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12fi 332



MOSAIC BOOKBINDINGS

A CATALOGUE OF AN

EXHIBITION




Mo. A



MOSAIC BOOKBINDINGS

A CATALOGUE OF AN

EXHIBITION

9 9
9



THE GROLIER CLUB

29 EAST 320 STREET, NEW YORK
JANUARY 23 TO FEBRUARY 22, 1902



PREFACE

following account of mosaic 1 bindings does
A. not pretend to trace the development of orna-
ment as found in gold- tooled bindings, except so
far as it is necessary in connection with inlaid work ;
nor can it hope to offer much that is new in the
history of bookbinding. It attempts only, by an
orderly arrangement of the few facts which are
scattered through the works of various writers, to
lead to an intelligent comprehension of an exhi-
bition believed to be unique.

It remains to express indebtedness and thanks to
those writers, both French and English, from whose
books these facts have been taken, and especially
to MM. Henri Beraldi and Ernest Thoinan, Mr.
H. P. Home, and Miss S. T. Prideaux.

1 The term mosaic has been used in this catalogue because
of its general acceptance by writers on bookbinding, though
inlaid would seem to be a better expression in most cases.



M21222



INTRODUCTION

A MOSAIC binding is one which has on its
covers, or doublure, or both, a pattern made
by a combination of small, inlaid pieces of colored
leather, paper, or painted vellum, outlined or tooled
with gold.

A mosaic binding is as different from a gold-
tooled binding as a colored picture is from one in
black and white ; and the rules governing its com-
position should be as different. An appreciation of
this is seen in the work of the best periods, but too
often so-called mosaic bindings are compositions in
gold-tooled lines on polychrome backgrounds.

The motives used in gold-tooled bindings had
their origin in the colored book ornamentation
of the East. The brilliantly painted Persian and
Arabian manuscripts in the Saracenic style gave
these forms, it is thought, to the Venetians, who
used them first in their printed books and then on
their bindings. In the beginning only the simplest
forms were copied in blind or gold lines, but soon
the patterns became more elaborate, and eventually,
as might have been expected of a race always sus-
ceptible to color, a varnished incrustation, like
enamel, was made to add the effectiveness of color



INTRODUCTION



to the gilded design. This art of painted book-
bindings spread rapidly, and reached its best period
in the hands of the French, as well as of the Italians,
during the middle of the sixteenth century. Its
decay is seen in coarse designs and crude colors,
and its final end in the stamped Lyonese bindings.

The frailty of the painted decoration was one of
the causes of its disuse ; and it is partly due to this,
too, that painting or enameling on leather covers
has never been seriously revived. Pared leathers
gained the same color effect, and, not being so per-
ishable, gradually supplanted the older method.

A few examples of bindings inlaid with colored
leathers are found in Italy and France during the
sixteenth and seventeenth centuries; but it was
in the hands of the English, in the seventeenth cen-
tury, and of the French in the eighteenth, that mo-
saic binding, in the strict sense of our definition,
came into general use, and reached its highest de-
gree of interest. The nineteenth century was
marked everywhere by the frequent use of inlaid
leathers. The painted bindings of Italy and the
French eighteenth-century designs were copied in
mosaics with an astonishing skill of execution, far
beyond that displayed at any other time. The end
of the century saw an impulse toward a new style
of decoration, which should be individual. In the
search for new effects, new mediums were used and
the number of mosaic bindings increased to a great
extent.



ITALIAN BINDINGS

Sixteenth Century

The Saracenic motives, which played so important
a part in early Venetian book decoration, and which
were communicated from the printed page to the
binding, show themselves most conspicuously in the
graceful, leaf-like fleurons, at first tooled solid in
gold, then azured and outlined, and in the interlaced
bands or knots, which border the covers.

The finest compositions of these forms are found
on the books belonging to the collections of Jean
Grolier de Servieres, Vicomte d'Aguisy, bibliophile
and treasurer of France under Francis I, and of
Thomas Maioli, of whom almost nothing is known
and their names have come to be descriptive of the
best work of this style. Grolier's bindings vary
considerably in the amount of design used on them
but they are generally simple, not departing far
from the designs found on the early Aldus books.
The bands are interlaced in straight lines; the
fleurons are small and often combined in patterns
by themselves. Maioli's books are treated more
lavishly, and possibly with less delicacy; the fleurons
are often hollow or azured, and combined with
curved gold lines to form arabesques, which are
interlaced with the bands. Frequent use is also
made of the cartouche.



A CATALOGUE OF

Color is found on these bindings, and occasionally
inlaid leathers.

1 ZANCHI, ANTONIO DE, printer.

Missale Romanum. Venice, 1502

2 CATULLUS, TIBULLUS, PROPERTIUS.

[Opera.] 1515

3 OVIDIUS NASO, PUBLIUS.

Opera omnia. " 1534

4 MATTHIOLI, PIETRO ANDREA.

Commentarii In Sex Libros. " 1554

Seventeenth Century

5 TETIUS.

^Edes Barberinae. Rome, 1642

Eighteenth Century

6 Officium Beatae Mariae Vir-

ginis. Venice, 1800



FRENCH BINDINGS

Sixteenth Century

This, the most interesting period in the history of

French gold-tooled bindings, offers few examples

of the art of mosaic- work. Italian styles were copied

8



MOSAIC BOOKBINDINGS

in book-decoration as in all the arts; but it was
especially the era of Nicolas and Clovis Eve, with
whose names are associated the use of the seme
and fanfare, two styles of decoration more largely
copied by later binders than any others except the
Italian work distinguished by the names of Grolier
and Maioli.

Seme is used in heraldry to describe a field sown
with a powder of small bearings, equally distant
from each other. The adoption of this heraldic
motive marks an important addition to the stock of
bookbinding designs.

The fanfare style is evolved out of the Italian
interlaced bands. It consists of irregularly shaped
compartments made by geometrically interlaced
bands, filled, more or less, with branches of oak,
laurel, palm and other figures.

7 GERING, ULRIC, and REMBOLD, BER-

THOLD, printers.
Book of Hours. Paris, 1498

8 ESTIENNE, HENRI, printer.

Libri Moysi quinque. " 1541

9 Manuscript. " 1543
10 TOURNES, JAN DE, printer.

La Sainte Bible. Lyons, 1554

n ARIOSTO, LUDOVICO.

Orlando Furioso. " 1556

12 JUNTE, JACQUES DE, printer.

Brevarium Romanum. " 1556

9



A CATALOGUE OF

13 Coustumes Des Pays Et Bailliage

Du Grand Perche. Paris, 1558

14 GUICCIARDINI, FRANCESCO.

La Historia di Italia. Florence, 1561

15 CESAR, CAIUS JULIUS.

I Commentari. Venice, 1575

1 6 CASTIGLIONE, BALDASSARE.

La Parfait Courtisan. Lyons, 1580



Seventeenth Century
LE GASCON

Between the years 1625 and 1665, a large num-
ber of books were executed, the ornament of which
is based upon the fanfares of the Eves, but with
certain peculiarities which produced the effect of an
individual style. This style is called by the name
of Le Gascon, a binder whose personal history has
been a matter of much speculation, but without very
definite results. An imitator or rival, Florimond
Badier, worked in the style called Le Gascon, and
it was copied by all the binders of the period.

The style of Le Gascon is, in general, as follows :
a geometrical pattern of straight and curved, inter-
laced bands, forming panels which are ornamented
with small dotted figures in varying degrees of
elaborateness, from a rather thin geometrical de-
sign, made with small tools, to a filigree covering
10



MOSAIC BOOKBINDINGS

the whole space. The use of the broken or dotted
line instead of a continuous line is its chief dis-
tinction.

Many of these bindings have the panels between
the bands inlaid with colored moroccos, but few
have the bands themselves inlaid. They are often
clumsy and careless in workmanship, and are chiefly
interesting as showing a desire, on the part of the
binders, to produce variety. Their colors have
been softened and toned down with time and
handling until they produce an excellent effect, hard
to attain in modern work.

Badier is thought to have been the first to make
considerable use of the doublure. Since his time
the insides of the boards have been doubled or cov-
ered with leather, thereby affording a larger oppor-
tunity for decoration.

17 [QUESNEL, PASQUIER.]

Le Jour Evangelique. Paris, 1700

1 8 METTAYER, IAMET, printer.

Le Pseaultier De David. " 1586



Eighteenth Century

During the eighteenth century the taste for mosaic

bindings reached its height. In the hands of such

binders as Antoine-Michel Padeloup, Louis Dou-

ii



A CATALOGUE OF

ceur, Pierre-Paul Dubuisson, Pierre- Antoine La-
ferte", Jacques- Antoine Derome, his son Nicolas-
Denis, and Pierre Vente, and under the influence of
the Eastern works of art, now inundating Europe,
and of the taste of the time for the Rococo, mosaic
bookbinding entered upon a new era. New mo-
tives and new materials were introduced, and it
might almost be said that a new style was created.

Hitherto the decoration of book-covers had
been arranged according to certain simple geomet-
rical rules ; and variety and beauty of design had
depended more upon a variation of the arrange-
ment than upon the number of the motives used.
Now, the most radical change was introduced in
the departure from these rules of symmetry and
balance.

To question whether this style is a good one
would be as fruitless as to quarrel about the value
of the style called Louis Quatorze, its parent in
architecture.

With one or two exceptions, the workmanship
of the binders of the period was poor. It is not
easy to distinguish between the work of different
binders; for they copied each other's designs and
used the same tools ; and, to add to the confusion,
the design of a binder, following an old custom, was
signed by the workman who gilded it. Amidst a
vast quantity of inferior work, some few bindings
stand out in bold relief. It is customary to as-
cribe these to the best-known masters of the style.
12



MOSAIC BOOKBINDINGS

PADELOUP

The most important name in the period, if not in
the history, of French mosaic bindings is Antoine.
Michel Padeloup, commonly called Padeloup le
jeune. He was born in Paris in 1685, of a family
of binders of the same name, whose activities ex-
tended over the seventeenth and eighteenth centu-
ries. In his own day he achieved a high reputation :
besides his appointments as " Relieur ordinaire du
Roy de Portugal " and " Relieur ordinaire du Roy," he
worked for Count Hoym, Madame de Pompadour,
and other celebrated collectors. He died in 1758.

His gold-tooled bindings in the style of Louis
Quatorze and his celebrated dentelle borders (a form
of decoration first used by Boyet on the doublure of
his books, but used by Padeloup on the covers)
place him among the celebrated of his craft. He
was, moreover, almost the first to employ small
pieces of colored leather in a composition that may
really be called a mosaic.

Bindings before his time were inlaid to give
greater effectiveness to the tooled pattern, to accent
or strengthen the design ; but Padeloup made de-
signs in color by means of small pieces of morocco,
the gilding of which was an accessory or finish. He
may be called the father of modern mosaic binding.

Mosaic bindings of the period, and called by his
name, are of two kinds : compartment bindings and
Chinese bindings. The compartment bindings are



A CATALOGUE OF

covered with a diaper of one or two small geomet-
rical figures, usually thought to have had their
origin in the semis of wreaths of the Eve bindings,
but more likely inspired by that same Saracenic art
which gave Aldus Manutius \i\sfleurons. The bril-
liant little " repeats," in several colors, lightened
with gold dots, and outlined with gold, may very
well have been copied from similar patterns, painted
in the margins of Arabian or Persian manuscripts.
One of the earliest examples of compartment bind-
ings is on a copy of "Daphne and Chloe," of 1715,
and is usually ascribed to Nicolas Padeloup.

Whether Antoine-Michel was the first to employ
this motive or not, he made it his own, and it has
come to be associated with his name; and if we
cannot claim for him the honor of its invention, he
is entitled to our admiration for his appreciation
and adoption of so excellent a form of book-cover
decoration. If many of the bindings of this genre,
made during this century, which are ascribed to
Padeloup, are inferior in workmanship to the copies
of them made by Trautz, they have a charm and
vigor which Trautz's work, or the work of any of
the copyists of the middle nineteenth century, does
not possess.

It is uncertain when Chinese works of art were
first introduced into France, but the craze for East-
ern porcelain, lacquers, and stuffs raged during the
second half of the seventeenth century and culmi-
nated in the beginning of the eighteenth. All of

14



MOSAIC BOOKBINDINGS

the French industries were affected by it, to a
greater or less extent, and among them the craft of
bookbinding. Padeloup lived at the time when
the craze for the Chinese was approaching its cli-
max; and, while the earlier examples never go to
such lengths of" chinoiserie " as do those of Lemon-
nier, who came later, the influence of this art was
strong upon him, and it may have been he who
brought into French bookbinding the new motive
which we call Chinese.

These bindings consist, usually, of large pieces of
morocco having, both in their application to the
boards and in their tooling, the effect of applique
work. They sometimes have other materials, like
silk or vellum, combined with the morocco, usually
in the form of a painted medallion, surrounded by
a frame. It is a point worthy of notice that a man
who succeeded so well in composing small and in-
tricate designs should also have had the versatility
to employ the large and free manner of this style.

It is customary to dismiss the mosaic work of
Padeloup, and especially the Chinese bindings,
rather abruptly as poor in composition and below
the level of his other work. It may, however, be
said, remembering that almost all French binders
have been copyists and not artists, that, within the
limits of the styles which influenced him, his work
shows more individuality and striving for artistic
effect than does the work of any French binder
until Michel.

3 15



A CATALOGUE OF

STYLE OF PADELOUP

19 LONGUS.

Les Amours Pastorales De

Daphnis Et Chloe". Paris, 1718

20 Offices Ou Pratiques De De-

votion en Fransois. " 1707

21 ROUSSELET, JEAN PlERRE, Cdl-

ligrapher.

Prieres De La Messe. Man-
uscript. " 1725

22 Heures Nouvelles. " 1761

23 Heures Presentees A Ma-

dame La Dauphine. " [n. d.]

24 JOHN CHRYSOSTOM, Saint.

Homelies. " 1689

25 MARTIALIS, M. V.

Epigrammaton. Sedan, 1624

26 Heures Presenters A Ma-

dame La Dauphine. Paris, [n. d.]

27 [CAVEIRAC, JEAN Novi DE.]

Nouvel Appel. Brussels, 1762



DEROME

Nicholas Denis Derome, called le Jeune, also be-
longed to a large family of binders; no less than
eighteen being mentioned by Thoinan. His father,
16



MOSAIC BOOKBINDINGS

Jacques-Antoine Derome (i696(?)-i76o), was dis-
tinguished for his mosaic bindings ; but it was the
son, who, with Padeloup, gave to this form of orna-
mentation the distinction which it had not known
before. The younger Derome's work was not indi-
vidual ; he appears to have followed closely in the
style of Padeloup, and to such an extent that it has
even been inferred that he may have bought the
tools of Padeloup, upon their sale, after the latter's
death. It may, perhaps, be justly said, that he
perfected the motives employed by Padeloup and
his school, in the same way, but to a far less extent,
that he perfected the dentelle border, which is now
called by his name.

He was born in 1731, was made Master in 1761,
and guard of his guild in 1773. He died about
1788.

STYLE OF DEROME

28 SANDERS, NICHOLAS.

Les Trois Livres. Rome, 1587

DUBUISSON, PIERRE-PAUL ( -1762)

29 Almanach Royal. Paris, 1757

JUBERT, JEAN-PIERRE

30 L'Ordinaire De La Messe. , Paris, 1733

31 [DUFLOS.]

L' Education De Henri IV. " 1790

17



A CATALOGUE OF

LEMONNIER or MONNIER

32 De Limitation De Jesus-Christ. Paris, 1690

33 CICERO, MARCUS TULLIUS.

De Amicitia. " 1749

BISIAUX, PIERRE-JOSEPH

34 ANACREON.

Odaria. Parma, [1784]

UNKNOWN BINDER

35 [TREUVE, SIMON-MICHEL, Abbe".]

Instruction Sur Les Dispositions
qu'on doit apporter Aux Sac-
remens. Paris, 1709



Nineteenth Century

The binders of this century may be divided into
three groups, according to the distinct styles of
their work, which falls into three periods, the early,
middle, and end of the century.

Early. For some time previous to 1800, several
circumstances were at work, tending toward the
temporary upsetting of the established order of
the bookbinding craft. In 1776, Turgot, in his
endeavor to secure liberty of trade, attempted to
18



MOSAIC BOOKBINDINGS

abolish the city guilds, and with them the guild of
the bookbinders. His efforts were unsuccessful,
but the result was accomplished by the Revolution
in 1791; and the fraternity of S. Jean Latran,
founded under Charles VI in 1401, and more in-
strumental than anything else in perfecting the art
so essentially French, came to an end. The Revo-
lution, which burned all books bearing royal or
aristocratic coats-of-arms, which forbade the use of
all symbols of royalty, even in gilders' tools, and
which begrudged the use in books of leather needed
for soldiers' boots, could not be expected to look
with favor upon a craft, the luxurious wares of
which were patronized chiefly by the higher
classes.

With returning prosperity, after the Revolution,
a new style in decoration was necessary to match
the new order of things. The classic reigned every-
where. " From the chief of the state to the chif-
fonnier in the street, every one tried to believe, or to
encourage the belief, that the Empire of France
was the legitimate successor or a reproduction of
that of Rome, and all things which were neither real
nor essential were made to conform to that delu-
sion." Roman friezes, scrolls, eagles, and other
symbols appeared in all directions. The ex-mem-
bers of the Guild of S. Jean were not slow to adopt
motives pleasing to their new patrons; and the
fleurs-de-lis, Le Gascon tools, and Padeloup motives
vanished entirely.



A CATALOGUE OF

The Roman style, it must be admitted, though
often vulgar and heavy, is not ill adapted to the
decoration of the rectangular surfaces of book-
covers. In the hands of some of the early binders
it was used with skill and effectiveness ; but, as a
whole, the genre, like the passion that inspired it,
was too violent to last long.

Mosaic bindings, made by hand, are few in
number. Toward the end of the period, bindings
called by the French "a la cathedrale," with
colored leathers applied with stamps, had quite a
vogue, especially on the works of the school of
writers called the Romanticists.

If French binding lost a strict mentor when the
Guild of S. Jean was abolished, it gained as sure an
encouragement to excellence, and a more liberal
friend, in an institution, the direct outcome of the
Revolution, called the Expositions de rindustrie,
which, beginning in 1798, have been held at inter-
vals ever since. There were no examples of the
binder's art in the first Exposition, but a list of the
awards of the judges of these Assises industrielles
since then would make an outline of the history of
bookbinding.

The important names of the period are the Boze*-
rians, Joseph Thouvenin, Simier, Purgold, and
Lessee.

Bozerian, the younger, was publisher and binder,
with more detractors than admirers ; and this be-
cause he, when all was chaos, introduced into
20



MOSAIC BOOKBINDINGS

France the style of English binders, and because
he died rich. Paul Lacroix said of him that he
produced at one and the same time gilding, tabis,
and bad taste, forgetting that the supply was in
response to a demand, else M. Boz6rian would not
have had money to leave behind him.

Simier, Thouvenin, and Purgold worked in much
the same style. They changed it from time to time,
with the versatility of the government itself, to suit
the taste of republic, consulate, or empire. They
used poor leather, and they and their followers af-
fected the stamp and other labor-saving devices,
which use was a sign of the times and showed a
progressive spirit highly appreciated.



FONTAINE, L.

36 BOILEAU DESPREAUX, NICOLAS.

CEuvres Poetiques. Paris, 1825

SIMIER

37 CESAR, CAIUS JULIUS.

[Commentarii.] Amsterdam, 1635

38 POURCHET, MICHEL.

Chansons. Paris, 1831

SUSSE

39 Album.

21



A CATALOGUE OF

THOUVENIN, JOSEPH (1790-1834)

40 DUMAS, ALEXANDRE.

Henri III Et Sa Cour. Paris, 1829

VOGEL

41 BERNIS, F. J. DE P. DE, Cardinal.

QEuvres. Paris, 1825

UNKNOWN BINDER

42 Album.

43 BERANGER, P. J. DE.

Chansons. Paris, 1829

Middle. After the classicism came a reaction,
which took the form of a return to the old motives.
All of the binders of the period, many of them
trained in the ateliers of the Empire or even earlier,
show this preference for tested styles. The major-
ity of the designs used now, and this is especially
true of mosaic bindings, are either copies, or, at
best, copied after the bindings of the sixteenth or
eighteenth centuries. The whole period might be
called a period of the copyist.

But, if there is a lack of originality, it is by some
excused on account of the excellence of the work-
manship, and especially <zi finishing, which surpassed
anything known before. This excellence alone
raises the bindings of Trautz and some others to
the level of works of art.

22



MOSAIC BOOKBINDINGS

Many collectors arose during the period, who,
for enthusiasm and liberality, rivaled those of the
eighteenth century, and who gave to French book-
binding a position, which, if sometimes out of pro-
portion to its deserts as an art, was appreciative
enough to satisfy the most exacting craftsman.
This era of lavish patronage did much for mosaic-
work, the costliest kind of binding; more were
executed now than at any time since the sixteenth
century. Beraldi tells us that, twenty years later,
the proportion of mosaic bindings, which in 1860
was not one in a thousand, was multiplied a hun-
dredfold.

CAPE (1806-1868)

44 VOSTRE, SIMON, printer.

Book of Hours. Paris,

45 [BOUCHET, JEAN.]

Le Labirinth de fortune. " [1534]

46 THEOCRITUS.

Eclogae triginta. Venice, 1495

47 THEOPHILE (DE VIAU ?).

Le Parnasse Satyrique. Ley den (?), 1660

48 LORRIS, GUILLAUME DE.

Le Rommant de la Rose. Paris, 1529

49 [BOUCHET, JEAN.]

Les Triumphes de La Noble

et amoureuse Dame. " 1536

4 23



A CATALOGUE OF

50 VIEL-CASTEL, HORACE DE.

Statuts De L'Ordre Du

Saint-Esprit. Paris, 1853

51 LONGUS.

Les Amours Pastorales De

Daphnis Et Chloe". [Paris], 1751

52 HORATIUS FLACCUS, QUIN-

TUS.
Opera. Paris, 1828



CUZIN, FRANCISQUE (1836-1890)

53 DESPORTES, PHILIPPE.

Les Premieres Oeuvres. Paris, 1600

(A list of Cuzin's mosaic bindings
is given by Henri Beraldi in his
Estampes et livres, 1892, page
235. This book is No. 3.)

54 Bref Discours De L'Excellence

Et Dignite De L'Homme. " 1558

(In Beraldi's list, No. 6.)

55 [LA ROCHEFOUCAULD, FRANC, ois

DE, Duke.]
Reflexions Ou Sentences Et Max-

imes Morales. " 1665

(In Beraldi's list, No. 8.)

56 [BONAPARTE, LUCIEN.]

La Tribu Indienne. " [1799]

(In Beraldi's list, No. 18.)
24



MOSAIC BOOKBINDINGS

57 PLANTIN, CHRISTOPHER, /rzVz&r.

Vivae Imagines Partium Corporis.

Antwerp, 1566
(In Beraldi's list, No. 23.)

58 BERQUIN, ARNAUD.

Idylles. [n. d]

59 VILLON, FRANCOIS.

Les Oeuvres. Paris, 1533

60 CELSUS, AURELIUS CORNELIUS.

De Medicina Libri viii. " 1528



HARDY, NESTOR CANARIS (1825- )
MENNIL

6 1 CATULLUS.

Poesies. Paris, 1867

62 VOSTRE, SIMON, printer.

Book of Hours. " [n. d.]



JOLY, see TH I BARON

LORTIC, MARCELIN (1822-1892)

63 VIRGILIUS MARO, PUBLIUS.

Les ceuvres. Paris, 1540


1

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