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I. More remoter stations of correspondence, communicating with
the routes I, i, I, 2, I, 3 (and eventually with II).

We mentioned on p, 86 the possibility that the present town Albona
in Istria belonged to the prototypes Ad & Ae, as Alvona Ad and Albo-
kensioi Ae = Alvona Tabula, Albona Anon. Ravennas. Certainly, the
Tabula does not connect Alvona directly with the system of Dacian
routes. But the Anon. Ravennas at least represents Albona as the
starting point of an Illyrian route. Apart from its occurrence as Alvona
Ad and (?) Albokensioi Ae, a third Ptolemaic prototype recorded the
place as Alvon. Undoubtedly, Albona possessed a certain importance,
still to-day reflected by the fact that it is the one of the two sole
surviving Roman towns on the east coast of Istria amidst a population
of immigrated Slavs. The gulf of Quarnero, on which Albona is
situated, is the one main entrance to the road leading down the Save
valley, the most direct route from Italy to Dacia. Such circumstances
make it easily conceivable that Albona has, as it seems, become the
starting point of the western systems of routes in Ad and Ae.

If the occurrence of Albona in Ad and Ae is still questionable, it is
all the more certain that a nearer starting point of the western Dacian
systems of roads was formed by Sallis Ad = Saldensioi Ae = Saldis
Tabula & Anon. Ravennas; i. e. *Saldae in grammatically correct Latin.
The town was situated on the southern border of the inferior Save and,
according to the Tabula, directly connected with that route which crossed
the Danube, entering Dacian territory near Arcidava. Saldae is mentioned
nowhere except by the four authorities mentioned, but its appearance in
Prot. Ae is sufficient to prove its character as a starting point.

2. Route I, I.

Tab. Saldis, Arcidava, Azizis, Tivisco no. i.
Ad Sallis, Aizizis, Tibiskon.

After Saldis, the next main station is Viminatio, according to the
Tabula, i. e. the well known city of Viminacium in Moesia superior, due
east of the mouth of the Morava.

Arcidava Tab. follows directly after the route has passed the
Danube. This name is lacking in Ad, but its duplicate Argidava =
Acidava Tab. appears in Ae, belonging to route I, 2, and situated at
a considerable distance east of Tiriskon i. e. Tivisco no. 2, Tab. The
order is reversed: Arcidava, Tivisco in I, i, Tiriskon, Argidava in I, 2;
probably, it is the Tabula that is mistaken.

Aizizis Ad = Azizis Tabula. The Emperor Trajanus writes that
he went from Berzobis to Aizis, cf. Priscianus VI, p. 682 (*'Auctores
gram. Lat.", ed. Putsch). Consequently, Aizizis must lie in the neigh-

§ 22. LOCAL PROTOTYPES Ac, Ad & Ae 93

bourhood of the present river Berzava, debouching into the Temes from
the south. According to an inscription, a god named Azizus was wor-
shipped in the Dacian town Patavissa, cf. C. Miiller, I, p. 449.

Ti bisk on Ad, Tivisco no. i Tab.^ re-appearing as Tiriskon Ae,
Tivisco no. 2 Tab., belonging to route I, 2. It is probably the present
Temesvar. Ptolemy erroneously attributes the name Tibiskos to the
river Theiss, Hungarian Tisza, whereas it is in reality preserved by the
river Temes.

Ptolemy places Tibiskon south of Aizizis, almost at the mouth of
the Temes. We suppose that this localisation is due to the general
displacement of Prot. Ad in the region concerned. The true sequence
seems to be: i. Viminakion, south of the Danube; 2. Aizizis, near the
Berzava, i. e. south of the Tibiskos; 3. Tibiskon = Temesvar.

3. Route I, 2.

Ad Sallis, Tibiskon, Zarmizegethusa, Zurobara, Singidava.

Ae Saldensioi, Tiriskon, Argidava, Zermizirga, Ziridava, Sangidava.

This route may be regarded as a continuation of I, i, yet with a
partially altered line: the stations Tibiskon and Argidava re-appear,
whereas Aizizis is omitted.

The first station on the continued route is Sarmisegethusa (Zarmi-
zegethusa) Ad^ Zermizirga Ae = respectively Sarmategte and Germizera
of the Tabula. It is the terminal station of route II, capital of the
Dacian king Dekebalos and hence called "royal" by Ptolemy; point of
astr. observation, Ptol.; vignette with towers, Ptol. & Tabula. The name
signifies a racial mixture of Sarmates and of Getes, i. e. Dacians; it is
besides attributed to the river Sar(mati)-Getias, the present Sztrigi or
Streiu, which flows past the town, cf. p. 84.

Zurobara Ad, Ziridava Ae, next station. Perhaps the present
Szerda hely east of the river Sztrigi. Ziridava is the right spelling.

Singidava Ad, Sangidava Ae, terminal point of correspondence,
otherwise belonging to route IV. Cf this route.

4. Route I, 3.

Tab. (Saldis), (Tivisco no. 2), (Acidava), ad Aquas, Germizera,

Ae Saldensioi, Tiriskon, Argidava, *Aquae, Zermizirga, Ziridava, ' ^

Tab. Apula, Salinis, Patavissa, Napoca, Cersie, Porolisso, AAAA

Ae Apulon, Salinai, Patruissa, Napuka, Porolisson, AAAA, Karrodunon.

The larger part of this route is identical with I, 2. But from Apulon

I, 3 continues due north, whereas I, 2 turns towards the north-east in


the direction of Singidava — Sangidava. And the Tabula does not make
the route start from Saldis or from any other western point of corre-
spondence, occurring in Ae, but places the starting point within Dacian
territory, viz. at the station ad Aquas = Hydata Ae. In our opinion
the route can scarcely have contained both Tibiskon and ad Aquas; the
beginning must be: either Tibiskon — Zarmizegethusa, i. e. from the
Danube along the Temes to the Sztrigi; or ad Aquas — Zarmizegethusa,
i. e. from the Danube (Iron Gate) along the Cerna to the Sztrigi. The
exact coincidence between Ae and the Tabula makes it most plausible
to conclude that the route leading to Porolisson started practically at
ad Aquas, even if it were thence connected with the more remote station
of correspondence Saldae, belonging to the routes I, i and I, 2.

The starting point Hydata Ae — ad Aquas Tabula must be placed
in the immediate neighbourhood of the Danube. It is the only Dacian
bath mentioned by Ptolemy and on the Tabula; also the translation of
Aquae into the Greek Hydata points to a certain importance. The
place must be identical with the Aquae Herculis near the mouth of the
river Cerna, known as a fashionable bathing establishment of antiquity.

After passing Zarmizegethusa and Ziridava (see route I, 2), the next
station is Apulon Ae, Apula Tabula. It is the junction with route IV
and has a vignette with two towers on the Tabula. The town is a
district capital after which one of the three Dacian provinces of Rome
is called Apulensis. It is supposed to be the present Karlsburg, Karoly
Fejervar in Hungarian.

Salinai X^ = Salinis Tabula. A Roman saltern. Point of astronomic
observation, Ptol. Vignette with towers, Ptol. (The Athos Atlas has a
vignette of the second class only, with 5 battlements). According to
C. Miiller, I, 447, Salinai was situated at Felvincz which means "saltern"
in Hungarian. Here an inscription of the 5th Macedonian legion has
been found. Others prefer the localisation near Thorda which also
possesses a saltern.

Patruissa = Patavissa Tabula & inscription; more frequently in in-
scriptions Potaissa. According to C. Miiller, I, 446, situated at the
present Thorda.

Ulpianon, Garrison-city of the Cohors I Flavia Ulpia that built
the road between Patavissa and Napuka in the year 109 A. D., according
to a local inscription, cf. C. Miiller, I, 446. The Ptol. map places Ulpianon
at a considerable distance west of the route. Perhaps this is an error.

Napuka = Napoca Tabula & inscr., designated with two towers on
the Tabula. Roman colony according to Ulpianus, "De censibus", I
("Digesta" L, 15, i, 8), situated ten millia passuum from Patavissa,
according to a mile-stone. The present Klausenburg, according to C.

§ 22. LOCAL PROTOTYPES Ac, Ad Sc At 95

Porolisson = Porolisso Tabula, Paroliss- and Paraliss- in inscrip-
tions; — the extreme northern station in Roman Dacia south of the
Carpathian mountains; designated with two towers on the Tabula; capital
of one of the three Dacian provinces, Parolissensis. According to C.
Miiller, the town was situated at the present Mojgrad where an amphi-
theatre was built in the year 157 A. D. (inscr. n. 836). Other scholars
are of a different opinion. We should prefer to place Porolisson farther
north, because it is — together with *Cersie — represented as lying at
the northern extremity of a route leading from the Black Sea up the
river Dnjestr, according to the Anon. Ravennas (cf. Fig. 17). It might
have been situated at the most northerly point of the river Theiss,
which is a dominating strategical position a little south-east of the Dukla

Karrodunon Ae, Karsidava Ad = resp. Cersie and Calidava Tabula,
a town in the extreme northern part of route I, 3, north of the Car-
pathian mountains, belonging to "Sarmatia", i. e. outside Roman Dacia.
It seems to be the present Krosno that lies due north of the im-
portant Carpathian defile of Dukla through which the route passes from
Hungary to the upper Vistula. The form Karrodunon is Celticized,
owing to analogy with a well-known station on the mercantile road from
the middle Danube to the lower Vistula. Karsidava is the right spelling,
which may also have been abbreviated into *Karsion, cf. Cersie on the
Tabula. It is the abbreviation which survives in the present Krosno.

5. Route II.

Tab. Tierua, Pretorio, Agnavie, Sarmategte.

Anon. Ravenn Tema, Pretorich, Agmoniaj Sarmazege.

Ad Zeugma, Dierna, Frateria, Arkinna, Akmonia, Sarmisegethusa.

The route starts and runs a little east of I, 3. We may supplement
its particulars by the aid of the Tabula.

The Ptol. starting point is Zeugma Ad = Pons Trajani, a military
bridge built by the Emperor near the Kasan defile; but the Tabula
rather starts from Dierna Ad = Tierua Tabula, Tema Anon. Ravenn.,
a well-known Roman town at the mouth of the present river Cerna.
The Roman town Trans-Tierna seems to survive as the present
Cerneti or Tschernetz. Tierna lies directly at the famous Iron Gate
of the Danube, a place of high military importance^ as showh by the
large inscription of the Emperor Trajanus ("Trajanstafel"). Thus it is
easily understood that a cartographer should designate it as the starting
point of a route.

Arkinna Ad = the present Arcan, a station of route II. The Ptol.

96 Ptolemy's maps of northern Europe

map places it almost correctly near the river Rabon, i. e. the present
Jiul. Only it ought to lie south of the following station, not north.

Frateria Ad = Pretorio Tabula = the present Fratesti, a station of
route II, placed almost correctly by Ptolemy, only south of Arkinna, in-
stead of north. The Tabula has distorted the Dacian name into the
Latin Pretorio, known from an important garrison city of Dacia. Although
the place is nowadays only a village or borough, it seems to have been
more important in past times, as the surrounding valley has been named
after it: Val Fratestilor. It is also situated near the point where route II
joins an important route coming from the present Rimnik on the river

Petri s Tabula, surviving till our days as Petrilla and Petroseni, names
of two places near the Vulcan defile, where the route leaves Roumania
and enters Transylvania. The name is Latin, originating from the sur-
rounding high mountains one of which is still called Petri.

Sarmisegethusa, junction with the routes I, 2 & I, 3. The corre-
spondence Sarmategte is represented as the terminal station on the

6. Route III.

Tab. DrubetiSj Amutria, Polonda (Anon. Ravenn. Potula), Rusidava.
Ae DrubetiSj Amutrion, Potulatensioi, Zusidava.

In the list below, we add some names from the same regions, occur-
ring in Ad{}), which seem to have no correspondences with other

The starting point of the route is Drubetis Ae and Tabula =
Drobeta in the Notitia Dignitatum (5th century). It seems to have been
a Roman fortress or bridgehead near the Iron Gate. As it appears still
in the Notitia Dignitatum, it may have been held by the Romans even
after they had given up the rest af Dacia.

Amutrion Ae = Amutria Tabula. The present Motru at the point
where the homonymous river debouches into the Ptolemaic Rabon (C.
Miiller). The town is also called Gura Motrului. Its position at the
river- junction gives it a certain importance.

Netindava Ad} = the present Nedeia on a homonymous lake close
to the Danube (C. Miiller).

Tiason Ad} = the present Teascul on the Ptol. river Rabon, near
the Danube. C. Miiller writes the name Tiasul, but the above ortho-
graphy is reported to be more correct.

Sornon Ad}. Probably the present Soareni east of Teascul, near
the Danube.

Potulatensioi Ae, Paloda or Polonda Ad = Pelendoua Tabula,
Potula Anon. Ravenn. The present Potel on a homonymous lake with

§ 22. LOCAL PROTOTYPES Ac, Ad & Ae 97

a homonymous outlet into the Danube. Situated close to this river. C.
Miiller identifies Polonda with the present Palitula (read: Palilula) on the
Ptol. river Rabon, but we have seen above that the Ptol. name is simply
a duplicate of Potula-.

Romula Tabula, according to an inscription situated at Turnu Ma-
gurelli facing the present district of Romaniti near the mouth of the
Aluta. Cf. C. Miiller, I, 447. The name Romula is Latin and of later
orgin than the Ptolemaic map which retains an almost purely Dacian
nomenclature. We mention it here, because it marks the point where the
detailed description of the route ceases.

Sukidava Ad, Zusidava Ae = Sucidava and Rusidava Tabula, the
terminal point of the route in Ae. It is the well-known town Sucidava
in Moesia inferior, i. e. south of the Danube, at the point where the
river suddenly turns from an eastward direction towards the north.

The detailed description of the route really does not extend farther
than the river Aluta, whereas Sukidava — Zusidava is only regarded as
a far-off terminal point. The constructor of the Ptolemaic map, however,
regarded the names from west of the Aluta as representing the entire
space down to Sucidava and thus displaced them considerably. At the
same time, the order of the names Netindava, Tiason, Sornon seems to
have been disturbed, this series being turned the wrong way, east-west
instead of west-east. Cf. p. yS (b).

7. Route IV.

lab. Rusidava, Burridava, Pretorio, (S)acidava, Apula, (I, 3 > Cersie A AAA )

Ae Zusidava, Piefigoi, Buridavensioi, Praitoria Augusta, Sangidava, Apulon, (I, 3 > AAAA Karrodunon)

Ad (Zurobara), Biefoi, P(u)redavensioi, Singidava, ( >> AAAA)

Ad Sukidava Angustia, Zargidava, Karsidava AAAA.

This route seems to have been doubled in Ad, its two replicas being
transposed respectively from the east to the west. The two fragmentary
routes in Ad supplement eachother so as to give together the sum total
of the route in Ae; only Sangidava Ae is twice repeated in Ad.

Sukidava Ad = Zusidava Ae appears as the starting point of both
routes, exactly as Zusidava appears as the terminal point of route III.
It must, however, also here be regarded only as a far-off station of

The real starting point, according to the Tabula, is Ponte Aluti,
which must be placed near the Danube, not far from Romula of route III.
It is another Latin name, later than the Ptolemaic stage. We mention
it here in order to show that route IV starts from the mouth of the
Aluta, not farther east.

Piefigoi Ae, tribe south of Buridavensioi = Biefoi Ad south of

98 Ptolemy's maps of northern Europe

Buridavensioi Ae, Predavensioi Ad = Burridava Tabula, immedi-
ately after Ponte Aluti. It may be the present Burdea near a homo-
nymous affluent of the river Vede. Perhaps, the river is named after the
town, like Ogost on the opposite side of the Danube, debouching at the
town Augustai. Cf. p. 102.

(Castra Trajana Tabula may be the present Troian or Traian,
which lies however south of Burdea, not north.)

Pi rum ^^, Pinon Ad^ belonging to the class of early Roman establish-
ments in Dacia. Perhaps the present Pirlita, or the present Pires. Both
of these towns or boroughs are situated north of Bucuresti.

Komidava or Ramidava, no longer traceable.

Praitoria Augusta Ae, Angustia Ad = Pretorio Tabula. An im-
portant Roman garrison city, and consequently distinguished with 5
battlements in the Cod. Athous Vatopediensis. C. Miiller, I, 447, places
it directly on the Aluta and its affluent Govori, but if our interpretations
of Buridava and Castra Trajana are correct, Praitoria would ratlier be
situated a little east of the river. C. Miiller regards Angustia as the
same place which was with a semi-Greek name called Caput Stenarum
(Anon. Ravenn.), as both names would mean "defile". We prefer to
identify Angustia with Augusta, as the occurrence of duplicates is so
usual in this part of Ptolemy's Dacia.

Cedonie Tabula, after Stenarum, must be amended into *Cebonie
(C. Miiller). It is the present Cibin or Szeben, in German called Her-
mannstadt, an important Transylvanian town, situated on a homonymous

Sangidava Ae, Singidava & Zargidava Ad = Acidava & Sagadava
Tabula (Sacidapa & Sancidapa Anon. Ravenn.). (S)acidava follows next
Cedonie. According to Ae, Sangidava would be situated north-east of
Praitoria. We may suggest an equation with the present Seges-var or
Schassburg, Roum. Sighisora, situated on the river Kokel.

Kaukoensioi, tribe a little south of Sangidava = inhabitants of the
Caucalandensis locus which is mentioned by Ammianus Marcellinus
XXX; 4. C. Miiller suggests that the name may be connected with the
river Kokel or Kiikiillo which passes Seges-var in a south-westerly direc-
tion. It has given its name to the town Kiikiillo-var or Kokelburg, the
capital of a homonymous district. The fact that the invading Goths
formed a district name Caucaland in their own tongue seems to attri-
bute to the Kaukoensioi a certain importance, and hence it would be
likely that their name might still survive.

Patridava Ae, Petrodava Ad, no longer traceable. (Cf. addition
p. 102).

Markodava Ae. C. Miiller, I, 447, suggests the alteration into
*Marodava and interprets the name as "town on the river Marisia". It

§ 2 2. LOCAL PROTOTYPES Ac, Ad 9[ Ae 99

might be the present Maros Ujvar. At any rate, the place must be
localised in the region of the river Maros.

Apulon Ad = Apula Tabula, junction of the routes IV and I, 2.

The routes here dealt with may, in most cases, be regarded as suffici-
ently verified, partially through the mutual correspondence of the proto-
types Ad and Ae, partially through the supplementary evidence of the
Tabula Peutingeriana.

In a number of cases, however, we have commented on names of
more questionable provenience, e. g. the town series Netindava, Tiason,
Sornon, or the tribal name Kaukoensioi. For practical reasons we thought
it most convenient to deal with such matters in connection with the
routes passing the immediate neighbourhood.

8. Details from independent Dacian and Jazygian regions.

The Ptol. maps of south-western Sarmatia and of Jazygia contain a
series of names which must, to a great extent, have been extracted from
descriptions of mercantile roads. As we mentioned above, it is provi-
sionally not possible to distinguish whether they belong to Ad or to Ae
and their connection with the Roman system of roads is equally un-

The tribes Biessoi, Piengitai, Sabokoi, Arsietai, Burgiones, Anarto-
fraktoi are placed in a row from the south towards the north close to
the frontier of Sarmatia and Germania. As the frontier-line is the dis-
guised expression of the mercantile road from Carnuntum to the Prussian
Amber coast (cf. § 23), the tribes concerned probably belong to a
description of this route. All of them seem to be Dacian except the

The Biessoi and Sabokoi are by Miillenhoff identified with the
"sosibessicobotes" who appear among the enemies of the Romans in the
Marcomannian war, according to Julius CapitoHnus ch. 22; read: ''Osi,
Bessi, Saboci". C. Miiller connects the Biessi with the Galician town of
Biecz, I, p. 426. A still more obvious trace of them is the name of
the Bezkydy or Bieskiden, a chain continuing the small Carpathian
mountains towards the north. The Dacian element -bokoi re- appears in

The Arsietai may have some connection' with the Ptolemaic town
Arsenion east of Bohemia, due south of Kalisia (the present Kalisz in
Poland). Cf § 23, i.

Burgiones = Bur(i) Tabula, the alter-ego of Ptolemy's Lugoi Buroi
in Bohemia = Kuriones in interior Germany. It is a well-known east
Germanic tribe. The Ptolemaic Burgiones and Buroi stand fairly vis-a-vis
and thus mutually confirm eachother's position.


The Anartofraktoi evidently are relations of the Anartoi in Roman

The tribes Karpianoi, Tagroi, Koistobokoi *transmontanoi may re-
present a route leading from Karsidava (Karrodunon) down the middle
Vistula to Askaukalis where it joins the line from Carnuntum to the
Prussian Amber coast. It may be regarded as a continuation of the
combined routes I, 3 and IV.

The Karpianoi are a historically well-known tribe, homonymous
with the Carpathian mountains. Their place roughly corresponds to that
of the mediaeval Bielo-Chrobati or Bili-Charvati, a Slavonian tribe. As
the Carpathian mountains were in the Old Norse Saga of Hervor called
Harfa5a fjpll, it is probable that the "White Charvati" have inherited
the name of their Dacian predecessors, or of the homonymous mountain.
The Ptolemaic duplicate Harpioi seems to point towards a Gothic form
with the same initial letter H that occurs in Old Norse and in Slavonian.

The Tagroi are by C. Miiller, I, 431, referred to a Dacian inscrip-
tion, found near Szent-Miklos in Hungary and containing the word "tagro-
getzige" ("Tagro-Jazygian"?).

The Koistobokoi *transmontanoi are the Dacians of the extreme
north. Miillenhofif, "Deutsche Altertumskunde" II, p. 83, has transplanted
them to northern Hungary, and also Wietersheim-Dahn in the "Geschichte
der Volkerwanderung" and Bremer in his Ethnography place them south
of the Carpathian mountains. This theory is based on a statement of
Dio Cassius LIII, 12, who says that the Hastings (Astingoi), after vainly
asking for admission into Roman Dacia, were provisionally allowed to
leave their wives and children there while their warriors were attacking
and conquering the region of the Koistobokoi, according to arrangement
with the Roman governor. — It appears from Dio's words that the
emigrated Hastings had their head-quarters south of the Carpathian
mountains during their undertaking against the Koistobokoi, and we
might certainly have accepted Miillenhoff's interpretation if we had not
had the map of Ptolemy. But it is absolutely contradicted by this
authority, and there is not the slightest reason for rejecting Ptolemy's
map of the Dacian regions north of the Carpathian mountains: this
section proves one of the very best parts of his work. Consequently,
we must interpret Dio's statements quite otherwise than Miillenhoff does.
The Hastings, a well-known branch of the Vandals, lived in Silesia.
After being refused admission into Roman Dacia, their warriors did not
stay south of the Carpathian mountains, but returned to Silesia, in order
to attack their immediate neighbours, the Dacians of present Poland. —
Our assumption is not only natural in itself, but it is also confirmed by
two further circumstances. — i. The original map, serving as base of
the corresponding Ptolemaic section, designated the Polish Koistobokoi as


"transmontani", i. e. living north of the Carpathian mountains. The affix
was intended to distinguish these Koistobokoi from their name-sakes in
Roman Dacian (cf. Fig. 17), but Ptolemy or his predecessor misunderstood
it, conceiving "Tranomontanoi" as a separate name, exactly as he se-
parated the neighbouring Basternai from the synonymous Peukinoi. —
2. The northward extension of the Dacian nationality appears from the
Ptolemaic town Setidava, placed in Germania beyond Kalisia, i. e. north
of the present Kalisz in Poland. This town, with the typical Dacian
name on -dava, is evidently the outpost of the Koistobokoi transmontanoi
towards the north-west, thus proving the extension of their territory to
the lower Vistula. Its ethnic significance was already realised in this

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