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liarities and properties of the Califor-
nia woods, especially the fire-resisting
quality of redwood.

The oififiicial investigation has shown
Chamber of Commerce, based on rigid
investigation of facts concerning the
alleged fire, shows that the actual dam-
age done was in the neighborhood of
$20,000, mostly to tanbark oak and
young fir. In many cases the burned
areas were benefited by the fire, which
cleared the underbrush and left the
property in good shape for grazing.
The fact that no requests for lower as-
sessments on this property for 1919
were made by property owners proves



conclusively tliat the individual damage
to redwood timber owners was nil.

The official investigation has shown
that no sound, living redwood trees
burned down. For half a century or
more it has been the universal belief
that fires would never sweep the red-
wood forests because redwood would
not burn. That belief has now proven
to be a fact because disinterested in-
vestigation and sworn testimony has es-
tablished the truth of the luinbermen's
statement that no redwood burned in
this fire, which was reported as one of
the worst of the year.

If further proof is wanted regarding
the fire-resistant qualities of redwood
standing timber, it is found in the fact
that these forest giants have stood un-
scathed for the past two or three thou-
sand years in a region where for cen-
turies no fire regulations, Federal or
State, were in effect. If further proof
were necessary to show that redwood
as a structural lumber is fire resistant,
Californians point to the great conflag-
ration in San Francisco, where that
holocaust was stopped by a row of red-
wood buildings on Townsend street.
The veriest tyro knows that redwood is
free from pitch or resin and besides
contains an acid which renders it prac-
tically impervious to fire or rot. It will
be interesting to the lumber trade of
the world to note the outcome of the
controversy between the redwood lum-
ber interests and the people of Califor-
nia with their State Forestry Depart-
ment.

Fifth Liberty Bond Payments

Carter Glass, Secretary of the Treas-
ury, has announced the dates upon
which payments will be required on the
notes of the Victory Liberty Loan as
follows:

Ten per cent with application on or be-
fore May 10; 10 per cent on or before
July 15; 20 per cent on or before .Au-
gust 12; 20 per cent on or before Sep-
tember 9; 20 per cent on or before Oc-
tober 7; 20 per cent on or before
Xoveml)er 11, with accrued interest on
deferred installments.

Payment in full can be made on May
20, the 10 per cent required with appli-
cation having been duly paid on or
before May 10. Payment can also be
completed on any installment date with
accrued interest.

Bakersfield Hotel

Report comes from Bakersfield that
Messrs. H. J. Brandt. George Hay and
other caoitalists are preparing to build a
$1,000,000 hotel there and that Fred W.
Tegeler, a local hotel man, is to lease it.



With the Engineers

Reports from the Various Pacific Coast Societies,
Personal Mention, Etc.



Oregon Professional Engineers to Register



THE Oregon Legislature has passed
an act to provide for the registration
of professional engineers. In taking this
step Oregon probably is the first State
in the Union to enact a comprehensive
law for the registration and regulation
of the practice of professional engineer-
ing. The bill as introduced and passed
is substantially the same as that pro-
vided by committees from the following
national engineering societies:

American* Society of Civil Engineers.
American Society of Mechanical En-
gineers.

American Institute of Electrical En-
gineers.

American Institute of Mining Engi-
neers.

Society of Naval Architects and Ma-
rine Engineers.

American Institute of Consulting En-
gineers.

The bill defines the practice of pro-
fessional engineering in such a manner
as to embrace the civil, mechanical, elec-
trical, mining, municipal, hydraulic and
chemical engineers. In other words,
professional engineering is defined as
the design and supervision of public and
private utilities, such as roads, bridges,
highways, railroads, canals, harbors,
river improvements, lighthouse, wet
docks, drydocks, ships, barges, dredges,
cranes, the design and the supervision
of the construction of steam engines,
turbines, internal combustion engines
and other mechanical structures, elec-
trical machinery and apparatus, works
for the development, transmission or ap-
plication of power, the design and su-
pervision of mining operations, the de-
sign and supervision of construction of
municipal works, irrigation works, water
supply works, sewerage works, drainage
works, industrial works, sanitary works,
hydraulic or private utilities or works
which require for their design or the
supervision of their construction experi-
ence and mechanical knowledge.

It appears that before practicing engi-
neering, an engineer must be registered
by a board of nine members. This board
is appointed by the Governor and shall
consist of two civil engineers, two me-
chanical engineers, one electrical engi-
neer, two hydraulic engineers and two
mining engineers. The members of the



board must be qualified professional en-
gineers of at least ten years' active ex-
perience of recognized good standing in
the profession and at least 35 years of
age. Provision is made whereby the
board may adopt such rules and regu-
lations not in conflict with the act as
may be necessary for the proper execu-
tion of the law. The members of the
board shall serve without compensation
except traveling and other necessary ex-
penses. But there is a secretary who .
is paid a salary.

Provisions are also made whereby the
registration of any engineer may be re-
voked by the board for misrepresenta-
tion either at the time of his registra-
tion or subsequent thereto, or for prac-
ticing fraud or deceit in the securing of
his certificate or for the conviction of
crime. This revocation, however, can
only be made after charges have been
preferred or filed by some person or
corporation, or by the board on its own
initiative. The time and place for a
complete hearing is fixed by the board.
A two-thirds vote is required of all the
members of the board in order to re-
voke the registration of any professional
engineer.

Any professional engineer who has
practiced professional engineering for a
period of six years and has had charge
of engineering work as principal or as-
sistant for at least one year, may be ad-
mitted by the board without examination
before January 1, 1920. After that time
a professional engineer may be only reg-
istered after filing a complete record of
his experience with the necessary exam-
ination fee of $10 and taking an ex-
amination prescribed by the board. In
lieu of the six years' experience, a col-
lege graduate may be examined after
two years' actual practice. After a grad-
uate has been examined and qualified, a
certificate of registration will be issued
to him on the payment of an additional
fee of $5.00.

The board is required to examine the
requirements of registration of profes-
sional engineers in other States in or-
der to determine that the standards for
other States are not lower than those
provided for in the Oregon law. Pro-
vision is made, however, that any engi-
neer coming from without this State and



120



THE ARCHITECT AND ENGINEER



possessing tlic qualilications for ilu-
practice of professional ent^ineerni}; as
provifled for in the act, shall he permit-
ted to practice not to exceed three
months before making application for
an examination. 'Ibis will allow con-
sultinc: engineers from other States to
practice for a period of three months
without being registered.

Exceptions have been made to the
following: Engineers working for the
L'nited States (jovernment; architects
practicing architecture; professional en-
gineers employed as assistants to pro-
fessional engineers registered under the
act and professional engineers in the
military service of the United States.
l*'or these engineers temporarib^ in the
service of the United States, their serv-
ice shall count as the practice of their
profession and tliey shall be given one
year's time from the date of their dis-
ciiarge in which to make application for
registration without examination. The
act also creates the engineer's registra-
tion fund into which all fees are paid.
Xo appropriation is made from the gen-
eral fund of the State, but the fund is
self-sustaining by the registration fees.

It is specilically stated that the act
will take effect on July 1, 1919, at which
time the members of the board will be-
gin to serve. Professional engineers,
however, may continue practicing with-
out being registered up to January 1,
1920.



Seattle Engineers Club

The Engineers Club of Seattle at a
luncheon on March 6 was treated to a
talk by Major William F. Allison, mem-
ber of the American Society of Civil
Engineers, on "The Work of the Sani-
tary Engineers with the American Army
in France." Major Allison has recently
returned from sixteen months spent in
France as sanitary officer on special
detail. He gave a very interesting ac-
count of his experiences. On March 20
Mr. Lloyd Robey, assistant superintend-
ent of "The Chuquicamato Mine of
Chile," addressed the club.



The Relations Between Engineers and
Contractors*

l;y .lOll.X |-. (JKOIKKK

THE modern contractor is the man
who, even in front of the modern engi-
neer, would be entitled' to membership
in the American Society of Civil Engi-
neers, because that organization says in
order to be an associate of the Ameri-
can Society you must be able to make
l)lans and build work and that you have
had at least one year's experience in
indeiJendent charge of work; to be a
full member, which at the present time
is restricted to people over 30 years of
age, you must have had at least live
years' experience in independent chargc
of work. Now where is there a con-
tractor who belongs to what we call the
educated class who can't fill that bill? So
when 1 talk about the relations between
engineers and contractors, 1 don't want
the very beginning when it was easj'. I
mean is the man that makes the plans,
and the contractor 1 mean is the man
tile engineer tells how to carry out the
work, because that is what thej' did in
the very beginning when it was easy. 1
am going to talk about the engineer and
the contractor in the sense of the two
parties to the contract.

There is first the owner and his rep-
resentative, the engineer; and the engi-
neer is to tell the contractor everything
that the specifications saj' and everj-
thing that the plans mean, and if there
is anything missing he can tell him a
• great deal more than anybody else can
tell him that the}' mean. That is where
we get down to what I am talking
about now as the relation between the
engineer and the contractor. The thing
that appeals to many engineers that
started a good many years ago, was the
fact that in making their plans they had
a great deal more trouble in having
them carried out than if they did the
w-ork themselves.

There were others who were not en-
gineers, but were fine men — men with

*From a speech at the organization meeting of
tile Associated General Contractors of .-Vinerica.



■ IMHUV



ASH-BASSWOOD-BIRCH
AROMATIC RED CEDAR
COTTONWOOD-ELM-HOLLY
SOUTHERN RED GUM
HICKORY-LAUREL-MAPtC
OREGON MAPLE-PLAIN OAK
- QUARTERED OAK -
WYBROCK BENDING OAK
POPLAR — WALNUT




\'Mii\M



BOXWOOD-EBONY-IRONBARK
JENISERO-KOA-SPANISH CEDAR
LIGNUMVITAE- MAHOGANY
ROSEWOOD -TEAK- RED BEAN
SPOTTED GUM-aBCASSAH WAIHUT



LUMBER - TIMBER
HARDWOOD FLOORING
WYBRO VENEERED PANELS
DOOTLS-TREENAILSVENEERS



WHITE BROTHERS



SAN FRANCISCO. GAL.



THE ARCHITECT AND ENGINEER



121




I




4 - ^




^




i j i fht/t, «a:<A'



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country- assures us that our Stanley Garage
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TRADE-



NEW YORK

100 Lafayette Street




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73 East Lake Street



Mark



122



THE ARCHITECT AND ENGINEER



a larne business wlio were put up
aK^inst the hiRher development of con-
struction that they had never any ex-
perience of, because there was no ex-
perience in it. They associated engi-
neers with themselves to enable them
to carry out their work. Those engi-
neers I am going to call the contractor's
engineers. That is, the engineer whom
the contractor employs and without
whom he could not do his work, ordi-
narily, is the contractor's engineer. The
engineer who became a contractor, 1 am
going to call a contracting engineer.
The owner's engineer is the one who
makes the original plans.

What is the situation today in the
relations of those people? In a certain
society any man who is not working for
some city or corporation, or who does
not act as the engineer of the party of
the first part, has no more voice in one
of those national societies than if he
were very obscure in the profession.

There are other branches of engineers
who have gotten to the point that they
have an office. They have hired an
office and call themselves consulting en-
gineers, and many of them, of course,
are among the most eminent men in the
world. But take them as a body. In
their body, if one of them resigns his
job as a consulting engineer, and look-
ing for a consulting fee here and there,
has a chance to do something real big
and takes a part in the execution of a
contract, his first duty to that organiza-
tion is to resign — no longer is he eligi-
ble.

In all these cases there has grown up
a feeling that if a man is an engineer
and is not making the original plans
(however shadowj'^ they may be as to
the final execution of them), unless he
belf)ngs to that party of the first part,
he is not, strictly speaking, an engineer.

Now, as to the party of the first part
— engineers, and the party of the second
part — engineers. It is safe also to say
that in one case thej^ are so underpaid
that I don't know any class of profes-
sional men who are so much the victims
of the employers as the straight engi-
neers in America. The other one is the
fellow who comes in where there are
four dimensions. .\ lot of people are
greatly troul)led to know where the
fourth dimension is. Unless they are
verv poor indeed they've got it in their
pocket.

Take length, breadth and thickness —
from that you get quantity. Multiply
that by this thing that you may have in
your pocket as the fourth dimension,
that applies really to the practical side
of anything because you can't talk about



building liillion dollar way. You've got to
get down to something that is practical;
you've got to get down to something
within the bounds of railroads or ten
billion dollar courthouses or anything
that reason, compared by the standards
of the fourth dimension. Also you've
got to get that fourth dimension in be-
fore you get any dimension at all on a
contract as a contractor. You don't
count if it is too large, and that's what
I'm after.

The thing that I've got in my mind
outside of the organization of this body,
the making of an association in which
all the contractors of the United States
will get their rights made known and
their power felt and their possibilities
of going good — get that all in national
dimensions both for buildings and build-
ers of any other kind of a structure — f
am getting after the engineers where
they will get something and where
among other things they will get out of
their shell and come out and shake
hands with the fellow that is showing
them how the work is being done be-
cause most of them know nothing
about it.

They are simply the products of the
civil service which takes into view the
capability of answering a lot of the-
oretical questions, most of which don't
apply to engineering at all and which is
one of the curses today of doing work
for any body that is covered by civil
service.

We have got to broaden ourselves;
we have got to have contracts in which
there will be something more than the
statement that the engineer is the sole
judge without providing any standard
1)3' which he can be judged as to his
judging. We've got to make the con-
tractors free in the sense that when they
undertake to do anything and feel hon-
estly that they are going to do it and
that they are going to do it in the best *
and most efficient way, that they will
be able to do that without having some-
body that does not know anything at all
about the work starting in to tell them
how they shall do it wrong.

The only way this can be done is to
make ourselves felt as a body of con-
tractors, a body of contractors who (as
my first definition states) are really a
body of engineers. They are called con-
tractors because they draw the thing
together, not because they draw them.
Note the diflference. .\nd we've got to
Iiave it so that whether a man is on
one side or the other, it has got to be
fuUv understood that there is a par-
ticular side that he is on and that they
arc all on. and that is the efficient, eco-
nomical, rapid performance of the work.
This is more to the owner than it is to
the engineers of either side and it is
more to the people in general than it is
to the owner.



THE ARCHITECT AND ENGINEER



123



Engineers Inspect Concrete Shipyard

By a StafF Writer.

ON March 8 the members of the San
Francisco Association of Members
of the American Society of Civil Eng'i-
neers made an inspection trip to the con-
crete shipyard on Government island in
the Oakland estuary, near the 23rd street
bridge. More than 100 members of the
Association and their guests made the
trip. Cards had been sent to all members
of the American Society of Civil Engi-
neers residing within the district, an-
nouncing the trip, and many responded,
one man coming all the way from Mer-
ced. This is the first of a series of ex-
cursions that the local association intends
to arrange during the coming season
through its entertainment committee,
which is composed of F. R. Muhs, chair-
man, H. D. Dewell and W. H. Popert.
The next trip will probably be to Mare
Island.

At the time the visit to the yard was
made, concrete was being poured on the
first of the two 7S00-ton tankers now
under construction. The concrete work
on this vessel has since been completed,
and pouring commenced on the second
tanker. After the two tankers are
launched, work will be started on a 7'500-
ton freighter, and this will complete the
present program. The tankers are 420
feet long, 54-foot beam, and 30-foot
molded depth. They will be fitted with
the standard 2800-h. p. reciprocating
engines of the Emergency Fleet Corpora-
tion. Each hull contains 2400 cubic yards
concrete and 1600 tons of steel, or about
six per cent average reinforcement, the
proportion varying, of course, in differ-
ent parts of the vessel. The work is be-
ing done for the Emergency Fleet Cor-
poration by the San Francisco Shipbuild-
ing Co., the concern that built the
"Faith." The shipbuilding company is
paid a fixed amount for superintending
the work.

Probably the most notable feature of
the construction is the use of an un-
usually light material for concrete aggre-
gate, a sort of crushed brick manufac-
tured especially for the work by the Los
Angeles Pressed Brick Co. The essen-
tial features of its preparation are as fol-
lows: Clay is mixed with water and
carbonaceous matter and the mixture
subjected to a considerably greater heat
than the ordinary brick-kiln. The gas
generated permeates the entire mass and
leaves it full of minute air-holes, but, as
these are not connected, the material
does not absorb water. The material,
after being burnt, is crushed to a maxi-
mum dimension of three-eighths inch.
The concrete is mixed with one part
cement to two parts of aggregate. Con-
crete made in this way weighs 100 pounds
per cubic foot, and develops a compress-
ive strength after seven days ranging



from 3000 to 4000 pounds per square inch.
The maximum working stress in the ship
is 750 pounds per square inch. The con-
crete, as already noted, is impervious to
water. The minimum "cover" of concrete
for the steel is three-quarters inch. The
concrete is tamped with a pneumatic
hammer, held against the forms.

The Emergency Fleet Corporation en-
gineers have developed a simple method
of testing the consistency of the concrete
and proportion of water that should be
useful on other concrete work. A hollow
cylinder 6 inches in diameter and 12
inches high is filled with concrete as it
comes from the mixer. The cylinder is
immediately removed and the height of
the cone after the mixture stops flowing
gives a measure of the consistency of
the concrete. This is usually spoken of
in terms of "inches of drop." Thus if
the 12-inch cylinder finally settled to a
cone of 3 inches high, the "inches of
drop" would be nine. Tests of this kind
are made by the inspectors several times
during the day without interrupting the
work, or taking too much of the in-
spector's time.



Oregon to License Electrical
Contractors

The Oregon Legislature during the ses-
sion which recently closed passed a law
which provides for the licensing of elec-
trical contractors. The main provisions of
the bill are as follows :

After July 1, 1919, every person installing
electric wires must obtain a license to do so
from the Commissioner of Labor and Inspector
of Factories, which license costs an annual fee
of $15 and must be renewed each year. In ad-
dition thereto, he must deposit with the Labor
Commissioner an indemnity bond running to the
State of Oregon in the sum of $500, which
bond is for the purpose of securing parties for
whom the said contractor is installing wires,
against mechanic's liens and work installed in
violation of a code, which code is a code to be
prepared and approved by the Bureau of Stand-
ards, Washington, D. C. It provides for the
printing and distribution of this code tn the
general public. It further provides that if any
electrical contractor fails to register and pay his
license fee that he is excluded from bringing
or defending any suit in any of the courts of the
State, and finally there is a penal clause making
it a misdemeanor for persons to engage in the
installation of electric wires without licensing,
and upon conviction a fine of not more than
$100 is assessable.

There is a saving clause in the bill, allowing
owners of property to do and install their own
work, providing the work is done upon their
own distinctive property, also eliminating mu-
nicipalities, power companies, telephone com-
panies and the like in the construction of their
own lines and apparatus.



Concrete Rice Mill



Plans are being prepared by Mr. Omer
Denn3% consulting engineer, 58 Sutter
street, San Francisco, for a four-storv
reinforced concrete rice mill. 60x80, and
warehouse 500x100, to be built at Co-
lusa for Rosenberg Bros. The buildings
are estimated to cost $250,000.



124



■jiir: AkCiiin-CT and liXCixiiiiK



New Electrical Firm
The Browne- l.anglais Electrical Con-
struction Company, 213 Minna street,
San Francisco, is the name of a new-
electrical contracting? firm which plans
to secure its share of the bi>? business
in store for San Francisco contractors
during the next twelve montlis.

Hoth Mr. Browne and Mr. Lanjjlais
were formerly connected with the firm
of John G. Sutton & Companj' (now
the Scott Company) and more recently
Mr. Browne has been associated with
Mr. H. S. Tittle, contracting and man-
ufacturing electrical engineer.



Announcement

The tirin of Woods, lluddart & Gunn,
444 Market street, San Francisco, has
been incorporated under the new name
of Gunn. Carle & Co. The business will



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