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adhered to two distant chains, viz. i. Franken Hohe in Bavaria (probably
a distortion: Franken for *Fergen); 2. Erzgebirge north-west of Bohemia.
But the Ptolemaic Orkynios is neither of these; it must be the present
Morayian Hills. At the southern extremity of this chain there is a
mountain called Farren, which name seems to be a distortion of an
ancient Gothonic *Ferhunja, a normal collateral form of *Fergunja
according to Gothonic phonetic laws.



B.

§ 31. ADDITIONS TO § 22, PROTOTYPES Ac, Ad, Ae.

On p. 82, we pointed out that the Tabula Peutingeriana has transplanted
the words "Loci *VI regi(s)" from Dacia to Moesia, separating them from
the continuation "Dae. Petoporiani". We suggested that the Tabula has
correspondingly transplanted the town Sagadava = Zargidava Ptol.,
whereas Karsidava Ptol. would have been absorbed by the Moesian town
Cahdava Tab. Further considerations have confirmed our suggestions, as
we have discovered the Ptol. correspondence to one of the "loci regis



APPENDIX 143

Daci Petoporiani", viz. Piroboridava, read; *Piroporidava or *Pitoporidava.
Ptolemy's b instead of / does not contradict the equation, as a similar
shifting of media and tenuis appears in other Dacian names, cf. Biefoi =
Piefigoi, Buridavensioi = Predavensioi, Potulatensioi = Polonda, Dierna =
Tierna.

The Ptol. Piroboridava is placed in Moesia inferior, not far from the
mouth of the Danube, but we must assume that the Ptol. constructor has
displaced it too far towards the south-east together with Karsidava,
whereas the accompanying town Zargidava was displaced towards the
north-east. The Tabula Peutingeriana places the beginning of the words
'^Dac. Petoporiani" north of the Carpathian mountains, and the Ptol.
position of Karrodunon Ae = Karsidava Ad is corresponding.

The Dacian king concerned, as we mentioned, appears in an inscrip-
tion in Rome, Muratori 1039, 3^ "D- M- ^^^i Tiati fil. Dacae uxori Piepori
regis Coisstobocensis Natoporus et Drilgisa aviae cariss. b. m. fecer."
His people are obviously the Ptol. Koistobokoi in Roman Dacia, his
residence is the Ptol. Piroboridava, and his other towns may be the
neighbouring Tamasidava, Utidava, Trifulon, etc. We are informed by
Dio Cassius LXXI, 12, that the Hasdings — a branch of the Vandals —
invaded the country of the independent Koistobokoi about 172 A. D. He
relates LXXII, 3, that a flock of 18,000 independent Dacians were about
180 A. D. received in Roman Dacia. The place-names Piroboridava and
Tamasidava through their forms betray a relatively late origin, as no
other names on -dava are compounded with so long words.

The combined evidence of Ptolemy, the Tabula, the inscription and
Dio Cassius, affords a valuable piece of ethnic history dealing with north-
eastern Dacia. We thus understand the relatively rich Ptolemaic descrip-
tion of such peripheral parts of the Empire.

The result is an interesting addition to our knowledge of ancient
topography, but still more valuable is the statement that the edition of
the Ptol. work can now definitely be dated as originating from after
180 A. D., — a fact which we conjectured already from the occurrence
of such tribal names as Biessoi and Sabokoi, cf. p. 89.

In our genetic perspective p. 89, we ought perhaps to introduce a
Ptolemaic stage VI, represented by the most freshly acquired informations
such as the "loci VI regis Daci Petopori". The Post- Ptolemaic stage
would then become nr. VII.



BIBLIOGRAPHIC NOTES



§ 32. INTRODUCTION.

The following lists do not pretend to offer an exact bibliography, —
not even approximately. As no regular attempt at a Ptolemaic biblio-
graphy has been made after 1837, it would be impossible to supply the
want here, because the Ptolemaic statements are discussed and used in
almost numberless works. It would be more than impossible during a
time of European warfare, when visiting the libraries in the different
capitals is prohibited.

We therefore only try to point out some of ,the more important
publications, hoping that it may prove useful to ordinary readers, and
perhaps also contribute some practical hints to the work of a future
bibliographer.

A general bibliography down to the year 1837 is given by Heeren^
"Literatura Ptolemiaca".



§ 33. EDITIONS OF PTOLEMY'S GEOGRAPHY.

Famous, as it was, Ptolemy's Geography has been published in
numerous editions or translations since the end of mediaeval times. We
shall name some of the most important.

1472. Latin translation, printed in Bologna.

1533. Editio princeps in Greek by Erasmus, Basel.

1838 — 1848. Edition with Latin translations by Wilberg, Essen. Con-
tains the different readings of several MSS.

1843— 1845. Ed. by Nobbe, Leipzig. Text-book for the practical use
of scholars.



BIBLIOGRAPHIC NOTES 145

1867. La Geographic de Ptolemee. Phototypical reproduction of the
Mount Athos Manuscript, incl. the accompanying atlas, by Sewa-
stionow and Langlois, Paris. The seven first pages of the atlas
which were lacking, when the edition was published, have later
been rediscovered in the British Museum by Jos. Fischer who is
preparing an edition.

1873. Edition of the chapters concerning Germany, Scandinavia and
the neighbouring parts of Belgium and Sarmatia; in the "Germania
antiqua" publ. by Mullenhoff, Berlin. Contains the different readings
of several MSS. (arbitrary conjecture: Kyenones instead of
Leuonoi !).

1883 — 1 90 1. Edition with Latin translation and atlas by C. Muller, Paris
(continued by Kurt Fischer \ Vol. Ill has not yet been published).
Contains the different readings of most MSS. (except from the
manuscript copies of the atlas). Valuable foot-notes.



§ 34. EDITIONS OF THE PTOLEMAIC ATLAS AND
OF SINGLE PTOLEMAIC MAPS.

1484. Editio Ulmensis, with coloured atlas, designed by the famous
German cartographer Nicolaus Bonis ^ Ulm.

1490. Editio Romana, with atlas, Rome. Republished by Nordenskidld
1889 (see below).

1867. Atlas of the Mount Athos Manuscript, phototyp. reprod. by Se-
wastionow and Langlois, Paris (see § 33).

1889. A. Nordenskidld, "Facsimile- Atlas to the Early History of Car-
tography" (Editio Romana), Stockholm.

1 90 1. Tabulae XXX, a Ptolemaic atlas, reconstructed by C. Miiller, Paris
(see § 33).



1892. "Perthes' Atlas antiquus", Gotha, by Ad. v. Kampen. With re-
constructed Ptolemaic map of the world. 8*^ edition, 1908.

1900. Jelic, see § 35. With reproduced Ptol. map of Dalmatia from
Cod. Urbinas 82.

1 90 1. E. Devrient, "Hermunduren und Markomannen", in "Neue Jahr-
biicher fur klassische Philologie". With reconstructed Ptol. map
of Germania.

1 90 1. R. V, Erckert, "Wanderungen und Siedelungen der germanischen
Stamme in Mitteleuropa ... bis auf Karl den Grossen", Berlin.
Monumental atlas, with reconstructed Ptol. map of Germania, based
upon Miiller's edition.



146 Ptolemy's maps of northern Europe

1902. J. Fischer, **Entdeckungen der Normannen" = ^'The Discoveries
of the Norsemen in America", London 1903. With reproduced
Ptolemaic MS. maps.

1904. A. Bjembo & Carl Petersen, ^'Claus Clauss0n Swart (Clavus)", in
the "Danish Videnskabernes Selskabs Skrifter". German trans-
lation 1909. With reproduced Ptol. MS. maps of Germania.

1907. H, M. Chadwick, "The Origin of the English Nation". With
reconstructed Ptol. map of Germania (p. 194 — 95).

1 9 10. V. Novot7i<), in the publ. of the Bohemian Academy of Sciences
(see § 35 a). With reconstructed map of Germania.

191 1. R. Kiepert, "Formae orbis antiqui" (1894 — 1914 seq.). With re-
constructed Ptol. map of Europe.

191 1. Frithjof Nansen, "In Northern Mists". With reproduced Ptol.

map of Europe and northern Asia from the Editio Romana.
191 3 — 16. y. Fischer, see § 35 a. Reproduced Ptol. maps of the world,

of Spain, Germania, and Scythia, from various MSS.
191 5. A. Herrmann, Reconstructed map of Central Asia according to the

scheme of Marinus. Cf. § 35 a.



§ 35. RESEARCHES DEALING WITH PTOLEMY OR
BASED UPON HIS STATEMENTS.

Under this heading, we try to point out some of the more important
contributions to the general discussion of the theme, and besides some
monographs dealing with the special topography of the Cimbric Cher-
sonese.

Valuable bibliopraphic collections concerning the Ptolemaic geography
of Germania are contained in Novotnifs treatise "Ku kritice zprav Kl.
Ptolemaia", 1910 (see below p. 147).

a. Researches dealing with Ptolemy in a more or less general sense.

1705 seq. J. A. Fabricius, "Bibliotheca Graeca". 3^^^ edition, Hamburg,
1796; chapter dealing with Ptolemy V, 270 seq.

1737. G. M. Raidel, "Commentatio critico-literaria de Claudii Ptolemaei
Geographia".

1828. Heeren, "De fontibus geographicis Ptolemaei", in "Comment.
Gotting.". VI, p. 66.

1857. E, V. Wietersheim, "Ueber den praktischen Wert der speziellen
Angaben in der Geographic des Claud. Ptolemaeus insbesondere
liber Germanien", in "Berichte der sachsischen Gesellschaft der
Wissenschaften", IX, p. 112 seq.



BIBLIOGRAPHIC NOTES 147

1867. C. Muller^ "Rapports sur les manuscripts de la geographic de

Ptolemee", in "Archives des missions scientifiques et litteraires",

II'"^ serie, tome 4"^^.
1881. — "Codex Vaticanus Nr. 191 der Geographie des Ptolemaeus",

in "Hermes", XV.
1 88 1. Th. Mommsen, "Zur Kritik der Geographie des Ptolemaeus", in

"Hermes", XV.
1888. Christ, "Geschichte der griechischen Litteratur", in Miiller's "Hand-

buch der classischen Altertumskunde", 8*^ edition, 1905, VII, p. 506.
1894. G. Holz, "Beitrage zur deutschen Altertumskunde; I. Ueber die

germanische Volkertafel des Ptolemaeus", Halle.
1894. Boll, "Studien iiber Claudius Ptolemaus", in Fleckeisen's "Jahr-

biicher fiir classische Philologie".
1897. R. Much, "Die Stadte in der Germania des Ptolemaus", in the

"Zeitschrift fiir deutsches Altertum", XLI, p. 97 seq.

Berger, "Die Grundlagen des Marinus-Ptolemaischen Erdbildes",

in "Berichte der sachsichen Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften", hist.

phil. CI., p. 87—143.

A. Gnirs, "Das ostl. Germanien und seine Verkehrswege in der

Darstellung des Ptolemaus", in "Prager Studien", IV.

1900. y. Jelic^ "Das alteste kartographische Denkmal iiber die romische
Provinz Dalmatien", in "Wissenschaftliche Mitteilungen aus Bosnien
und Hercegovina", VII, p. 173 seq.

1901. H. Zondervan, "Allgemeine Kartenkunde", Leipzig,

1 90 1. W. Ketrzynski, "Die uns von Claudius Ptolemaus iiber Germania
Magna iibermittelten Nachrichten", in "Publicationen der Akademie
der Wissenschaften in Krakau, Anzeiger^ phil. Kl. 95."

1 90 1. — "Kritische Bemerkungen iiber die Germania Magna des Ptole-
maus", ibd. 8—15.

1902. Ludwig Schmidt, "Zur Germania des Ptolemaeus", in Seeliger's
"Historische Vierteljahrschrift", V, p. 79.

19 10. V. Novotnii, "Ku kritice zprav Kl, Ptolemaia o zemich cesk^ch"
in the Publications of the Bohemian Academy of Sciences.

191 1. R. Kiepert^ commentaries upon the map XXIV etc. in the "Formae
orbis antiqui".

191 2. Jos. Fischer, S. J., "Die handschriftliche Ueberlieferung der Pto-
lemaus-Karten", in "Verhandlungen des XVIII deutschen Geo-
graphentags".

191 3. — • "An Important Ptolemy Manuscript with Maps in the New
York Public Library", in the "Cathol. Hist. Records and Stu-
dies".

1913- — "Die Strassburger Ptolemaus-Ausgabe vom Jahre 1513", in the
"Stimmen aus Maria- Laach", Heft 3.

10*



148 Ptolemy's maps of northern Europe

1913- Jos. Fischer, S. J., "Resultados de mis investigaciones cartograficas",

in "Iberica, tirada del Segundo Congreso Espafiol' de' Geografia

colonial y mercantil".
191 4. — "El Valoso manuscrito latino de Ptolomeo de la universidade de

Valencia". Ibd., Febr. 14**^.
1914. — "Zur Ptolemausforschung" in "Petermanns Mitteilungen"; p. 287.
1 9 16. — "Ptolemaus und Agathodamon". Mit einem Facsimile der Welt-

karte des Agathodamon. Brit. Mus. Add. 19. 391".

Publications of the Imperial Academy of Vienna, Vol. LIX, see

under M2ik, -^Afrika". "
1 91 3. P. Dinse, "Die handschriftlichen Ptolemauskarten", in the "Zen-

tralblatt fiir Bibliothekswesen", XXX, p. 379 seq.

191 3. — "Die handschriftlichen Ptolemauskarten und die Agathodamon-
frage", in the "Zeitschrift der Gesellschaft fiir Erdkunde zu BerUn",
p. 745 seq.

19 1 4. K. Kretschmer, "Die Ptolemauskarten", in "Petermanns Mitteil-
ungen", p. 142.

, 1914. A. Herrmann, "Marinus, Ptolemaus und ihre Karten", in the
"Zeitschrift der Gesellschaft fiir Erdkunde zu Berlin", 19 14, Nr. 10.

191 5. — "Die Seidenstrassen vom alten China nach dem Romischen
Reich", in the "Mitteilungen der k. k. Geographischen Gesellschaft
in Wien", p. 472 seq.

19 16. Hans V. Mzik, "Afrika der arabischen Bearbeitung der rscoyQacpixrj
vcprjyYjOLg des Claudius Ptolemaus von Muhammad ibn Musa al-
Hwarizimi. Herausgeg., iibersetzt und erklart von H. v. M. Kaiserl.
Akad, d. Wissensch. in Wien, Philos. hist. Klasse, Denkschriften,
LIX Bd., 4. Abh., Anhang II.".

191 2. G. Schiitte, "Une carte du Danemark, de 1900 ans", in "Le Dane-
mark", Oct.

1913. — "A Map of Denmark, 1900 Years Old", in the "Saga-Book of
the Viking Society", Vol.. VIII.

' 1914 — 15. — "Ptolemy's Atlas, a Study of the Sources", in "The Scot-
tish Geographical Magazine", with five continuations.

1914. — "Der Ursprung der handschriftHchen Ptolemaus-Karten", in the
"Mitteilungen zur Geschichte der Medizin und der Naturwissen-
schaften", XIII, no. 5.

191 5. — "Det ptolemaeiske Danmarkskort" , in "Geografisk Tidskrift",
Hefte I.

191 5, — "Danmarkskortet hos Ptolemaios ifolge Codex Burney 111",
ibd. Hefte 2.

191 5. — "Et maskeret Belgienskort hos Ptolemaios", ibd. Hefte 3.

1916. — "Die Quellen der ptolemaischen Karten von Nordeuropa", in
"Beitrage zur Geschichte der deutschen Sprache und Literatur",
p. I seq.



BIBLIOGRAPHIC NOTES 149

19 1 6. G. Schiitte, 'Ttolemaeiske Dubletter, Tripletter og Kvadrupletter",

in '^Arkiv for nordisk filologi", XXXIII, p. 30.
191 6. — "Nord og Mellemeuropa efter den rensede Ptolemaios", in

"Geografisk Tidskrift", Hefte 7.



b. Geographic or Ethnographic Compendia, etc.

1822. N'. H. Brehmer, "Entdeckungen im Altertum", Heft i, p. 11.
1837. C. Zeuss, "Die Deutschen und die Nachbarstamme". 2. edition,

unaltered, 1903.
1837. ^' Safarik (Schafarik), "Slavische Altertiimer" (translated from

Cechian).
1852. W. defers, "Beitrage zur Geschichte und Geographie des alten

Germaniens", Miinster u. Paderborn.
1870 seq. K. Mullenhoff, "Deutsche Altertumskunde". Vol. II — V in

posthumous edition.

1877. J. Sadowski, "Die Handelsstrassen der Griechen und Romer, iibers.
aus dem Polnischen von A. Kohn'\

1878. H. Kiepert, "Lehrbuch der alten Geographie", p. 10.

1893. Berger, "Geschichte der wissenschaftlichen Erdkunde der Griechen",
Leipzig.

1899. O, Bremer, "Ethnographic der germanische Stamme", in Paul's
"Grundriss der germanischen Philologie", 2. ed., Strassburg. Re-
published in unaltered form 1905. Cf. our review in "Anzeiger
fiir deutsches altertum", 1901. (Bremer on p. 825 points out a
series of Ptolemaic duplicates).

1899. Nystrom, "Geografiens och de geografiska upptackternas historia",
Stockholm.

1900. R. Much, "Deutsche Stammeskunde", in "Sammlung Goschen".
2. ed. 1905.

1904. K. Kretschmer, "Historische Geographie von Mittel-Europa'', in
Below-Meinecke, "Handbuch der mittelalterl. u. neuer. Geschichte",
Abt. IV.
"190b. D. Detlefsen, "Ursprung, Einrichtung und Bedeutung der Erdkunde
Agrippas", in Sieglin's "Quellen und Forschungen zur alten Ge-
schichte u. Geographie", H. 13.

1909. L. Schmidt, "Allgemeine Geschichte der germ. Volker bis zur
Mitte des 6. Jahrh.", in Below-Meinecke, "Handbuch der mittel-
alterl. u. neuer. Geschichte", Abt. II, 6.

191 o. Jos. Fischer, S. J., "Die Entdeckungen der Normannen".

191 1. Frithjof Nansen, "Nord i Takeheimen" = "In Northern Mists"
(also in French and German). Christiania, London, etc.



150 Ptolemy's maps of northern Europe

c. Topography of the Cimbric Chersonese.

1822. J. H.Bredsdorff, "Bidrag til Forklaring af Ptolemaei Efterretninger

cm de nordiske Lande", in "Skandinaviske Litteraturselskabs

Skrifter", XX.
1836. E. C. Werlauff, "Bidrag til den nordiske Ravhandels Historic", in

the Danish ''Videnskabernes Selskabs Skrifter", p. 271, 275.
"1844. K. Miillenhoff, "Die deutschen Volker an Nord- und Ostsee in

altester Zeit", in "Nordalbingische Studien", I.
1868. P. Wislicenus, "Die Geschichte der Elbgermanen", Halle.
1890. A. Erdmann, "Ueber den Namen und die Heimat der Angeln",

in "Humanistiska Vetenskapsselskapets skrifter", Upsala. Reviewed

by Herman M0ller, "Anzeiger fur deutsches altertum". Cf. our

treatise "Var Anglerne Tyskere?", in "S0nderjydske Aarboger",

1900, Flensborg.
1894. y. F. Marcks, "Die romische Flottenexpedition zum Kimbernlande

und die Heimat derKimbern", in "Jahrbuch des Vereins fiirAlter-

tumsfreunde im Rheinland", Bonn.
1899. Ihm, art. "Cimbri", in Pauly & Wissowa's "Realencyclopadie der

classischen Altertumswissenschaften" .
1904 — 1909. D. Detlefsen, "Die Entdeckung des germanischen Nordens

im Altertum", in Sieglin's "Quellen und Forschungen zur alten

Geschichte und Geographic".
1907. H. M. Chadwick, "The Origin of the English Nation", in the

"Cambridge Archaeological and Ethnological Series". Cf. our

Review in "Arkiv for nordisk filologi", 1909.
1912. R. W. Chambers, "Widsith", p. 241 etc., in the "Cambridge Ar-

chaelogical and Ethnological Series".

Further notice on existing literature may be found in the- works of
Bremer, Novotny, Detlefsen, Nansen, and Chambers.






MAPS

AND

ILLUSTRATIONS

Contents p. X (A)

(cf. extract of contents - XXXIII)



N



Ill






u
O




11



IV



Fig. 2.

GERMANIA, CHERSONESUS CIMBRICA, SCANDIA

Version A

from the Codex Urbinas 82 in the Bibliotheca Vaticana, 13th century.
By permission of Prof. Jos. Fischer S. J. Cf. § 19 — 20.




-" ^-.'♦^l^ !! ' 'fc i 4? P ^



^^



I







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Fig. 3.

GERMANIA, CHERSONESUS CIMBRICA, SCANDIA

Version B

from the Codex Bumcy 111, fol. 28, in the British Museum, 13th century.

By permission of the Museum and "The Scottish Geographical Magazine". Cf. § ii — 20.




VI



Fig. 4.
GERMANIA, CHERSONESUS CIMBRICA, SCANDIA

The type of the Roman editions
from the Codex Ebnerianus (Lat.) in the New York Public Library-
designed by Nicolaus Donis, 15th century.

By permission of Prof. Jos. Fischer S. J. ("Catholic Historical Records and Studies'
New York, 191 3, p. 222 — 223). Cf. § 19 — 20.




VII



Fig. 5.
PROTOTYPE A — GERMANIA

designed by L. Schmidt, in Seeliger's "Hist. Vierteljahrschrift", 1902, p. 84.
By permission. Cf. § 19.




VIII



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Fig. 8.

PROTOTYPE Ab — SOUTH-WESTERN GERMANIA

from the Codex Urbinas 82.

By permission of Prof. Jos. Fischer S. J. and "The Scottish Geographical Magazine'

Cf. § 21.




Mountains, according to the Cod. Urbinas 82.



Do. , according to the Cod. Burney, 1 1 :




V,-



Ikatosl



%Ulduo)p/



laroduncnnl




'eUlaUAoi



rodeniiaj



1^ Raitia



-^^^



XI



Fig. 9.
THE LIMES TRANSRHENANUS.

By permission of "The Scottish Geographical Magazine". Cf. § 21.



Middle-German mountains, height 600 — 700 m.
South-western mountains, height 1000 m.

Space included by the Roman fortification lines and the district
frontier of Raetia, corresponding to the Ptolemaic mountains
Albia and Abnoba.

Roman fortification lines.

Frontier of the Roman province of Rsetia.

Excavated Roman fortresses.




XII



feKedonfi



am lyAris Flavis



Fig.:io.

SOUTH-WESTERN GERMANIA
according to the Tabula Peutingeriana.

By permission of "The Scottish Geographical Magazine".
Cf. § 21.

The Latin figures are road distances and indicate towns which
belong to the Roman Limes district between the Rhine and
the Danube.



iQrinarione



Fig. 11.

COMPARISON OF DETAILS FROM THE

REGION OF THE VALLUM HADRIANI.

By permission of "The Scottish Geographical Magazine".
Cf. § 21.



iw



imiaci.Du



Se^akodoia)

B i boKCTTv A I ki vnoems




Ptolemy, Cod. Urbinas 82.



CrinorioMC ScpUmiaci^u) 'BiricioniS ^

-i * i- ^



Tabula Peutingeriana.



r*- iiDiriciArvis




AUwo*,^ C



Modem map.



Fig. 12. DACIA

from the Cod. Urbinas 82.
By permission of Prof. Jos. Fischer S. J. Cf. § 27.



XIII









:hKY{\h




\l.



vi: ,.:_- -.-L;



OrAKH



<.ii- .



Fig. 13. PROTOTYPE Ac — DACIA

(to left), contrasted with a modem physical map of the region of the Lower

Danube (to right).
By permission of "The Scottish Geographical Magazine". Cf. § 22.




marks the Limit of Prototype Ae^ coinciding with the presumed southern Carpathian
complexe of Ac.



XIV



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o





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XVI



Fig. 17.

THE PTOLEMAIC DACIA

with the names redistributed according to their presumed correct positions.




Sald._
CSalderiSioi)



(B/£FO/}

fotula.
(PalodaJ



Names without brackets or in a single bracket ( ) are supposed to represent Ptolemy's pro-
totypes Ac^ Ad, and Ae. Those within square brackets [ ] are names from the Tabula
Peutingeriana; those within double brackets (( )) are names from Ptolemy's map of Ger-
mania or from other sburces.

Mercantile road^ from Carnuntum to Askaukalis, corresponding to Ptolemy's so-called
"river Vistula".



XVII







^ li


^






H '-S


^


s ^


^


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XVIII



Fig. 19.

PROTOTYPES Bl AND B2 — THE MERCANTILE ROAD FROM

THE DANUBE TO THE MOUTH OF THE VISTULA.

Comparison of the duplicates.
By permission of "The Scottish Geographical Magazine". Cf. § 23.




B2.


Bl


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i XIX



Fig. 20.
PROTOTYPES Bl AND B2

contrasted with a modem map.
By permission of "The Scottish Geographical Magazine". Cf. § 12.




(in B2). Mountains, misinterpreted as a tribe or a town.



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Fig. 23.
ANCIENT BELGIUM AND NORTH-WESTERN GERMANIA

with the names from Prot. C.

Cf. § 24.




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1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 16

Online LibraryGudmund SchüttePtolemy's maps of northern Europe, a reconstruction of the prototypes → online text (page 16 of 17)