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10. Lugoi Buroi Bi^ *Buriones B2 = Burgiones Acde^ placed in
Sarmatia fairly opposite the Buroi. The Buri are well-known from Ta-
citus and other classical authors.

11. Marvingoi beside *Buriones B2 = Marsigni beside Buri, Tacitus.
The Marvingoi may have some connection with Maurunga, a mediaeval
name of the regions east of the Elbe, = the epical Mornaland in the
Old Norse poem of Oddrunargratr (land of the With-Myrgingas in Wid-
sith?). The mediaeval name, later assigned to the Slavs, was in the
"Chronicon imperatorum et pontificum bavaricum", MG. SS. XXIV, 222,
changed into Mauritani. The linguistic connection with Marvingoi is
not normal, but accidental coincidence is on the other hand also un-

12. Korkontoi Bi, are the inhabitants of the Krkonosc, or Riesen-
gebirge. Cf. Safarik, '^Slav. Altert." I, p. 486. Mullenhoff, "Deutsche
Altertumskunde" II, p. 373, rejects the equation, because it does not
satisfy the strict laws of phonetic correspondence. His objection, how-
ever, is not justified, as important local names are often subjected to
arbitrary transformations, owing to popular fancy etc.

13. Mountain Askiburgion (in numerous MS. atlases, e. g. Urb. 82:
Asbikurgion) Bi, "town" Bikurgion B2. This chain is generally identified
with the present Jesenik (Germ. Gesenke), as both names signify "Ash-
mountain". Perhaps, Askiburgion might also be reflected by the present
Je§ted or Jeschken in northern Bohemia. The position would agree well
with the north-western extremity of the Askiburgion. It is not excluded
that the original name might have been developed or translated differently
in the local dialects.

14. ' Teuriochaimai Bi (Turonoi B2}).- The so-called tribal name is
derived from the name of a district which may signify the "Home of

15. Arsenion Bi, Argelia, Aregelia, Aregeouia B2, on the northern
frontier of Bohemia, according to Bi. Probably a frontier town of the
Arsietai in independent Dacia, cf. under 4.

16. Kalisia Bi, Kalaigia B2., in Bi directly east of the river (?)
corresponding to the present Prosna*, in B2 south of the river Chalusos.
Probably the capital of the Tacitean tribe Helisii, the epical Haelsingas
who are mentioned in the poem of Widsith. It is the present Kalisz,

§ 2 3- LOCAL PROTOTYPES Bi & B2 I 13

the capital of a homonymous government. The present K of the name
may remount to Dacian pronounciation. Ptolemy places Kalisia on 52,50
of latitude, whereas the actual position of Kalisz is 51,47. The Ptol.
distance from the mouth of the Vistula is 3,10, whereas the real is about
2^/2. In both cases, the difference is of little import. The Polish
scholar J. v. Sadowski points out that Kalisz occupies a position on the
most convenient route leading to the ford near Konin between the moors
of the Warta, s. "Die Handelsstrassen der Griechen und Romer durch
das Flussgebiet der Oder, Weichsel", p. 57.

17. Lugoi (Dunoi) Bi, Lugi-(-dunon) B2. Inhabitants of the present
^u^ica or Lausitz, a well-known eastern Germanic tribe.

18. (Lugoi) Dunoi Bi, (Lugi-) -Dunon B2. Inhabitants of the epical
Dun-hei5i, or "Dun-heath", mentioned in the Old Norse poem "Battle of
Huns" (Hervararsaga) on the frontier against Hunland, i. e. Hungary,

19. Siliggai B2. The present Silesians, Pol. Slezani. The Slavonic
form is developed normally from a Gothonic Siling, exactly as Slav,
knez < kuning, "king". As a branch of the Vandals, the Silingians
played a great role during the migration age.

20. Limios alsos, "grove of Limis", B2. Probably identical with the
sacred grove of the Lygian tribe of Nahanarvali, mentioned by Tacitus.
Cf. C. Miiller I, p. 270.

21. Lugoi Omanoi Bi. The Lygii Manimi of Tacitus; the Atmonoi
of Strabo, represented by him as branch of the Basternes.

22. Setidava Bi, Susudana B2 (Cod. Vatic. 191). A town with the
well-known Dacian element -dava. Its presence in these northern regions
of Germany, not far from the mouth of the Vistula, is supported by the
Ptolemaic localisation of the Koistobokoi *transmontanoi, who are placed
on the opposite side of the Vistula. These northern Koistobokoi were a
great independent Dacian tribe: they fought against Rome in the Mar-
comannian war (Julius Capitolinus ch. XXII), ravaged Greece (Pausanias
IX, 34), were defeated by the Vandalian tribe of Hasdings, but revenged
by the Dankriges (Dio Cassius, LXXI, 12).

23. Askaukalis Bi, probably = Astouia & Alisos B2, perhaps "the
town Astouia of the tribe called *Halisii", cf. the name Sarmize — Getusa,
signifying the mixture of two ' nationalities. The town concerned is the
last station on the route and must consequently have occupied an im-
portant position. The German scholar Voigt has proposed to identify it
with the present Osielsk near Bromberg, and Sadowski accepts this sug-
gestion as strikingly convincing. As the Ptol. spelling of Askaukalis
is all but certain, nothing prevents us from assuming that it might
be continued in the form of Osielsk. Still more decisive is the topo-
graphical argument: Osielsk lies exactly at the point where the Vistula,
after its large curve through Poland, suddenly turns from sharp west-



ward direction towards the north-east. Here the mercantile road from
the Danube, after leaving the Vistula in upper Silesia, again joins the
river in order to follow it to its mouth; such place certainly demands
a station. The distance of Askaukalis from Kalisia is about 1V2 degree
of latitude, whereas the distance of Osielsk from Kalisz is about 1V4.
Thus the Ptol.' localisation seems well verified also from the astronomic
point of view.

24. *Rugiklioi with town Rugion at the Baltic coast = the well-
known Gothonic tribe of Rugi, the epical (H)ulme-Rugi of Jordanis, the
Holm-Ryge of Widsith. It is only not necessary that the names men-
tioned belonged to Prot. Bi\ they might also have belonged to Prot. F.
The Rugi are mentioned by Tacitus as the most northern of the tribes
in eastern Germany, a fact that makes us inclined to refer them to B/,
owing to the close affinity between this prototype and Tacitus.

25. Vistulas Bi, Suebos B2. The river Vistula, the eastern frontier
of the Swabians, according to the Strabonian and Tacitean description.

26. Sudinoi Bj, Sidinoi B2. The mediaeval Sudovitae, a Prussian
tribe, inhabiting the present district of Sudauen.

27. Galindai Bi (or Prot. F}). The mediaeval Galinditae, another
Prussian tribe.

j. Conclusion.

As result of our comparison, the topography of Bi and B2 may be
called well verified.

These twin prototypes, like Ad & Ae, supply a valuable piece ot
topography and ethnography from a region, which lost most part of its
ancient population and nomenclature during the age of migration. Their
evidences enable us to trace exactly the localisations of different
nationalities along the route of Roman amber trade from the Danube to
the Baltic, viz. Pannonians, Celts, Dacians, Gothons, and Lithuanians.
In § 22, we have pointed out the importance of the town Setidava Bi
= Susudana B2, as an outpost of Dacian nationality in northern regions
which are as a rule wrongly attributed to «the Gothons.

ADDITION. R. Much, "Die Stadte in der Germania des Ptolemaus" ("Zeitschrift fflr
deutsches Altertum" XLI, 97. 1897) already sets forth a long series of those critical obser-
vations which we have made above concerning the Ptol. misreadings and wrong localisations.
In other points, his assumptions would lead to different results. Astouia, var. Aistouia, is
interpreted as a Latin "aestiva sc. castra", cf. Velleius II, 117: "mediam ingressus Ger-
maniam .... trahebat aestiva". Alisos, Lakiburgion, Budorgis-Budorigon are identified with
the Rhenish towns Alison, Askiburgion, Budoris, and Susudana-Setidava with Zusidava in
Dacia. If the suggestions concerning the first-mentioned five towns be correct, it would


imply the assumption of at least one additional prototype. We do not think that the
existence of a Dacian town Setidava in eastern Germania need be rejected, as the Ptol.
Koistobokoi *transmonianoi prove the presence of Dacians in Poland (cf. p. 113, 22). Our
main results concerning the prototypes Bi & B2 do not seem to be affected by Much's
divergent statements.


a. Summary of Contents.

Prot. C is an itinerary, describing north-western Gaul, Belgium and a
part of north-western Germany, containing rivers, tribes and towns.
Duplicates occur in Aa. The prototype has Latin marks, but was per-
haps translated into Greek before the stage of Ptolemy. There is close
affinity with the Itinerarium Antonini and the Tabula Peutingeriana.

Cf. Figures 1,21, 22, 23.

b. Ptolemaic Localisation,

The Ptol. constructor has introduced Prot. C into the corresponding
parts of Prot. A in such a manner that C is absorbed without leaving
directly visible traces, so far as physical outlines are concerned. Yet
the presence of C is apparent from the eastward displacement of the
accompanying names, especially the duplicates. Most of the towns con-
cerned have been noticed by C. Miiller.

At the outset, it is not obvious whether all of the displacements'
must be regarded as betraying Prot. C, or whether some of the names
concerned might be derived from other sources. Provisionally leaving
this question undecided, we shall register any cases of displacement ob-
served by us in Gaul, Belgium, and north-western Germany.

We begin with western Gaul.

Redones, the people of the present town Rennes, form the starting
point of the displacement, being removed from the region of the lower
Loire to the middle course of that river. In Prot. A, the Ptol. constructor
must have found both the Redones and their town Kondate missing, but
he found a name-sake of the latter on the middle Loire, — both towns
are recorded by the Tabula Peutingeriana — , and consequently he pushed
the Redones thither. Once begun, the displacement continued, as we shall
see by regarding the position of their neighbours.

Namnetai, the people of Nantes, emigrate from the mouth of the
Loire to the mouth of the Seine; their town Kondeouinkon, now Nantes,


Ii6 Ptolemy's maps of northern Europe

being likewise removed. Their correct place is still marked by their
mutilated alter-ego Samnitai, originating from Prot. A.

Abrinkatuoi, the people of Avranches, from western Normandy to the
mouth of the Seine, with their town Ingena, now Avranches.

Ratomagos, now Rouen, from the Seine towards the east. The
duplicate of this town, originating from Prot. A, is in return pushed a
little west of the river.

A third duplicate, betraying possibly the contrast between Prot. C
and A, is roMorinoi = Morinoi, in the present Flanders. Accidentally,
no displacement has occurred here worth mentioning.

We now enter the Belgian district called Germania, mentioned e. g.
in the Itin. Antonini. The Ptol. constructor has mistaken this whole
district for the Germania megale of his Prot. A, i. e. the present Ger-

The western frontier of the Belgian Germania is mistaken for the
Rhine A which forms the western frontier of Germania megale. The
middle course of the actual Rhine in return is mistaken for the Abnoba
of Prot. A (A).

In "The Scottish Geographical Magazine", vol. XXX, p. 70, we have
suggested that the continuation of the Rhine is concealed by the moun-
tain Melibokos and the river Weser in A. Further considerations have
caused us to withdraw this suggestion.

The mountain Melibokos seems to lead us too far south of Askalingion,
which marks the place of the Rhenish town Askiburgion or Asberg.
And Leufana = Levefano Tab. Peuting., lies at a considerable distance
east of the Weser, whereas it ought to lie on the western border, if
this river were to be regarded as the original Rhine of C. As a matter
of fact, the Ptolemaic map of Germany seems to contain no physical line
which could have been identified with the lower Rhine of C. It is per-
haps not excluded that Prot. Aa contained a line representing the frontier
of the Roman territory in northern Germany between the years 9 A. D.
and 47 A. D. Such a line might have crossed the Weser and touched
the Elbe exactly at the places where the Ptolemaic map puts the names
Askalingion and Leufana. And the Ptol. constructor would have identified
the lower Rhine C with this frontier line of Prot. Aa, whereas the final
edition of the atlas eliminated the frontier line, because the Romans had
in 47 A. D. given up their dominion over the North German coast.

If the reasons of this displacement on German ground remain some-
what obscure from the physical point of view, its presence is no less
certain, as the reader will notice from the following lists of correspon-
dences :


Tab. Peuting.

1234 5 67 89 10 11

A.spingium Tab[u]lis Flenio Foro Adriani River Anatius Matilone Albanianis Leuefano Caruobe Asciburgio Nouesio.

Prot. C.

1235 4 76 89 10 11

Lskiburgion Nabalia Fleum F. Abiranon River Amisias Marionis Albis(*amnis) Leufana Koinoenon Askalingion Nouaision.

Itin. Antonini.





Prot. C.









We learn from these lists that the Ptolemaic names of towns and
rivers in north-western Germany re- appear often as Belgian on the Tabula
Feutingeriana or in the Itinerarium Antonini, either with almost identical
forms, or under a slight disguise.

The following easily identified towns are localised by the Ptol. con-
structor without any traceable assonances on German ground; most of
the equations have been suggested by C. Miiller: Leufana, Levefano
Tab Peuting., according to C. Miiller the present Levenstein; Askal-
ingion, Asciburgio Tab. Peuting., the present Asberg on the Rhine;
Nouaision, Novesio Tab. Peuting. and Itin., the present Neuss on the
Rhine; Teuderion, Theudurum Itin,, the present Tiiddern between the
Meuse and the Rhine; Mediolanion, Mediolano Itin., perhaps the present
Moyland near Asberg; Bogadion, Bacaco Tab. Peuting., Bagacum Itin.,
the present Bavay on the Sambre^); we may add Tekelia, mentioned by
no other classical evidences = the present island of Texel.

In the following cases, Belgian names of Prot. C have been absorbed
by correctly localised German names of Prot. Aa, owing to treacherous
assonances. Although incomplete, the assonances are sufficiently "self-
evident" in order to deceive a Ptol. constructor, after all we know about
his philological capacity. As a matter of fact the order of names on
the Tab. Peuting. corresponds so well to the assonances on the Ptolemaic
map that we cannot wonder he was mistaken. Caspingium — perhaps
written with indistinct initial — became Askiburgion, now Asberg on the
Rhine; Tabulis, *Nabulis > Nabalia on a homonymous river, mentioned
by Tacitus near the Zuider Sea; Flenio > Fleum, on the Vlie Strom;

*) Miiller suggests an identification with Burginatium of the Tab. Peuting. and Itin. Ant.,
but the assonance seems too feeble.


*F. Adrianum, Fabiranon >> Fabaria, a Roman name of the island Bor-
kum; river Anatius > river Amisias, now Ems; Albanianis, the present
Alfen, near Leyden, misunderstood as *Albis amnis > Albis, the Elbe.
We may add Orolaunum, the present Arlon (Flemish Aarlen), west ot
Luxemburg, misread by the Ptol. constructor as Ar-taunon, and localised
near the mountain Taunus.

After the towns and rivers, we shall consider some tribes from the
district Germania west of the Rhine, transplanted by the Ptol. constructor
to Germany.

The Tenkeroi of Prot. Aa seem to have absorbed the *Tungri of C
= Tongri of Itin. Antonini. Inkriones, between Rhine and Abnoba, look
enigmatic. In "The Scott. Geogr. Mag.", vol. XXX, p. 70, we have sug-
gested an equation with the Belgo-German tribe Eburones, as the termi-
nation -ones is very rare among the tribes of Belgium (other instances:
Ceutrones, Olibriones)^). Intouergoi, south of the Inkriones, are another
tribe with an extraordinary kind af name. In our above-mentioned
research, we have identified them with Strabo's Trevagroi = Treveri, the
inhabitants of Trier. But an examination of the Tab. Peuting. supplies a
more plausible equation: Intouergoi = Nitiobroges. The latter name is
corrupted by the author of the Tab. Peuting. owing to erroneous identi-
fication with the well-known Nitiobriges near the Garonne. The second
element -obriges Tab. Peuting. seems to be derived from Obringa, the
Ptolemaic name of the river Mosel, and the (Niti) obriges thus would be
connected with the 01-ibriones of Jordanis XXXVI. and the Al- obrites
or Al -obroges of the Anon. Ravennas, IV, 24 and 26, cf. Zeuss, p. 578,
579. The first syllable int = nit would have been more correctly spelt
by Ptolemy, and the spelling verg. instead of brig may represent the
vulgar Latin pronunciation, cf Borvetomagus, *Vorbetomagus instead of
Borbetomagus, now Worms.

Vargiones south of Intouergoi are, of course, the well-known German
tribe Vangiones, correctly localised west of the Rhine on Ptolemy's map
of Gaul. Perhaps they are concealed by the badly corrupted name "Rer-
viges" beside Nitiobroges on the Tab. Peuting.

Karitnoi south of the Vargiones = Parisi Tab. Peuting., erroneously
identified with the well-known inhabitants of Paris. They are mentioned
by Caesar as Caeresi, by Tacitus as Caeracates, and lived in the mediaeval
district Pagus Caroascus north-west of the Mosel. The derivation has
evidently been somewhat fluctuating.

All the tribes mentioned indubitably belong to Prot. C. Continuing

*) The reading Nikriones of one MS. {A) has by some scholars been combined with the
Nicretes of a Roman inscription, but it is too isolated.


farther east, we enter that region which we have in our provisional
sketch assigned to D.

The tribes concerned belong to the country east of the Rhine.
Kamauoi and Chairusikoi, near Leufana, at the utmost edge of the area
with eastward displacement, correspond to the Chamavi and Chrepstini
on the Tab. Peuting., not far from Leuefano, at the utmost north-western
edge of Germania. The displacement of the Kamauoi is very strong:
from the Rhine to the Elbe. The neighbouring tribes Chattai and Tu-
bantoi have equally been transplanted from the Rhenish districts to interior
Germany. Kalukones = Kathylkoi Strabo: *Kauklones, or smaller Chauks,
occupy both sides of the Elbe, according to Ptolemy's text, although
they ought to stand in reality west of the Weser, as their alter-ego does
in Prot. Aa.

The presence of a tribe *Angrivarii in C may be "conjectured from
the absurdly displaced Ptolemaic Sueboi Aggeiloi belonging to Prot. D.
It is scarcely conceivable how it could occur to the Ptol. constructor's
mind to place the Angles in interior Germany, if he had not been misled
by some assonance. The form Angrivarii may have been abbreviated
into Angri, so that only the two first syllables were legible. It is not
excluded that the corrupted forms *'Vapi. varii" on the Tab. Peuting.
might conceal the name of the same tribe.v The Brukteroi may also
have occurred in C, corresponding to the Burcturi on the Tab. Peuting.
If so, the "smaller Brukteroi" near the Rhine were really meant, whereas
the Ptol. constructor identified them with the "greater Brukteroi" of
Prot. Aa farther east.

Next to the Brukteroi, we notice the Kasvaroi and the *Chattvaroi
(Chaitvoroi), two ^tribes that ought to stand near the lov^er Rhine. ("Haci.
Vapi. Varii" on the Tab. Peuting.??). The Ptol. constructor has trans-
planted them east of the Abnoba; the *Chattvaroi were probably assi-
milated with the Raetovarii, a Danubian tribe in the present district of
Ries, mentioned in the "Notitia Dignitatum".

Finally, the Uispoi follow, = Usipi. This is the only one of the
displaced tribes that has retained its position near the Rhine. In return
it has been pushed far south from the region north of Mayence to the
slopes of the Schwarzwald.

c. Definition of Limits.

We may expect that the definition of limits will here cause some
difficulties, because C is neither accompanied by a duplicate prototype
nor limited by distinct natural or political boundaries. As a matter of
fact, we have altered our views considerably, since we published our first


Ptolemaic eassay in the "Saga Book of the Viking Society", vol. VIII
(191 3), and in "The Scottish Geographical Magazine", vol. XXX (1914).

One question concerns the distinction of prototypes in Gaul.

As the reader will notice from our Fig. 21, the Ptolemaic displace-
ment affects two sections which are distinctly separated from eachother.
The one represents a region in western Gaul, which is transplanted to
the borders of the river Seine. The other is the Belgian district Ger-
mania which is transplanted east of the Rhine, whereas the adjoining parts
of Germany are pushed farther east.

Owing to the complete separation of the two displaced sections, it
might seem questionable whether they originate from a single prototype
or from two. As the displacement is so constantly eastward, however,
the assumption of a single prototype seems most likely. Moreover, a
correct map shows no chasm between the sections concerned, as the
reader will notice by regarding our Fig. 23.

In § 24, we shall supply further material showing that the Ptol. con-
structor sometimes indubitably split up contiguous sections of his original

Some questions of little importance concern the relations of the pro-
totypes C, Aa, and Ab. In "The Scott. Geogr. Mag.", vol. XXX, p. 70,
we have suggested the equation Amisia C — AHson Aa. In the same
volume, p. 621, we have withdrawn this suggestion. Ptolemy's town
Amisia near the homonymous river actually existed and still exists as
Ems on a homonymous river in Hessen- Nassau; it belongs to Prot. Ab.
The fortress of Luppia, assigned by us to Prot. C, ibd. p. 70, may pos-
sibly also belong to Ab.

A more important alteration of our views affects the demarcation of
Prot. C against Prot. D. On the Ptolemaic map, Prot. C is most ob-
viously betrayed by its constant eastward displacement. The same dis-
placement characterised parts of our assumed Prot. D, whereas others,
such as the "Swabian" tribes of Angles and Langobards, are displaced
in exactly the opposite direction.

The parallel displacement would of course make the distinction of the
two prototypes difficult, but we believed that we had found firm ground
in the duplicate Chaimai = Kamauoi. As the tribe Chaimai stands
among . Belgian towns evidently belonging to C, we assigned it to this
prototype. Consequently, its alter-ego Kamauoi would belong to D^ and
this prototype would hence lay claim to the entire surrounding milieu of
tribes: Chairusikoi, Chattai, Tubantoi, etc.

Having divided the prototypes in this way, we further searched for
physical lines which might conceal the original framework of C and D.


And we suggested that the Ptolemaic mountain Melibokos might be
regarded as representing the original Rhine of both prototypes, only in
the opposite direction : in C, east- west must be reconstructed as north-
south^ whereas in D -it would be south-north. See figures 6 and 7 in
the first article, vol. XXX, p. 57.

The above theory of division would be certain, if it could be taken
for granted that the Ptolemaic Chaimai belonged to Prot. C. Later, how-
ever, we noticed that their pertinence to C is less certain than we had
thought at first: in spite of their eastward displacement, they might also
belong to Prot. Aa. The Ptolemaic North-Sea tribes derived from Prot.
Aa may not necessarily all be correctly localised. As a matter of fact,
Ptolemy places the Parisians too far south, practically at the place of
the Chamavi, and so it is possible that they have displaced the
latter towards the east, no matter whether this displacement occurred
already in the Prototype Aa, or whether it was due to the Ptol. con-

As soon as we assign the Chaimai to Prot. Aa, nothing prevents us
from regarding Prot. C as owner of the duplicate Kamauoi, and of the
entire surrounding milieu. Prot. D, on the other hand, would lose most
of its contents, being reduced to the trinity of Swabians, i. e. Semnones,
Aggeiloi, Laggobardoi.

Considering the two alternatives, we feel obliged to decide in favour
of Prot. C, declaring this prototype owner of almost all the displaced

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