adventurers who had advanced money or
goods in 1642, 1643 or 1647, sent in their claims
for land to the Committee established to deal with them
at Grocers' Hall in London, and throughout 1653 and the
earlier part of 1654 the process of assigning lands in respect
of these claims went rapidly forward. At the same time
the Parliamentary army, though not disbanded, was much
reduced, and steps were ta,ken to allot lands to the
officers and soldiers who had served through the campaign
since Oliver's arrival in Ireland in 1649. Attempts were
also made, though without success, to meet the claims of
those who had fought for the English cause before 1649,
in cases where the soldiers and officers of that jjeriod
had not been disqualified by serving against the Parliament
of England. The difficulties of ascertaining the character
and antecedents of each claimant, of dealing with encum-
brances which had been created in good faith before the
war on the allotted lands, of surveying the counties set
out for the claimants, of givnig each man his due, of


redeeming specific promises made to individuals outside the
general contract made by Parliament — all these difficulties
had now to be faced. It is safe to say, as a general
judgment on the period, that, before Oliver died,
very small progress was made towards overcoming them.
When his authority and genius were removed and he
was succeeded by an indolent and impotent son, the
progress of his constructive work was arrested. The
incomplete edifice ceased to rise : its foundations
soon showed signs of weakness, and Ireland drifted
rapidly towards political and social chaos. An
attempt was made to get the machinery of a Republican
Government to work in Dublin. Henry Cromwell,
though he seems to have had little affection for
Republican institutions, was loyal to his father and
brother and struggled bravely to govern Ireland on their
lines, reducing the army in proportion to the depletion
of the Exchequer, promoting the interests of Protestant
settlers, and endeavouring to found Protestant schools.
But in England, after Oliver's death, the Royalist re-
action proceeded apace. The Cromwellians had never
been popular in Scotland, and Royalist feeling, which
had concentrated itself in Scotland and among the
refugees abroad, spread to England and Ireland, making
its way first into the ranks of the army. To trace here
the process of reaction is not my object or duty. It
need only be said that, when the Restoration came, Ireland
went back readily to her allegiance to the Stewarts. A
few isolated leaders, like Ludlow, stood out for Republi-
can institutions, but they speedily found themselves in a
small minority and were compelled to abandon the
country to the supporters of Monarchy. When, in June,
1660, King Charles II. landed at Dover, everything was
ready for his acceptance in the capital of Ireland.

Before glancing at the documents which illustrate these
changes, I should perhaps refer to the papers hereinafter
calendared [on pages 41-362^ which belong to the reign of


Charles I. These are undated papers to which I have
attempted to give a date by using internal evidence and
by the knowledge which I acquired whilst calendaring the
dated papers. A good many of these undated documents
were of course easily dateable, but those which are entered
in these pages could not have been placed in chronological
order with any approach to accuracy without delaying the
publication of my earlier volumes for some years. As
they stand at present they are of course merely
complementary to the documents in those volumes, and I
need not do more here than refer very briefly to their
contents. The information given by Edward Eustace,
probably Kdward Eustace of Clongowes Wood, on pp. 67-69,
about Spanish policy in regard to Ireland, evidently comes
from a man who had very full intelligence on that subject,
and one may compare it with a note by Sir Ralph
Bingley on the same topic (pp. 86-7). If judged by their
contents alone, these papers seem to belong almost to
Elizabethan times. Once more we read discussions on
the incredible wealth of the Spanish colonies. The
danger of a Spanish invasion of Ireland, and the possibility
of using Irish forces to fight against Spaniards are once
more discussed. Sir Ralph did not think it imprudent to rely
on the Irish — though by rehgion they were in sympathy
with the Spaniards — to fight a campaign against them.
"Bring them where they will gain," he said, "and they
will fight against their fathers." The letter on p. 83,
regarding the appointment of a Provost — or " Master " as
he is incorrectly called — for Trinity College, Dublin, in
1626, seems to have been written by someone anxious to
propagate Low Church doctrines in Ireland. It presages
the disputes which took place later on in the College,
and to which reference has been made in my earlier
volumes. The controversy between Lord Bourke of
Brittas and Lord Bourke of Castle Connell brings to light
some information about the Bourke family (pp. 93-7).
Other documents of interest belonging to the earlier part


of Charles I.'s reign are : — the project for erecting
a Company of Saltmakers at Bandonbridge (p. 105), a
draft letter from Lord Falldand on the difficulty of
supporting the army (p. 110), Lord Falkland's defence
in the dispute between himself and Lord Loftus (pp. 116-9),
a memorandum on the desirability of a plantation of
Munster which was inhabited by people "as barbarous in
all respects as the Indians or Moors " (p. 128); a note sent
to King Charles I. by "a Scottish man" who, in the course
of a defence of Lord Falkland, protests against the promotion
of lawyers to high places in Ireland (p. 136) and uses
the expression "feather their nests" (p. 137) m
the modern sense; and a reference to political songs
sung ,, in the streets of Dublin in 16:^9 (p. 137).
I'he suggestions for an Irish herring fleet in the same
year (pp. 146-7) show an intimate acquaintance with the
habits of fish in the English and Irish waters. Lord
Esmond (p. 165) points out the danger to Ireland
of "the infinite number of idle people" who were to
be found there. Capt. Robert Innes in the same year
^p. 168) writes a vivid letter on the suppression of
piracy by vessels rowed by sixteen men, two to an oar,
or working a " Carmesell " sail.

Mr. Secretary Coke's letter to the Lord Deputy (pp.
176-7), about Nov. 1633, is the first of peculiar interest
in the Wentworth period. It is followed by a detailed
account of the case between the Lord Deputy and Sir
David and Sir Henry Foulis of this date, to which
reference is made in StrafiPord's published letters. On pp.
181-186 will be found a long report of Sir Vincent
Gookin on the condition of Ireland at the time of Lord
Wentworth's arrival, which describes the condition of the
country with great detail. Readers who are intimate
with Gookin's writings will notice familiar characteristics
in this report. His contempt for the Irish character
was in accordance with English opinion at the time.
"They are crafty and subtill, but very shallow — mutinous,


but cowardly - very proud, but exceeding base — full of words,
but to little purpose — promise much, but perform nothing
— quarrel often, but fight seldom, but upon great advan-
tage — are bloody as a wolf when they can overcome —
live in their houses more beastly than barbarians or
Indians." "Their delights" he concludes "are in nothing
but idleness." One can imagine the effect uj)on Lord
Wentworth of reports such as these when he arrived in
Ireland, caring and knowing little about the Irish and
viewing the government of Ireland simply as a means to
attain defined ends in Jlngland. 'J'he word " mechanic "
occurs in an unusual sense in Capt. Hone's letter on p.
190. On p. 193 and the following pages have been
placed a number of documents relating to the case of the
King against the London companies. The date assigned
to these is May 12, 1635, the date of the judgment of
the Star Chamber which broke the patents given by King
James I. at the time of the Plantation. On p. 227
will be found a learned review of Ussher's work on pre-
destination by Archbishop Laud, to whom it had been

On pp. 237-9 there is an account, probably of the spring
of 1641, of the system of farming the Irish customs,
apparently drawn up for the purpose of Straff'ord's defence
in his trial for high treason. The petition of the clergy
on pp. 254-6, and the declarations of several Bishops of the
Established Church on the ensuing pages, illustrate the
> grievances under which they suffered and the boldness with
which, at the outbreak of the insurrection, the Roman Catholic
Church defied the jurisdiction of the Anglo Irish Government.
On pp. 303-5 will be found the most graphic despatch in
the volume — an account by Lord Broghill of his defeat
of Muskerry near Dromagh, in June, 1651."' The descrip-
tion presents a vivid panorama of this battle which even

<i' The document should of course be placed at that date, but was
calendared before I was familiar with the history of the Commonwealth


those who do not know the place will find it easy to
realise. " We had a very fair execution," says Lord
Broghill, " for about three miles — and indeed it was bloody,
for I gave order to kill all. ... I think there was
never known better knocking in Ireland." Yet we read
phrases of apparently sincere religious fervour spatchcocked
in between these bloodthirsty expressions. " We relied on
a better strength than the arm of flesh, and when their
strength failed them ours did not fail us." Such contrasts
help us to realise how diverse were the ingredients
which composed the character of the CromweUian
soldiers. On pp. 312-3 will be found the copy
of a curious letter endorsed by Lord Falkland
which looks as if it had been written by or for King
Charles I. at the time when he intended to marry the
Infanta Maria of Spain. With it are some amatory verses
in Latin and English which may possibly have been
addressed to that Princess by her not very ardent

On p. 314 instructions will be found for holding the
meetings of the Privy Council in Dublin, copied from
those in force at Whitehall and giving the procedure
and etiquette of the Council in some detail. x\s a
record of the early form of Cabinet procedure this
document is of some interest, and one may notice that a
special regulation was inserted directing that no member
of the Council should make disrespectful remarks about
another, or interrupt him whilst he was speaking.
There is a memorandum on p. 326 from some person
who sought to prevent the importation of French brandy
and to convert the consumers of it to Irish whisky. The
main object of doing so was to encourage home manu-
factures at the expense of the foreigner, and the
memorandum contains some very interesting opinions
on economic policy, on the foreign exchanges, the
incidence of export duties, and so forth. The change
is, however, also recommended upon hygienic grounds.


" By brandy " says the memorialist " is a sickly constitu-
tion of body begot, the radical moisture dried up, the
stomach and liver burnt . . . whereas though strong
waters are made of spirits and therefore likewise hot,
yet by the joycy, oily quality and cordial nature of the
ingredients whereof they are made, the malignant disposi-
tion of the spirit is altered and (not taken to excess)
becomes grateful and cordial to the body." On pp.
360-61 will be found an account of the insurgent attack
on Lisnegarvy on November 28, 1641.

These undated papers end at p. 363, and the dated
documents of 1649-1660 then commence. Before taking up
the story at that point I should, however, refer to the
documents for the years 1647-9 in order that the continuity
of the narrative which was broken off at the end of the
preface of my last volume may not be interrupted.
There are no dated papers of the concluding months of
1647, and the story for those months so far as it can
be followed in these documents must be sought in
the concluding pages''^ of my volume for the years
1633-47. These pages contain the proceedings of the
Committee of Both Houses for Irish Affairs sitting at
Westminster, first at the Queen's Court and later,
apparently, in the Star Chamber '^> which had been in
existence since Jiily 1, 1645 ; and on pp. 1-28 of the
present volume the proceedings are continued down to 17
September, 1648, when they cease. Before this Committee
ceases to give us records, however, another Committee
for Irish affairs is sitting at Derby House and its
records had been preserved from 17 November, 1646,


Pp. 740-752.

(3) See Cal. of S.P. Ireland, 1633-47, p. 406; and Cal. of S.P.
Domestic, 1645-7, p. 1 ; also p. 25, par. 3, p. 767, at bottom, and
p. 5, par. 3 of the present volume, where persons disobeying the
committee are ordered to appear "in the Star Chamber."


onward."^ This Committee was constituted by the Orders of
the House of Commons of 12, 14 and 15 October, 1646,''^
for the purj)ose of dealing, with "secrecy and
expedition," with the situation created by the resohition
of the Irish clergy at the Congregation of Waterford on
Aug. 26. A reference to these orders in the Journals
will show that the Derby House Committee on Irish
Affairs consisted of the members of the Committee of Both
Kingdoms commonly known as the " Derby House Com-
mittee " plus the Lord Lieutenant, Sir John Clotworthy, Sir
John Temple, Sir Wm. Lewis and Messrs. Holies, Fiennes and
Goodwyn, M.P.'s. Several persons were members of both of
the Committees at Star CJhamber and that at Derby House
— Mr. Annesley, Sir Philip Stapleton, Sir John Temple,
Mr. Holies and others — but the functions of these bodies

Online LibraryGreat Britain. Public Record OfficeCalendar of the state papers relating to Ireland preserved in the Public Record Office. 1625-[1670] → online text (page 1 of 103)