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SB EfiD



PERSONAL
SALESMANSHIP



STUDENTS'
BUSINESS BOOK SERIES




A. W. SHAW COMPANY

CHICAG'O NEW YORK

LONDO N



STUDENTS'
BUSINESS BOOK SERIES

Correspondence

How TO WRTTE BUSINESS LETTERS

SALES CORRESPONDENCE

BUSINESS COHHESPONDENCE

THE SYSTEM BOOK OF STANDARD PARAGRAPHS

AND FORM LETTERS
BUSINESS CORRESPONDENCE LIBRARY ( Three volumes)

Advertising

How TO WRITE ADVERTISING
ADVERTISING

GOOD WILL, TRADE-MARKS AND UNFAIR TBADING
BANK ADVERTISING METHODS

Finance

CBEDIT AND COLLECTION METHODS
How TO FINANCE A BUSINESS
CBEDITS,. COLLECTIONS AND FINANCE

Buying
PCTBCHASING PROBLEMS BUYING AND HIKING

Selling

SALESMANSHIP AND SALES MANAGEMENT
SELLING METHODS
SELLING METHODS RETAILING
SELLING METHODS REAL ESTATE
SELLING METHODS FIRE INSURANCE
SELLING METHODS LIFE INSURANCE

Salesmanship

PERSONAL SALESMANSHIP

DEVELOPING TACT AND PERSUASIVE POWER

THE KNACK OF SELLING

Retailing

STORE MANAGEMENT
KEEPING UP WITH RISING COSTS

Management

PERSONAL EFFICIENCY IN BUSINESS
OFFICE MANAGEMENT
BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION
BUSINESS MANAGEMENT
PERSONALITY IN BOSINESS

Office Work

ACCOUNTING AND OFFICE METHODS
COSTS AND STATISTICS
THE COST OF PRODUCTION

Production

OUTLINES OF FACTORY OPERATION
INDUSTRIAL ORGANIZATION
THE KNACK OK MANAGEMENT
How SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT Is APPLIID
MORE Povf ,R , FT.OM Co.ti., , "

Factory Manafemftit (Six t vdium6s \u k'ie e&riei)
BUILDINGS AND MACHINERY

MAINTENANCE
MATEBMLA {vNnr

'' AND'Co*T3



A. W. SHAW COMPANY

PUBLISHERS OF SYSTEM AND FACTORY
NEW YORK CHICAGO LONDON



COPYRIGHT 1909, BY
THE SYSTEM COMPANY

L'NUEK THK TITLK "llOVV TO INCREASE YOUK SALKS'



CONTENTS




THE

Play the Ganre -o.

CHAPTER PAGE

I. SELLING THE! LIFEBLOOD OF BUSINESS 7

By Walter H. Cottingham, Vice-President and
General Manager, The Sherwin-Williams
Company

II. THE ESSENTIALS OF SALESMANSHIP 11

By J. W. Binder, Sales Manager, The Dicta-
phone Company of America



PART II
HOW TO MAKE THE SALE

Know How r

III. THE STEPS IN THE SALE .-. 17

By W. A. Waterbury, Sales Manager,
A. B. Dick Company

IV. SELLING A SPECIALTY 21

By J. W. Binder, Sales Manager, The Dicta-
phone Company of America

V. SELLING A LINE 33

By J. Harry Selz, Vice-President, Selz, Schwab
& Company

VL SELLING TO THE USER 43

By F. C. Gilbert

PAET III
HOW TO HANDLE THE BUYER

Know Tour Ground
VII. GETTING PAST THE OUTPOST 51

VIII. ANSWERING OBJECTIONS 60

By W. A. Waterbnry, Sales Manager,
A. B. Dick Company

IX. LANDING THE ORDER . 69



CONTENTS

PAET IV
HOW TO KEEP CUSTOMEES' LISTS

CHAPTER Ma1ce Details Automatic p AGE
X. THE SALESMAN 's DIRECTORY OF BUYERS 81

By Charles W. Norton, District Sales Manager,
The Shaw-Walker Company

XI. THE SALESMAN'S ALBUM OF CUSTOMERS 86

XII. THE SALESMAN 's MEMORY PARTNER 92

By Charles W. Norton, District Sales Manager,
The Shaw-Walker Company

PAET V
HOW TO KEEP CUSTOMERS IN LINE

The Comeback Tliat Counts

XIII. GETTING THE RE-ORDERS 97

By P. W. Lennen, Sales Manager, The Royal
Tailors

XIV. THE SALESMAN AS THE CUSTOMER'S PARTNER.... 100

By W. F. Hypes, Sales Manager, Marshall Field
& Company

XV. GIVING THE CUSTOMER A LIFT 104

By P. W. Lennen, Sales Manager, The Royal
Tailors

XVI. THE SALESMAN'S FOLLOW-UP BETWEEN CALLS. 107



PAET VI
HOW TO USE THE CO-OPERATION OF THE HOUSE

Shoulder to Shoulder

XVII. FURNISHING THE SALESMAN AMMUNITION 115

By T. Channing Moore, District Manager,
International Time Recorder Company

XVIII. HELPING THE SALESMAN HOLD CUSTOMERS 120

By George B. Spencer

XIX. POSTING THE HOUSE ON TRADE CONDITIONS 123

By Charles E. Cake, of The Office Appliance
Company



Part I



THE GAME OF SELLING



ESSENTIALS OF
SALESMANSHIP




In this chart are analyzed the requisite qualities of knowledge, confidence
and personality which constitute the essentials of salesmanship



Play Your Part

PLAY THE GAME!

It's the steady, vigilant, intense fighting
with every ounce of strength given to
every minute of play that wins the game
of business the pennants of commerce,

Ignore the odds against you the long
struggle ahead the strength of the oppo-
sitionthe jeering of the multitude.

Keep your eye on the ball your hope
and determination on the goal. Plan
every move watch every signal seize
every opportunity as though it meant the
winning play.

A mountain is only a large mole hill; a
Gibraltar must yield to incessant drip-
ping. And it's this steady, pushing
pounding, hammering of ceaseless play
that lands the ball on the right side of the
goal line and the profits on the right
side of the ledger.

PLAY THE GAME!




^
,



CHAPTER I
Selling the Lifeblood of Business

BY WALTER H. COTTINGHAM

Vice-President and General Manager, The Sherwin-Williams

Company

What is business?

This game which men play, revel in, live for

This game which men play and continue to play, even
after its apparent object is accomplished after great
fortunes are laid away ?

What is the sustaining element in this great game
which develops men and builds up industries and nations
as a by-product of the joy of playing!

What is it that keeps quick the nerve centers and
furnishes the lifeblood?

It is another, inner game the game of selling. Here
it is that men match skill and shrewdness in the struggle
for success.

The selling force is the fighting factor the militia
of every house. It establishes the outposts of industry,
it gains new ground to build up strength and stability,
it guards from threatened failures the stronghold of
success.

Loyalty to the men on the firing line is the patriotism
of the business world, and the spirit of the great sell-



8 THE GAME OF SELLING

ing game they play is what thrills the men in the con-
flict of competition and makes the battle of business
worth waile. ,

I?', is tht Thrill 'of Pise sure in Conscious Success that

. c c r ' < '

Spurs Men on

Business is warfare. It is a hard, constant fight to
the finish. The moment a contestant enters the field
of commerce he is challenged by a host of competitors.
All his movements are disputed and opposed by those
already in possession of the field. He must fight to
live. He must conquer to succeed.

So it is that a man of business is like a soldier of
the regiment. And like the well-trained soldier who
delights in the clamor of battle, the enterprising busi-
ness man is eager for the struggle of competition. He
likes the excitement of contending for supremacy. He
delights to overcome those who oppose him and he finds
genuine pleasure in outwitting his rivals.

It is the spirit of rivalry that sharpens a man's in-
tellect and spurs on his energy. And unless a man is
possessed of this desire to overcome, to surpass, to stand
first in his line, he can never hope to carry the day, he
will never succeed in the fight.

Profit, which is the reward of industry and ability
in business, is not the sole object and consideration that
actuates the really successful man. The love of gain
cannot inspire him to the highest endeavor. There must
be something greater, something more enduring to call
forth his supreme efforts and satisfy his ambition.

And that something is the same spirit that is possessed
by the men of war who go into battle to do or die.

Every man likes to win at something. Is it not so ?
The love of victory is in every man's heart, and the



THE LIFEBLOOD OF BUSINESS 9

greatest game in all the world is the game of success.
Men's ideas of success may differ, but I believe eyery
man desires it, and aims at it in some form or other.

Winning success is a serious matter. It cannot be
accomplished in an easy or offhand manner. It's
strictly and painfully true there's no royal road to
the goal. It's hard pull up hill, over a rocky, if straight,
road all the way. You can't make it without climbing,
nor without bruises. When you reach the top you may
ride in your carriage or automobile, but you'll have no
time or use for these on the way up. In the heat of
the battle and in the stress of the struggle you must go
unaided and alone.

It's the only way and the best way. Success would
possess no charm apart from the struggle. It's in the
winning hour, in overcoming, in conquering, that the
victor finds his joy.

Opportunities are Unlimited for the Man with
Ambition to Win New Victories.

Progress is development, and development is the pur-
pose of life. Where there is no progress there is stag-
nation, and stagnation is death. The great country in
which we enjoy the privilege and good fortune of living
is the most progressive in the world. No other country
ever advanced so rapidly or so far. No other people
have enjoyed such a measure of prosperity as the
American people. Such is the atmosphere in which
we live and work. It is as natural for our aggressive
organization to progress as it is for us to breathe the
invigorating air that sustains us.

Ambition is the great incentive to progress. It is
the desire to excel, the eagerness to surpass old records
and establish new ones, that fires the mind, quickens



10 THE GAME OF SELLING

the pulse and prods the energy to attempt greater
achievements.

Imagination also plays a great part in the march of
progress. The man of deeds is a man of vision. We
must first picture in our minds the aims we strive for.
We must behold a vision of what we long to be. The
plans for every great structure first exist in the mind of
the architect before they find expression in the drawings
of his chart. So the plans for our career, which is to
be our life's work, must first be sketched by the imagi-
nation on the brain, then worked out by the mind and
at last realized in our work.

Too many work without plans or specifications they
never see the vision, and their structures are poor and
shapeless and never enduring. As the plans are crude
and small, so will the building be.

The great thing, therefore, is to plan big and broad
and high and secure. Keep the plans ever before your
eyes, work close to the specifications and keep building
steadily and securely, bit by bit, until your structure
rises to its full height and glory.



Eve^ry Man a Salesman

THE biggest men in the world today
are salesmen. They may call
themselves bankers, lawyers, engineers,
or ministers. As a matter of fact, they
are all selling their own or someone
else's services, and the man who is the
best salesman gets the highest price.

Edwin W. Moore.




CHAPTER II
The Essentials of Salesmanship

BY J. W. BINDER

Sales Manager, The Dictaphone Company of America

The essential factors of salesmanship are two:
knowledge and confidence.

The first factor is divided, for purposes of clarity,
into two sub-divisions knowledge of yourself and
knowledge of your goods. Let us consider them in their
order.

Knowledge of yourself. What does this mean? Do
you know yourself? By this I do not mean that you
should know yourself as your neighbor knows you, as
those with whom you come in contact know you. I
mean a different kind of knowledge, such as is not
obtained tnrough the criticism of your friends or your
enemies, nor by listening to what other people say about
you. Such knowledge is obtained only by rigid intro-
spection. Some night after you have retired and the
lights are out, ask yourself frankly the question What
are your strong points? What are your weak points?
Do not attempt to disguise from yourself that you have
some of each. Be perfectly frank.

First, as to your strong points. Are you courageous!
Are you persistent? Do you have that faculty of tak-

11



12 THE GAME OF SELLING



ing hold of a thing and sticking to it until it is finished ?
Do you have the quality of initiative? If you have
not these qualities, cultivate them. Without them you
will not amount to a very great deal.

A second point: Are you truthful? By this I mean
not according to the tenets of common honesty, but are
you truthful with yourself ? Look into this matter care-
fully, and if you are not, cultivate absolute truthful-
ness.

So much for the first point knowledge of yourself.

Thorough Knowledge of the Product an Absolute

Essential

Now, regarding the second point, knowledge of your
product, I cannot make it too emphatic that no sales-
man who attempts to sell anything, whether it be a
yeast cake or the most complicated machine, can hope
to succeed unless he knows that yeast cake or machine
a thousand per cent better than the man to whom he
wishes to sell it. If you are selling a yeast cake you
must know exactly of what it is composed. You must
know how many molecules of carbon, of hydrogen, of
nitrogen are in it. You must know exactly what these
will do under given conditions. I say you must know
this very much better than the man to whom you are
attempting to sell it, because if you do not, the chances
are he will corner you, and you will lose his business.

If you are selling a machine, you must know all about
that machine. This implies knowledge of its mechanical
construction, knowledge of the processes which make up
that construction, and knowledge of what it will do
under certain circumstances. In short, you must know
it "down to the ground.' Then it is not enough
merely to know its mechanical construction. The sales-



ESSENTIALS OF SALESMANSHIP 13

man who is satisfied to know merely that, will be a
weak man at best. You must know, aside from this,
the possibilities of your machine. Write alongside of
this word "possibilities" another quality without which
a salesman can be of little account. It is the word
"imagination.' Imagination is as essential to the sales-
man as to the poet or novelist.

Keep your head in the clouds, but keep your feet on
the ground. Be sure to do that or you will not draw
your salary, but look ahead. Don't see only the im-
mediate present, but contemplate the magnificent future
which is ahead of you, and if you are selling a proposi-
tion which does not arouse these qualities, get out, and
get into something that will.

So much for the need of imagination in a salesman
if he would be properly equipped.

This brings you logically to the second factor in sales-
manship, which is confidence.

Confidence the Prime Requisite to a Salesman's

Personality

Confidence is the one factor which gets more orders
than any other quality of salesmanship. What is it
which impresses you in a man who approaches you with
a proposition?

Suppose he comes into your office in a half-hearted
manner, his whole attitude abject, like "Uriah Heep"
of Dickens' creation. Does he impress you as a strong
man? Will you listen to him? No, you will "shoo"
him out of the office.

But suppose that he opens the door, comes in with a
firm tread, with his head up and his chest out. He looks
you straight in the eye, sits down by your desk, and
you immediately feel the force of his personality.



14 THE GAME OF SELLING

Don't you believe that the chances of such an approach,
of such a demonstration are very much better for the
man getting an order than they would be if he ap-
proached you in a manner which convinced you before
he had said a word that he had no confidence, either in
himself or his proposition?

Now having considered the two facts which are essen-
tial in the makeup of a salesman, let me say that having
these two, knowledge and confidence, you will naturally
have the result of these two, enthusiasm. Without en-
thusiasm no great deed was ever done. If you go
back in your mind over the pages of history as you
know it, and think of the men who have left their im*
press upon the world's history, you will find that to the
last man they were enthusiasts. Most of them were en-
thusiasts to a degree that they gave up their lives in
defense of the peculiar subject which aroused their en-.
thusiasm, but one and all they were dreamers; enthusi-
asts, to my mind, is a better word.



The Balanced Salesman

A REAL salesman is one part talk
and nine parts judgment; and he
uses the nine parts of judgment to tell
when to use the one part of talk.

George H. Lorimcr.



Part II



HOW TO MAKE THE SALE




































INQUIRIES
















































FINDING THE


















PROSPECT

























LISTS
















1


NEWS REPORTS




































PRELIMINARY


















INFORMATION
























.






























FINDING RIGHT MAN




































PASSING GUARD
























STEPS
IN THE SALE













(FINDING POINT OF CONTACT


















GETTING ATTENTION




































AROUSING INTEREST






















































COMPOSITION AND












DEMONSTRA-






MANUFACTURE












TION






USES AND ADAPTABILITIES


































































ARGUMENT






COMPARING WITH
COMPETITORS




































CREATING FEELING












[ANSWERING



















OBJECTIONS
(SEE PART 3)






ARGUING BY FIGURES






























closE

































































A graphic analysis of a sale, from the finding of the prospect to the close
as treated in detail in the following part



Know How



There is no such thing as luck in the game
of selling. It is governed by a code of
rules as strict as the laws of mathematics.

It admits of no speculation, no uncertain-
ties. It is a science with causes and ef-
fects unerring in their accuracy.

It is with selling as it is with health. You
may violate the laws of nature without
bringing immediate death. But you
weaken your vitality, you lessen your
physical force.

So you may violate the laws of selling
without courting immediate failure. But
you cripple your capacity, you discount
your ability.

Study the code. Read the rules. Make
every sale right.

Know howl




CHAPTER III

.

The Steps in the Sale

BY W. A. WATERBURY
Sales Manager, A. B. Dick Company

The present day scientific salesman is a student of
psychology. He learns by observation of the men he
meets the natural laws by which the mind is governed
and arranges accordingly the plan of his proposition.

He learns that before the average customer can be
persuaded to buy an article his mind must be led
through four stages. The first step is attention. He
must concentrate the prospect's mind on the article he
is presenting. Next he must arouse his interest and,
building on this, lead up to the next step, desire. When
this point is reached the salesman must recognize it im-
mediately and endeavor to bring the customer to a de-
cision to buy. To make the mistake of talking beyond
this point the so-called "psychological moment" may
mean the loss of the sale.

Salesman First Questions the Prospect Regarding
His Needs to Be Sure of His Position

But let us follow through in a *nore detailed way the
process of a sale. Assume that an inquiry has been re-
ceived regarding an article and that a salesman goes

17



18 HOW TO MAKE THE SALE

the inquirer's place of business to present his proposi-
tion.

He first determines whether the prospect has use for
the article or to what purpose he desires* to put it. This
information gives the salesman the lay of the ground and
enables him to plan his sales talk accordingly.

Second, he must convince the customer that the article
he needs is the particular one that the salesman has to
sell. To do this he must make clear the exact advan-
tages which the article will afford him in his business;
that is, he must convince the customer that it will be of
value to him either in bringing additional business to
him or in saving him time, labor or money, or that it
will accomplish the same end in some other way.

Following this, the salesman must show him the su-
perior feature of the particular make of article or line
he is handling over that offered by competitors or an?
other it is possible to procure. I do not consider it
wise to depreciate the meritorious features of a com-
peting article, but rather to extol the superior features
of my own.

One of the main points in presenting the proposition
is to be as lucid as possible in the description. No new
point or argument should be taken until the one under
consideration has taken effect and made a definite
impression.

How to Handle the Prospect at the Climax the
Important Point in the Sale

It is just as important to know when to stop talking
as to know what to say, and it is always well to give the
customer an opportunity to do his share of questioning,
for this gives the salesman an opportunity to dispose of
any objections that may be brought up.



THE STEPS IN THE SALE 19

When the customer has thus displayed an active inter-
est in the proposition, the salesman should watch him
closely for an opening to bring the selling talk to a
climax. He will need to judge from the individual case
and circumstances just how to close the sale, but when
he sees that the prospect is on the point of making the
decision, the salesman should write out the order and, in
a most matter of fact way, without asy break in the
conversation, pass it over to be signed.

Getting the signed order is the all important thing, for
the average man does not like to back out and counter-
mand an order to which he has attached his signature.
He may argue for a delay, but once the prospect has
been carried through the process of the sale, every pos-
sible resource of the salesman should be brought forth
at the close to secure the actual order. A signed con-
tract for one article on the spot is ordinarily worth more
than a hundred promises for the future.

The Six Steps in Making a Sale and How Each One
is Made l>y the Salesman

In every sale, therefore, there are six steps, and these
steps follow each other in regular order :

1. Finding the prospect.

2. The pre-approach the preparations the salesman
makes, the information he gathers, before he goes into
the presence of the prospect.

3. The approach this is the gaining-attention stage,

4. The demonstration the description and explana-
tion of the goods, by which the salesman arouses the in-
terest of the prospect.

5. The argument the application of the goods to the
prospect's needs, the convention stage.

6. The climax and closing the taking of the order.



20 HOW TO MAKE THE SALE

Every sale has these six steps. But in no two sales
are they ever the same length, or taken in just the same
way. Depending upon the salesman, the goods and the
prospect one or another of these steps may be empha-
sized and the rest or some of the rest thrown in the
background.

Every customer must be found; the salesman must
gather some prelim inaiy information ; he must meet his
prospect for the first time; he must demonstrate his
goods; he must bring forth arguments as to why the
prospect should buy; he must close the sale.

But sometimes it takes only a hint from a fellow
salesman or an inquiry, to find a prospect; and at other
times it requires a month's work everything from a
national advertising campaign down to an examination
of the local directory. In the case of one, the salesman,
in preparing to meet the prospect the first time, learns
his name and phone number. In the case of the other,
he may want to learn all about his business: exactly
what he manufactures or deals in; what his volume of
business is ; how much of these particular goods he buys ;
where he is buying his supply; he will want to find out
about his personal habits, what his fads and fancies are
what kind of a disposition he has. He may have to pull
wires for a month, getting letters of introduction or
finding some way to get at the prospect that is unusual,
but sure.



Man to Man

TT^VERY salesman recognizes the im-
"-^ portance of the personal element
the intimate touch as man and man
rather than as seller arid buyer.





CHAPTER IV
Selling a Specialty

BY J. W. BINDER

Sales Manager, The Dictaphone Company of America

It is one thing to plan a campaign for selling the
goods and another thing to sell them. It requires one
type of man and experience to do the first, another 1 type
for the second.

The selling campaigns of successful companies follow
a definite, carefully worked out and laid out plan. Suc-
cessful houses are working out just as definite and specific
methods to be followed in the making of actual sales. The
salesman no longer signs his name to a contract of em-
ployment, takes a grip and wanders away into the open


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