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who do not see and yet believe to them who
see and therefore believe. For even at that
time so irresolute was the infirmity of His
disciples that they thought that He whom
they saw to have risen again must be handled,
in order that they might believe. It was
not enough for their eyes that they had seen
Him, unless their hands also were applied
to His limbs, and the scars of His recent
wounds were touched : that this disciple, who
was in doubt, might cry suddenly when he
had touched and recognized the scars, "My
Lord and my God." The scars manifested
Him who had healed all wounds in others.
Could not the Lord have risen again without
scars? Yes, but He knew the wounds which
were in the hearts of His disciples, and to
heal them He had preserved the scars on His
own body. And what said the Lord to him



who now confest and said, "My lord, and
my God?" "Because thou hast seen," He
said, "thou hast believed; blessed are they
who have not seen, and yet have believed."
Of whom spake He, brethren, but of us?
Not that He spoke only of us, but of those
also who shall come after us. For a little
while when He had departed from the sight
of men, that faith might be established in
their hearts, whosoever believed, believed
tho they saw Him not, and great has been the
merit of their faith; for the procuring of
which faith thej^ brought only the movement
of a pious heart, and not the touching of their

III. These things, then, the Lord did to
invite us to the faith. This faith reigneth
now in the Church, which is spread through-
out the whole world. And now. He worketh
greater cures, on account of which He dis-
dained not then to exhibit those lesser ones.
For as the soul is better than the body, so is
the saving health of the soul better than the
health of the body. The blind body doth not
now open its eyes by a miracle of the Lord,
but the blinded heart openeth its eyes to the
word of the Lord. The mortal corpse doth
not now rise again, but the soul doth rise
again which lay dead in a living body. The
deaf ears of the body are not now opened;
but how many have the ears of their heart
closed, which yet fly open at the penetrating



word of God, so that they believe who did not
believe, and they live well who did live evilly,
and they obey who did not obey ; and we say,
''such a man is become a believer," and we
wonder when we hear of them whom once
we had known as hardened. Why, then, dost
thou marvel at one who now believes, who is
living innocently, and serving God, but be-
cause thou dost behold him seeing, whom thou
hadst known to be blind; dost behold him
living whom thou hast known to be dead;
dost behold him hearing whom thou hadst
known to be deaf? For consider that there
are those who are dead in another than the
ordinary sense, of whom the Lord spoke to
a certain man who delayed to follow the Lord,
because he wished to bury his father; ''Let
the dead," said He, "bury their dead."
Surely these dead buriers are not dead in
body ; for if this were so, they could not bury
dead bodies. Yet doth He call them dead;
where but in the soul within ? For as we may
often see in a household, itself sound and well,
the master of the same house lying dead; so
in a sound body do many carry a dead soul
within; and these the apostle arouses thus,
''Awake, thou that sleepest, and arise from
the dead, and Christ shall give thee light."
It is the same who giveth sight to the blind
that awakeneth the dead. For it is with His
voice that the cry is made by the apostle to
the dead. ' ' Awake thou that sleepest. ' ' And



the blind will be enlightened with light, when
he shall have risen again. And how many
deaf men did the Lord see before His eyes,
when He said, "He that hath ears to hear
let him hear." For who was standing before
Him without his bodily ears? What other
ears, then, did He seek for, but those of the
inner man ?

IV. Again, what eyes did He look for when
He spake to those who saw indeed, but who
saw only with the eyes of the flesh? For
when Philip said to Him, "Lord, show us
the Father and it sufficeth us": he under-
stood, indeed, that if the Father were shown
him, it might well suffice him ; when He that
was equal to the Father had sufficed not?
And why did He not suffice? Because He
was not seen. And why was He not seen?
Because the eye whereby He might be seen
w^as not yet whole. For this, namely, that
the Lord was seen in the flesh with the out-
ward eyes, not only the disciples who honored
Him saw, but also the Jews who crucified
Him. He, then, who wished to be seen in
another way, sought for other eyes. And,
therefore, it was that to him who said,
"Show us the Father, and it sufficeth us,"
He answered, "Have I been so long time
with you, and yet hast thou not known Me,
Philip? He who hath seen i\Ie hath seen the
Father also." And that He might in the
meanwhile heal the eyes of faith, He has first



of all given him instructions regarding faith,
that so he might attain to sight. And lest
Philip should think that he was to conceive
of God under the same form in which he then
saw the Lord Jesus Christ in the body, he
immediately subjoined, "Believest thou not
that I am in the Father, and the Father in
me?" He had already said, "He who hath
seen me hath seen the Father also." But
Philip's eye was not yet sound enough to see
the Father, nor, consequently, to see the Son,
who is Himself coequal with the Father.
And so Jesus Christ took in hand to cure,
and with the medicine and salve of faith to
strengthen the eyes of his mind, which as
yet were weak and unable to behold so great
a light, and He said, "Believest thou not
that I am in the Father, and the Father in
Me?" Let not him, then, who can not yet
see what the Lord will one day show him,
seek first to see what he is to believe; but
let him first believe that the eye by which
he is to see may be healed. For it was only
the form of the servant which was exhibited
to the eyes of servants; because if "He who
thought it not robbery to be equal with God"
could have been now seen as equal with God
by those whom He wished to be healed, He
would not have needed to empty Himself and
to take the form of a servant. But because
there was no way whereby God could be seen,
but whereby man could be seen there was;



therefore, He who was God was made man,
that that which was seen might heal that
whereby He was not seen. For He saith
Himself in another place, ''Blessed are the
pure in heart, for they shall see God."
Philip might, of course, have answered and
said, Lord, do I see Thee? Is the Father
such as I see Thee to be? Forasmuch as
Thou hast said, "He who hath seen Me hath
seen the Father also?" But before Philip
answered thus, or perhaps before he so much
as thought it, when the Lord had said, "He
who hath seen Me hath seen the Father also, ' '
He immediately added, "Believest thou not
that I am in the Father, and the Father in
me?" For with that eye he could not yet
see either the Father, or the Son who is equal
with the Father; but that his eye might be
healed for seeing, he was anointed unto be-
lieving. So, then, before thou seest what
thou canst not now see, believe what as yet
thou seest not. "Walk by faith," that thou
mayest attain to sight. Sight will not glad-
den him in his home w^hom faith consoleth
not by the w^ay. For, so says the apostle,
' ' As long as w^e are in the body we are absent
from the Lord." And he subjoins imme-
diately why we are still "absent or in pil-
grimage," tho we have now believed; "For
we walk by faith, ' ' he says ; * ' not by sight. ' '
V. Our whole business, then, brethren, in
this life is to heal this eye of the heart



whereby God may be seen. To this end are
celebrated the Holy Mysteries; to this end
is preached the Word of God ; to this end are
the moral exhortations of the Church, those,
that is, that relate to the corrections of man-
ners, to the amendment of carnal lusts, to
the renouncing the world, not in word only,
but in a change of life : to this end is directed
the whole aim of the Divine and Holy Scrip-
tures, that that inner man may be purged
of that which hinders us from the sight of
God. For as the eye which is formed to see
this temporal light, a light tho heavenly yet
corporeal, and manifest, not to men only, but
even to the meanest animals (for this the
eye is formed to this light) ; if anything be
thrown or falls into it, whereby it is disor-
dered, is shut out from this light; and tho it
encompasses the eye with its presence, yet
the eye turns itself away from, and is absent
from it; and tho its disordered condition is
not only rendered absent from the light
which is present, but the light to see which
it was formed is even painful to it, so the
eye of the heart too, when it is disordered
and wounded, turns away from the light of
righteousness, and dares not and can not
contemplate it.

VI. And what is it that disorders the eye
of the heart? Evil desire, covetousness, in-
justice, worldly concupiscence; these disor-
der, close, blind the eye of the heart. And



yet, when the eye of the body is out of order,
how is the physician sought out, what an ab-
sence of all delay to open and cleanse it, that
they may be healed whereby this outward
light is seen! There is running to and fro,
no one is still, no one loiters, if even the
smallest straw fall into the eye. And God,
it must be allowed, made the sun which w^e
desire to see with sound eyes. Much brighter,
assuredly, is He who made it; nor is the
light with which the eye of the mind is con-
cerned of this kind at all. That light is
eternal wisdom. God made thee, man,
after His own image. Would He give thee
wherewithal to see the sun which He made,
and not give thee wherewithal to see Him who
made thee, when He made thee after His own
image? He hath given thee this also; both
hath He given thee. But much thou dost
love these outward eyes, and despisest much
that interior eye; it thou dost carry about
bruised and wounded. Yea, it would be a
punishment to, if thy Maker should wish to
manifest Himself unto thee, it would be a
punishment to thine eye, before that it is
cured and healed. For so Adam in Paradise
sinned, and hid himself from the face of God.
As long, then, as he had the sound heart of
a pure conscience, he rejoiced at the pres-
ence of God; when that eye w^as wounded
by sin, he began to dread the divine light,
he fled back into the darkness, and the thick



covert of trees, flying from the truth, and
anxious for the shade.

VII. Therefore, my brethren, since we too
are born of him, and as the apostle says, "In
Adam all die"; for we were all at first two
persons ; if we were loath to obey the physician,
that we might not be sick; let us obey Him
now, that we may be delivered from sickness.
The Physician gave us precepts, when we were
whole; He gave us precepts that we might
not need a physician. "They that are
whole," He saith, "need not a physician,
but they that are sick. ' ' When whole, we de-
spised these precepts, and by experience have
felt how to our own destruction we despised
His precepts. Now we are sick, we are in dis-
tress, we are on the bed of weakness; yet let
us not despair. For because we could not
come to the Physician, He hath vouchsafed
to come Himself to us. Tho despised by man
when he was whole. He did not despise him
when he was stricken. He did not leave off
to give other precepts to the weak, who would
not keep the first precepts, that he might not
be weak; as tho He would say, "Assuredly
thou hast by experience felt that I spoke the
truth when I said, Touch not this. Be
healed then now, at length, and recover the
life thou hast lost. Lo, I am bearing thine
infirmity; drink then the bitter cup. For
thou hast of thine own self made those my
so sweet precepts, which were given to thee



when whole, so toilsome. They were despised,
and so thy distress began; cured thou canst
not be, except thou drink the bitter cup, the
cup of temptations, wherein this life abounds,
the cup of tribulation, anguish, and suffer-
ing. Drink then," He says, "drink, that
thou mayest live." And that the sick man
may not make answer, "I can not, I can
not bear it, I will not drink"; the Physician,
all whole tho He be, drinketh first, that
the sick man may not hesitate to drink. For
what bitterness is there in this cup which
He hath not drunk? If it be contumely. He
heard it first when He drove out the devils.
^'He hath a devil, and by Beelzebub He
casteth out devils." Whereupon, in order
to comfort the sick, He saith, "If they have
called the Master of the house Beelzebub, how
much more shall they call them of His house-
hold?" If pains are this bitter cup. He was
bound, and scourged, and crucified. If death
be this bitter cup. He died also. If infirmity
shrink with horror from any particular kind
of death, none was at that time more igno-
minious than the death of the cross. For
it was not in vain that the apostle, when set-
ting forth His obedience, added, "He became
obedient unto death, even the death of the
cross. ' '

VIII. But because He designed to honor
His faithful ones at the end of the world.
He hath first honored the cross in this world ;



in such wise that the princes of the earth who
believe in Him have prohibited any criminal
from being crucified ; and that cross which the
Jewish persecutors with great mockery pre-
pared for the Lord, even kings, His servants,
at this day, bear with great confidence on
their foreheads. Only the shameful nature
of the death which our Lord vouchsafed to
undergo for us is not now so apparent. Who,
as the apostle says, "Was made a curse for
us.'' And when, as He hung, the blindness
of the Jews mocked Him, surely He could
have come down from the cross, who, if He
had not so willed, had not been on the cross ;
but it was a greater thing to rise from the
grave than to come down from the cross.
Our Lord, then, in doing these divine and
in suffering these human things, instructs us
by His bodily miracles and bodily patience,
that we may believe and be made whole to
behold those things invisible which the eye
of the body hath no knowledge of. With this
intent, then. He cured those blind men of
whom the account has just now been read in
the Gospel. And consider what instruction
He has by this cure conveyed to the man who
is sick within.

IX. Consider the issue of the thing, and
the order of the circumstances. Those two
blind men sitting by the wayside cried out,
as the Lord passed by, that He would have
mercy upon them. But they were restrained



from crying out by the multitude which was
with the Lord. Now do not suppose that this
circumstance is left without a mysterious
meaning. But they overcame the crowd who
kept them back by the great perseverance of
their cry, that their voice might reach the
Lord's ears; as tho he had not already an-
ticipated their thoughts. So then the two
blind men cried out that they might be heard
by the Lord, and could not be restrained by
the multitude. The Lord "was passing by,"
and they cried out. The Lord "stood still,"
and they were healed. "For the Lord Jesus
stood still, and called them, and said. What
wilt ye that I shall do unto you ? They say unto
Him, That our eyes may be opened. ' ' The Lord
did according to their faith. He recovered
their eyes. If we have now understood by the
sick, the deaf, the dead, the sick, and deaf,
and dead within ; let us look out in this place
also for the blind within. The eyes of the
heart are closed ; Jesus passeth by that we may
cry out. What is meant by "Jesus passeth
by ? " Jesus is doing things which last but for
a time. What is meant by ' ' Jesus passeth by ? "
Jesus doth things which pass by. Mark and
see how many things of His have passed by.
He was born of the Virgin Mary; is He be-
ing born always? As an infant He was
suckled; is He suckled always? He ran
through the successive ages of life until man's
full estate; doth He grow in body always?



Boyhood succeeded to infancy, to boyhood
youth, to youth man's full stature in several
passing successions. Even the very miracles
which He did are passed by; they are read
and believed. For because these miracles are
written that so they might be read, they
passed by when they were being done. In
a word, not to dwell long on this, He was
crucified; is He hanging on the cross always?
He was buried. He rose again. He ascended
into heaven, now He dieth no more, death
hath no more dominion over Him. And His
divinity abideth ever, yea, the immortality
of His body now shall never fail. But never-
theless all those things which were wrought
by Him in time have passed by ; and they are
written to be read, and they are preached to
be believed. In all these things, then, Jesus
passeth by.

X. And what are the two blind men by the
wayside but the two people to cure whom
Jesus came? Let us show these two people
in the Holy Scriptures. It is written in the
Gospel, ''Other sheep I have which are not
of this fold; them also must I bring, that
there may be one fold and one Shepherd."
Who then are the two people? One the
people of the Jews, and the other of the Gen-
tiles. ''I am not sent," He saith, ''but unto
the lost sheep of the house of Israel." To
whom did He say this? To the disciples;
when that woman of Canaan, who confest



herself to be a dog, cried out that she might
be found worthy of the crumbs from the
Master's table. And because she was found
worthy, now were the two people to whom
He had come made manifest, the Jewish peo-
ple, to wit, of whom He said, "I am not sent
but unto the lost sheep of the house of Is-
rael"; and the people of the Gentiles, whose
type this woman exhibited, whom He had
first rejected, saying, "It is not meet to cast
the children's bread to the dogs"; and to
whom, w^hen she said, "Truth, Lord, yet the
dogs eat of the crumbs which fall from their
master's table," He answered, "O woman,
great is thy faith ; be it unto thee even as thou
wilt." For of this people also was that cen-
turion of whom the same Lord saith, "Verily
I say unto you, I have not found so great
faith, no, not in Israel," because he had
said, "I am not worthy that Thou shouldst
come under my roof, but speak the word only,
and my servant shall be healed." So then
the Lord even before His passion and glori-
fication pointed out two people, the one to
whom He had come because of the promises
to the Fathers, and the other whom for His
mercy's sake He did not reject; that it might
be fulfilhd which had been promised to
Abraham, "In thy seed shall all the nations
be blessed."

XL Attend, now, dearly beloved. The
Lord was passing by, and the blind men cried



out. What is this ' ' passing by ? " As we have
already said, He was doing works which
passed by. Now upon these passing works
is our faith built up. For we believe on the
Son of God, not only in that He is the Word
of God, by whom all things were made; for
if He had always continued in the form of
God, equal with God, and had not emptied
Himself in taking the form of a servant,
the blind men would not even have perceived
Him, that they might be able to cry out.
But when he WTOught passing works, that is,
when He humbled Himself, having become
obedient unto death, even the death of the
cross, the two blind men cried out. Have
mercy on us, thou Son of David. For this
very thing that He, David's Lord and Crea-
tor, willed also to be David's son, He wrought
in time. He wrought passing by.

XII. Now what is it, brethren, to cry out
unto Christ, but to correspond to the grace
of Christ by good works? This I say,
brethren, lest haply we cry aloud with our
voices, and in our lives be dumb. Who is
he that crieth out to Christ, that his inward
blindness may be driven away by Christ as
He is passing by, that is, as He is dispensing
to us those temporal sacraments, whereby we
are instructed to receive the things which
are eternal? Who is he that crieth out unto
Christ? Whoso despiseth the world, crieth
out unto Christ. Whoso despiseth the



cherish the thought that after a little while
this end awaits thee also. Be more con-
siderate; let another's death excite thee to
salutary fear; shake off all indolence; ex-
amine your past deeds; quit your sins, and
commence a happy change.

We differ from unbelievers in our esti-
mate of things. The unbeliever surveys the
heavens and worships them, because he thinks
them a divinity; he looks to the earth and
makes himself a servant to it, and longs for
the things of sense. But not so with us. We
survey the heavens and admire Him that
made them; for we do not believe them
to be a god, but a work of God. I look on
the whole creation, and am led by it to the
Creator. He looks on wealth, and longs for
it with earnest desire; I look on wealth, and
contemn it. He sees poverty, and laments;
I see poverty, and rejoice. I see things in one
light; he in another. Just so in regard to
death. He sees a corpse, and thinks of it as
a corpse; I see a corpse, and behold sleep
rather than death. And as in regard to books,
both learned persons and unlearned see them
with the same eyes, but not with the same un-
derstanding — for to the unlearned the mere
shapes of letters appear, while the learned
discover the sense that lies within those let-
ters — so in respect to affairs in general, we
all see what takes place with the same eyes,
but not with the same understanding and

1—3 33


judgment. Since, therefore, in all other
things we differ from them, shall we agree
with them in our sentiments respecting

Consider to whom the departed has gone,
and take comfort. He has gone where Paul
is, and Peter, and the whole company of the
saints. Consider how he shall arise, with
Avhat glory and splendor. Consider that by
mourning and lamenting thou canst not alter
the event which has occurred, and thou wilt
in the end injure thyself. Consider whom
you imitate by so doing, and shun this com-
panionship in sin. For whom do you imitate
and emulate? The unbelieving, those who
have no hope; as Paul has said — "That ye
sorrow not, even as others who have no
hope." And observe how carefully he ex-
presses himself; for he does not say. Those
who have not the hope of a resurrection, but
simply. Those who have no hope. He that has
no hope of a future retribution has no hope
at all, nor does he know that there is a God,
nor that God exercises a providential care
over present occurrences, nor that divine jus-
tice looks on all things. But he that is thus
ignorant and inconsiderate is more unwise
than a beast, and separates his soul from all
good ; for he that does not expect to render an
account of his deeds cuts himself loose from
all virtue, and attaches himself to all vice.
Considering these things, therefore, and re-



fleeting on the folly and stupidity of the
heathen, whose associates we become by our
lamentations for the dead, let us avoid this
conformity to them. For the apostle mentions
them for this very purpose, that by consider-
ing the dishonor into which thou fallest, thou
mightest recover thyself from this conformity,
and return to thy proper dignity.

And not only here, but everywhere and
frequently, the blest Paul does the same.
For when he would dissuade from sin, he
shows with whom we become associated by
our sins, that, being touched by the charac-
ter of the persons, thou shouldest avoid such
companionship. To the Thessalonians, ac-
cordingly, he says, Let every one "possess his
vessel in sanctification and honor, not in the
lust of concupiscence, even as the Gentiles
which know not God." And again — "Walk
not as the other Gentiles in the vanity of their
mind." Thus also here — "I would not have
you to be ignorant, brethren, concerning them
which are asleep, that ye sorrow not even as
others who have no hope." For it is not the
nature of things, but our own disposition,
which makes us grieve; not the death of the
departed, but the weakness of those who

We ought, therefore, to thank God not only
for the resurrection, but also for the hope of

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