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sense by Zeuss, "Die Deutschen", p. 263.

The station north of Setidava is Askaukalis which seems to be the
present Osielsk near Bromberg where the Vistula suddenly turns from a
westly- direction due north-east, see the learned research of the Polish
author J. v. Sadowski, "Die Handelsstrassen der Griechen und Romer"
(1877), p. 58, and map. Askaukalis may be regarded as the junction of
two mercantile roads, the one (I, 2) coming from Dacia along the upper
Vistula, the other from Bohemia passing Kalisz. Henceforth, the amal-
gamated routes continue until they reach the amber-producing region in
Prussia.

The Jazygian towns Parka and Pession seem to be resp. the pre-
sent Parkany near Komorn, and the present Pest. Both Ptolemaic towns,
it is true, lie at a certain distance from the Danube, whereas the modern
correspondences directly touch the river, and the different position of
Pession and Pest is by C. Miiller regarded as sufficient reason for reject-
ing the identification. We might have admitted his reasoning as plausible,
if it concerned only one equation. But the case of Parka = Parkany is
parallel, and if the same geographical objection is raised against both
equations, it ceases to be an objection. As both Pession and Parka lie
sonth-east of their modern correspondences^ the Ptolemaic localisation
seems to betray a common displacement, originating from the Ptol. con-
structor's wrong interpretation of a local prototype (Ad^).

Partiskon, in Jazygia, is situated near the river Theiss which was
in ancient times called Pathissus or Parthiscus, according to Pliny and
Ammianus Marcellinus.



Finally, we will draw attention to a general fact which may in
several cases assist us in tracing the survivals of the ancient nomenclature
on Dacian ground.

Numerous Dacian towns or stations are homonymous with rivers or
lakes. The same onomatic connection may occur in other parts of



102 PTOLEMY S MAPS OF NORTHERN EUROPE

Europe, indeed, but here it seems especially frequent. And it is worth
noticing that the invading Slavs were far less inclined to forming
"potamic" names of settlements. E. g., the Moesian stations at the
mouths of the rivers Isker, Vid, Osem, and Jantra have all lost their
"potamic" names which occur on the Tab. Peuting.

In the synopsis below, we shall register the cases concerned occurring
on the ancient maps of Dacia.

a. Settlements named after rivers or lakes.

Ptol. Tibiskon, Dierna, Amutrion, Potula- (river & lake), Netindava
(lake), Partiskon. Tab. Peuting. : Bersovia, Apo, *Cebonie.

b. River or valley named after settlement (cf. Ogost running through
Augustas in Moesia).

Sar(mati)-Getias, the river of Sarmise-Getusa. Perhaps the present
Burdea, passing Buridava. Val Fratestilor near Fratesti, the an-
cient Frateria.



j. Conclusion.

To sum up, we should like to state that the analysis of the Ptole-
maic map has shed light on ancient Dacia to an extent which could
scarcely have been expected. If we bear in mind how little history tells
us of Dacia during the times of the Roman dominion, the result of our
cartographic studies may be called comparatively fruitful.



ADDITION. Petrodava alias Patridava seems to be the present Piatra, according to
d'Anville, "Mem. de I'Ac." XXVIII, p. 459.



§ 23. LOCAL PROTOTYPES Bi %l B2 ^ THE MERCANTILE ROAD

FROM THE DANUBE TO THE MOUTH OF THE VISTULA.

a. Summary of Contents.

Bi & B2 are itineraries, describing the mercantile road from the
middle Danube to the mouth of the Vistula, and containing mountains,
rivers, tribes, and towns. The prototypes are duplicates of eachother;
scattered duplicates occur in Acde and E. There are Latin marks; B2
may have been translated into Greek before the stage of Ptolemy. The
prototypes were executed after the introduction of a well-established
amber trade under the reign of Nero (54 — 68 A. D.). Affinities with
Strabo and Tacitus. Cf. Figures 3, 11, 12, 30, 31.



§ 2 5- LOCAL PROTOTYPES Bi & B2 IO3

b. Ptolemaic Localisaton.

The Ptol. constructor has locaHsed Prot. Bi correctly within the
northern region of the collective prototype A. We should never have
discovered the separate existence of Bi, had we not had the alter- ego,
Prot. B2.

The latter prototype is displaced in westward direction, partially also
towards the south-west. Yet the displacement does not affect the southern
and northern limitations of the prototype, i. e. the Danube and the Baltic,
and thus the parallel with Prot. Bi is quite easy to observe. — Prot. B2
has enriched the Ptolemaic map of Germany with duplicates of the rivers
Vistula and Oder, here called Svebos and Chalusos. We identify Svebos
with the eastern frontier river of the Tacitean Swabia, i. e. the river
Vistula. East of the Svebos, Prot. B2 places the Sidinoi, exactly as Bi
places their alter-ego Sudinoi east of the Vistula. Chalusos runs directly
north from the region of Kalaigia in B2, and the Oder (Viaduas) runs
directly north from the region of Kalisia (now Kalisz) in Bi. Probably,
Kalisia- Kalaigia was the capital of the Tacitean Helisii (read *Halisii),
who would then have lived round the river Chalusos. We regard the
name Viaduas as identical with Vistulas, borrowed from another proto-
type (F}). It has certainly nothing to do with the name of the Oder,
although geographers now unanimously assume the identification.

A more fatal confusion was caused by another displacement of details
from B2, due to the Ptol. constructor. The Markomanoi of B2 are on
Ptolemy's map placed south of the mountain Sudeta of Bi, whereas the
"tribe" Sudenoi of B2 — in reality = the Sudetes — appears south of
the Markomanoi. Modern cartographers, in interpreting Ptolemy's map,
erroneously regarded the Markomanoi as the "fixed point", and as this
tribe undoubtedly occupied Bohemia, the Sudetes were consequently
identified with the mountains north of the latter country. Nowadays the
chimera is adopted even in popular nomenclature. The "fixed point",
however, is not the Markomanoi, but the Ptolemaic design of mountains, y
which clearly shows that the Sudetes lie south of Bohemia and are the
western Bohmerwald.

c. Definition of Limits.

The area Bi & B2 coincides with that of Prot. F in the Baltic
region. As both Bi 81 F are correctly localised by the Ptol. constructor,
it is difficult to discern their elements, as soon as they do not betray
their origin through their occurrence in duplicate series.

Bi touches Prot. E towards the north-east, and Prot. Ac {Ae}) towards
the south-east. There is no confusion, as Bi remains within Germanic



I04 PTOLEMY S MAPS OF NORTHERN EUROPE

territory (apart from Sudinoi = Sidinoi B2), whereas the latter two
prototypes are by the Ptol. constructor limited to Sarmatia and Dacia.
The correctness of Bi sharply contrasts Ptolemy's completely displaced
localisation of E.

82 on its western side touches the Prototypes Aa, Ab, C, and D.
There seems to be no serious confusion. — Ptolemy's wrong localisation
of B2 contrasts his correct localisation of Aa and Ab. On the other
hand, the displacement of B2 contrasts the opposite displacement of C.
B2 has been pushed towards the west, and C towards the east, with the
result that the *Buriones and Marvingoi B2 from eastern Germany collide
with the *Chattvaroi C from the mouth of the Rhine. The tribes of D
distinguish themselves through the addition of "Sveboi".



d. General Topographic Scheme.

The presence of mountains in Bi and B2 appears from the duplicates
Asbikurgion — Bikurgion, Sudeta-r-Sudenoi. But it may perhaps not be
taken for granted that the entire Ptol. design of Bohemian mountains
belongs to Bi. We have assumed a collective oro- and hydrographic
map of Germany and Bohemia, viz. A, into which Bi could be intro-
duced as a supplement.

It is more self-evident that both Bi and B2 contained two rivers, viz.
the Vistula and the Oder. Their arrangement on the Ptol. map still
preserves an obvious parallelism. Prot. Bi seems to have contained a
third river, which starts from the mountain Askiburgion and is supposed
to join the Vistula after passing directly west of the town Kalisia. It
may be the present Prosna which, after passing directly west of Kalisz,
joins the Warta, — not the Vistula. But it may, perhaps, also be an
original road-line, misunderstood by the Ptol. constructor.

The entire so-called "Vistula" Bi between its source and the town
Askaukalis is in reality no river, but a road-line, leading from the source
of the Vistula to the large turning of this river near Bromberg or Osielsk.

The Ptol. river Vistula, apart from representing in its superior course
an original road-line, forms the frontier between the Ptol. sections Ger-
mania and Sarmatia from its mouth to its source. The frontier continues
farther south without following any physical line on the Ptol. map, till it
reaches the Sarmatian mountains: in this interval it would have been
correct to make the frontier follow up the Vistula which, as a matter of
fact, starts from the said mountain complexe. We may take it for granted
that the piece of frontier without physical underlining reflects the con-
tinuation of the road-line on the original map Bi. The existence of an
itinerary leading from the Sarmatian mountains to the mouth of the
Vistula evidently influenced the Ptol. scheme of map division in a funda-



§2 3- LOCAL PROTOTYPES Bi & B2



105



mental manner: this pronounced line was used as mark of distinction
between the sections Germania and Sarmatia. As a matter of fact, the
road fairly coincided with the demarkation of the main nationalities. Only
few Gothonic tribes were situated east of the road, such as *Buriones
(Burgiones), Basternai, and Gythones, whereas only a single Dacian town
appears on its western side, viz. Setidava.

The itinerary Bi was of fundamental importance, not only as a means
of distinguishing the sections Germania and Sarmatia, but also from an-
other point of view: its stations were used by the Ptol. constructor as
marks of astronomic orientation. This fact will appear from the following
list of correspondences.




Actual latitude



Mouth of the Vistula

Askaukalis, near Bromberg (Osielsk ?) . .

Kalisia = Kalisz

Mountain Askiburgion, south-eastern
extremity, = Jesenik

Sarmatian mountains, northern ex-
tremity, = Bieskiden

Eburo(duno)n = Brno, Briinn .

Sarmatian mountains, southern extremity,
near Pressburg

Danube, curve at Kurta, near the
present Raab

Mouth of the Vistula

Eburo(duno)n = Brno, Briinn



54,20



53>ii



c. iVs



51,47



} c. 1V6



I'/ 4



50

49,30
\
I

49,12

1

J
48,10

1
I

4745



c. V^



C. I



v*




Actual longitude
(from Greenwich)



8,47-19,20



6,38



c. 3



io6 Ptolemy's maps of northern Europe

The Ptol. measurements, it is true, are generally not quite exact, but
we could scarcely have expected them to be better in a country like
Germania. •

It is well-known that Ptolemy describes in the preface how the longi-
tudes and latitudes throughout his work have been calculated by com-
paring the statements of numerous maps and travellers, — an operation
which he calls extremely difficult. If we would take these words literally
in interpreting the Ptol. towns in Germania, as numerous previous
scholars have done, we should certainly in most cases be mistaken, for
the vast majority of the localisations are merely fictitious. But it is
different with the area of Prot. Bi: here we have really a sample of
those itineraries which served as foundations of the astronomic calcula-
tions in the trustworthy parts of Ptolemy's work. Its position is quite
solitary in the middle and northern parts of the Ptol. Europe and may
be regarded as a most prominent feature of its literary individuality.



e. Statistical Features.

The Prototypes Bi & B2 seem to contain a fairly equal selection
of the most usual geographical categories: rivers, mountains, tribes, and
towns.

They thus contrast the prototypes Aa, Acde, and E, which seem to
have recorded mainly tribes in the neighbouring regions.

A different contrast is represented by Ab which contains no tribes.

Bi & B2 betray no sure traces of the "ethno- topic denomination"
which characterizes Prot. F, e. g. Venedai with Venedian gulf and moun-
tain, Peukinoi with mountain Peuke, etc.

The comprehensive statistical selection within Prot. Bi & B2 corre-
sponds to the importance of the mercantile road to the amber coast. It
is moreover emphasized by the fact that the region concerned shows the
highest percentage of second class towns in the whole of Germania out-
side the Roman territory.

The following synopsis illustrates the distribution, as it appears in
four of the oldest MS. atlases.



§2 3- LOCAL PROTOTYPES Bi & B2



107



Classi-
fication


Ptolemy


Supplementary
evidences


Modern
continuation


Mediol.

Ambr.

527


Urb.
83


Venet.
516


Bumey
111


Athous

Va-
toped.


'0


Eburodunon
Eburon




in the territory of the moun-

taneering Celts.
Duplicate name. Astronomic

observations


Brunn or Brno,
capital of
Moravia


1
3


1
2


2
3


1
3


1
2


§


Anduaition

Mediolanion

Meliodunon

Parienna

Karrodunon

*Kaleisia

Susudana ]

Setidaua J
Askaukalis






2
2

2

2

2
3


2
2

2

2 (1?)

2

2

2
2


2
2
2
2
1

3

3


3?

2

2

2

3

3?

2 '

3
2


2






3
2










2


in the territory of the moun-

taneering Celts
in the territory of the Helisii

(Tacitus)
Duplicate: Kalisia
in the territory of the Koi-

stobokoi
Duplicate name
(Duplicate: Astouia Alisos)




3
2?

2


Kalisz, capital of
homonymous
gouvernment






2
2




Kelamantia

Singone

Redintuinon

Nomisterion

"Marobudon"

♦Arsekvia

Asanka

Arsenion




Komorn ?


3
3
3
3


2

3

3

3

3

3

3 .

3


1 (sic)
3 .

..


3
3
3
3
3
2

3

3


3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3












M






Fictitious town
Duplicate Arsikva




V. 1




s




H


(in the territory of the Ar-

sietai?)
Duplicate: Aregelia













Our survey seems to confirm the statistical scheme of the MS. atlases,
so far as it is possible to speak of verification concerning regions which
have been almost completely revolutionized during the age of great
migrations.

The town of the first class, Eburodunon, till this day is the most
important of those which have survived.

Among the towns of the second class, Kalisia is the most remarkable.
It seems to be the capital of the Tacitean Helisii, and it survives till
this day as Kalisz, the capital of a homonymous government.

5 of the 8 towns among our instances of the second class belong to



io8 Ptolemy's maps of northern Europe

eastern Bohemia or the regions south of it, — an area which was already
at the beginning of our era well known by the Romans. It is the region
near the capital Eburodunon.

The third class, finally, is accompanied by no additional classical
evidences and affords no sure modern survivals. Redintuinon, Nomisterion,
and Arsenion belong to comparatively remote districts, and Marobudon
is fictitious, constructed on the base of a Tacitean passage mentioning
the castle of king Marbod. The entire class, consequently, seems to be
of inferior importance.

f. Occurrence of ^Duplicates.

The area of the duplicate series Bi & B2 covers the provinces of
Oesterreich (Rakousko), Moravia, Bohemia, Thuringia (partially), Silesia.
dBu^ica (Lausitz), Posen, eastern Pomerania, and Prussia.

The following names re- appear in other prototypes.

Rakatriai Bi^ Rakatai B2 = Ratakensioi of an interpolated prototype in

Dacia (^?).
*Kotnoi Bi, *Koteinoi B2 = Kotensioi (Kontekoi) of the mentioned

Dacian prototype.
Buroi Bi, *Buriones B2 = Burgiones Acde (= (Ouis)burgioi?).



^. Linguistic Marks.

Latinisms. Plural on -z: Lug2-(-dunon) B2. Ablative form -one:
Singone Bi. ng, nk\ Marui;2^oi B2, Si;/^one, Asa;//^a Bi.

Apart from these, there are some indications which seem to suggest
that the two prototypes had been translated into Greek, before the Ptol.
constructor combined them with Prot. A. They contain some mis-
readings which are best explained by the assumption of a Greek original.

POYnKAIOI Bi < *POYnKAIOI. (Does this name originate from

Prot. F}),
KOrNOI Bi < *K0rN0r.
^ATEINOI B2 < *irOTEINOI.
irOYPI-QNEC B2 < *^OYPmNEC.
KAAAiriA B2 < *KAA^/CIA.

In all these cases, Latin letters would not so easily cause the same
misreadings. Finally, we observe the Greek word for "grove" : Limios
alsos, contrasting the Latin words used in the sphere of Prot. A.



§ 2 3- LOCAL PROTOTYPES Bi & B2 IO9

h. Literary Milieu.

The southern sphere of the prototypes Bi & B2 was well known to
the Romans, owing to their constant interference with the affairs of the
Marcomans and Quades. Cf. the rivers Duria and Marus, mentioned by
Pliny IV, c. 81, in the frontier districts of Vannius, king of the Quades.
Marus is the present Morava or March from which the district of Moravia
draws its name. Duria seems to be the present Thaya, in Cechian
called Dyje. Tacitus mentions the river Cusus (now Gusen), "Ann." II, ch. 63.

The Baltic regions were explored considerably later.

Agrippa had some ideas about them, but only vague. He says that
Dacia is limited by the Ocean in the north, and by the river Vistula in
the west. The dimensions of the country are given thus: CCLXXX
milia passum in the longitude, CCCLXXXVI in the latitude.

The extent of the area of Dacia towards the north quoted above
agrees with Prot. Bi & B2 which place the Dacian town Setidava in the
coast region of the Baltic Ocean, and due west of the river Vistula,
as an isolated outpost of the Dacians among Germanic surroundings.
Cf. the presence of the Dacian Koistobokoi on the opposite side of the
Vistula, according to Prot. Acde.

Apart from that, Agrippa seems to have had no information about
Baltic regions.

The first more detailed observations represented by Bi & B2 date
from the times of King Marbod's great Swabian Empire, which embraced
even the *Sudines (Sibinoi) in Prussia, cf Strabo VII, p. 291.

The intercourse between Rome and the regions about the mouth of
the Vistula was increased under the Emperor Nero, when a regular
amber trade was established, cf. PUny XXXVII, ch. 45.

If we examine the prototypes Bi & B2, we shall find the older stage
of Roman topographic knowledge expre;ssed by affinities with Strabo,
whereas the later increase of commercial intercourse appears from the
numerous affinities with Tacitus.

Affinities with Strabo and Tacitus (VII, p. 290 seq., "Germ."
ch. 42 seq.).

Lugoi Bi (Lugi B2) = Luioi Strabo, Lygii Tacitus.

Omanoi Bi = Atmonoi Strabo, Manimi Tacitus.

*Rugiklioi Bi with town Rugion = Mugilones Strabo, Rugii Tacitus.

Affinities with Strabo.

Sidones Bi = Sidones, a branch of the Basternes. VII, p. 306.
Omanoi Bi, more related with Strabo's Atmonoi ibd., than with the

Tacitean Manimi.
Sudinoi Bi, Sidinoi B2 = Sibinoi Strabo.



no PTOLEMY S MAPS OF NORTHERN EUROPE

Affinities with Tacitus.

Varistoi Bi = Varisti **Germ." ch. 42.

*Kotnoi Bi, *Koteinoi B2, with Celtic town-names = Coteni *'Germ."
ch. 43, with Celtic language ("Gallica lingua").

Ironworks east of Bohemia Bi =. ironworks of the Coteni, ibd.

Mountain Askiburgion, dividing the Lugoi Bi = "a continuous mountain
chain divides Swabia" (''dirimit scinditque Suebiam continuum montium
iugum") "Germ." ch. 43.

Division of the Lugoi in several tribes Bi & B2 = "the Lygian nation
is the most extended, and divided into several tribes" ("latissime
patet Lygiorum nomen, in plures civitates diffusum") ibd.

Lugoi Buroi Bi, *Buriones B2 (south of Askiburgion) = Burgiones Acde
= Buri "Germ." ch. 43 (evidently south of the "continuum jugum").

Marvingoi (beside *Buriones) B2 — Marsigni (beside Buri) ibd.

Lugoi Omanoi Bi = Lygii Manimi ibd. (contrasting Strabo's Atmonoi,
who are represented as a branch of the Basternes).

Kalisia Bi, Kalaigia B2, near the river Chalusos B2, cf. Helisii "Germ."
ch. 43.

"Grove of Limis" = the grove of the Nahanarvali, a Lygian tribe ibd.

It might be tempting to add Eluaiones = Helvaeones ibd. But as the
name seems to re-appear in Prot. E as Igylliones, it would rather be-
long to the duplicate prototype F. It is, however, not excluded, that
the name Eluaiones occurred both in Bi and 'F.

Taking it as a whole, it must be admitted that the affinity between
the prototypes Bi & B2 and Tacitus is striking.



i. Examination of Details.

In spite of partial displacements, the parallel between the two
duplicate series Bi & B2 remains easy to trace. Only in few cases, the
order of links is disturbed. See our figure 19, which speaks for itself.
It is very fortunate that the duplicate series exist, for several of the
doubled names are preserved nowhere else, be it in modern topography
or in the ancient.

We shall now regard the single names, comparing them with the
evidences of mediaeval and modern geography.

I. Rakatriai Bi, Rakatai B2 = Ratakensioi on the Ptol. map of
Dacia beside Kotensioi, cf. *Kotenoi, neighbours of the Rakatriai. Rakousko
is the Cechian name of Austria, borrowed from the province of Nieder
Oesterreich. A mediaeval castle of that province, called Rakoutz, is



§ 23. LOCAL PROTOTYPES Bi & B2 III

supposed to be the present Raabs. Cf. Safarik, "Slavische Altertiimer"
I, 50 seq., Miillenhoff, "Deutsche Altertumskunde", II, 331.

2. Singone Bi is the Latin ablative form of a name that seems to
be Dacian, cf. Singidava in Dacia, and the Daco-Celtic town Singidunon
in Moesia. The Latin flexion betrays that the station was well known
by the merchants.

3. Eburon Bi, Eburodunon B2, corresponds to Brno or Briinn, the
capital of Moravia. The Ptol. distance of Eburon from the Danube, like
that of Briinn, is exactly one degree of longitude. Eburodunon belongs
to the points of astronomic observation recorded by Ptolemy in Book
VIII, VI, 3, and is consequently decorated with towers on the map, but
the resulting localisation is too near the Danube for Briinn; the sur-
rounding names from B2, such as Baimoi and Arsikva, show the same
dislocation towards the south. The present forms Brno and Briinn, with
loss of initial £, may remount to the Celtic accentuation which also
appears in the French forms of the same name : Embrun in south-eastern
France, and Iverdon in Switzerland (Germ. Ifferten), both with the stress
on the last syllable.

4. *Arsekvia Bi, Arsikva B2, is probably a town of the Dacian
tribe of Arsietai, placed by Ptolemy in the directly contiguous part of
Sarmatia. The place Arsenion Bi in the neigbourhood =• Ar(e)gelia,
Aregeouia B2, also seems to belong to them.

5. Sudeta ore Bi, "tribe" Sudenoi B2, = the western Bohmerwald.
The Sudeta ore are placed south of the Bainochaimai = Bohemians, and
the Sudenoi south of the Markomanoi, also = Bohemians.

6. Bainochaimai Bi, Baimoi B2, = Bohemians. The vocalisation at
in *Baio- is a sign of enlarged local experience, as the preceding classical
authors write constantly oe or ot, owing to the connection with the well
known Celtic tribe of Boji.

7. Varistoi Bi. The well known tribe of Varisti, later occupying
the "pagus Varascus" in Burgundy, according to its own national tradi-
tions originated from the district of Stadewanga near the river Regen,
i. e. near the present Regensburg. See Egilbert's "Vita S. Ermenfredi",
Acta Sanctorum Vol. VII, Sept. 25. The localisation agrees with the
Ptolemaic.

8. *Kotenoi Bi, *Koteinoi B2 = the Kotensioi (Kontekoi), errone-
ously placed on the Ptol. map of Dacia (from B}). It is a well-known
tribe of mountaneering Celts in Bohemia (Tacitus). The ironworks
(siderorycheia) on the Ptolemaic map are placed in their neighbourhood.
According to Strabo, the silver mines of Sisapon in Spain were called
"Kotinai". As the Celts were the pioneers of mountaneering in most
parts of Europe, "kotinai" seems to be the Celtic word for "mines",
and Kotenoi would be "miners". In Cechian, kutati is "to mine, to dig",



112 PTOLEMY S MAPS OF NORTHERN EUROPE

kutny = "mining", and an important mining centre in the region of the
Kotenoi is called Kutna hora, Germ. Kuttenberg. The Slavs certainly
learned the mining technique from the Kotenoi, and so probably also
adopted its Celtic terms. Consequently, the name Kutna hora may more
or less directly remind the Celtic tribe of Kotenoi.

9. Sidones Bi^ known from Strabo as a branch of the Basternai.
On the Ptol. map of Sarmatia, the Basternai are placed fairly vis-a-vis.


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