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a hilly country would like an island when observed from the sea at
some distance (Bredsdorff). On the other hand, the possibility is by no
means excluded that the Ptol, map may be right, for the Limfjord has
changed its western outlet several times, and so it may very well have
possessed an extra outlet towards the north. The general correctness of
Prot. Aa speaks in favour of the latter alternative. Provisionally, we,
must leave the question unsettled, but it is possible that geology may
in the future give a decisive answer. It has already been suggested,
without any reference to Ptolemy's map, that channels from the Limfjord
to the Jammer-Bugt existed about the beginning of our era. If such
theories proved correct they would thus find their literary verification in
the classical geography.

The Ptol. map of Scandia also requires some consideration. If we
regard the design as given by the Cod. Urbinas 82, or by several other
MSS., we shall not be particularly struck by its likeness. But as soon
as we compare the corresponding Mount Athos map, we shall receive a
different impression, cf. Fig. 27. Here there is an unmistakable individual
likeness with the actual form of Scania. We notice: the point of Kullen,
projecting towards the west; then the coast of the Sound with gentle
inclination towards the south-east; then the south coast, running straight
west-east; and finally the coast leading towards Bleking with strong
north-eastward direction. It seems scarcely conceivable that such a
naturalistic design could be merely accidental. In our opinion, it must
be derived from the first-hand observations made by the Roman officers
in the year 5 A. D.

The names recorded by Prot. Aa are to a great extent preserved till

64 Ptolemy's maps of northern Europe

mediaeval or modern times in the local nomenclature. Frisioi = inhabi-
tants of western Frisia. Their town Fleum, evidently named after the
Flevus or Vlie Stroom. Chaimai, misplaced by Ptolemy, = inh. of the
mediaeval Hamaland south-east of the Zuyder Sea. Brukteroi = inh. of
the mediaeval Borahtra Gau. The Kauchoi in northern Hannoveria seem
to be the O. E. Hugas whose name survived in the mediaeval Parisian
district of Hug-merki. Angrivarioi = the mediaeval Angrarii, one of the
main groups of the Saxons. Lakkobardoi or Langobards = the mediaeval
Bardi in the present district of Barden-Gau. Virunoi, read *Varinoi =
the people who lived at the river Warnow in Mecklenburg; the Wendic
tribe of Varnabi may have been their descendants who had adopted the
nationality of the Slavs. Saxones = inhabitants of Holstein that was
in mediaeval tradition designated as "Saxonia antiqua", "Old Saxony".
Sigulones = the O. E. Sycgas, mentioned in the Widsith poem beside
the Saxons. Sabaliggioi = the present Sallingboers in Sailing; their
shire — in Danish Sailing Syssel — in mediaeval times extended farther
south towards the centre of Jutland. Fundusioi, read: *Eudusioi, neigh-
bours of the Charudes, are the sEdusii or Eudures mentioned by Caesar
as fellows of the Harudes on the expedition against Gaul in 58 B. C.
Tacitus, "Germania" ch. 40, mentions the Eudoses beside the Angles as
worshippers of the goddess Nerthus. The comparison with Caesar and
Tacitus shows that Ptolemy is right in placing the tribe among the Jut-
landers. Charudes = the present Hardboers or Hasselboers in Hard-
Syssel, a shire in western Jutland. They seem to have moved thither
during the migration ages, as the Ptol. map places them on the east
coast. Their ancient localisation may still be reflected by the district
name of Hadsherred on thie east coast, in mediaeval times Harz Haeret
(Werlauff). Kimbroi — Himmerboers in Himmerland, the mediaeval Himber
Syssel. Skandia = Scania, O. N. Skan-ey.

Among the Jutlandic tribes, we miss the Angles as inhabitants of Angel
in Slesvig. Their absence, however, cannot surprise us, if we regard the
fact that the exact observation of coast lines stops at the southern edge
of the Baltic, The Roman explorers in the year 5 A. D. evidently did
not land south of the Little Belt. We only hear of negotiations with
the Kimbroi and Charudes who both lived north of this channel. Even
if the explorers caught the names of some Mecklenburgers such as the
Varini, such informations were merely sporadic, and we cannot wonder
if other names from those vaguely described coasts were ignored, such
as that of the Angles.

It is worth noticing that three of the Ptolemaic names of Jutlandic
tribes are preserved by inhabitants of peninsular districts, viz. Sabaliggioi,
Charudes, Kimbroi. Peninsular shape of districts always tends towards
preserving the ancient names, cf. the cases of Kent and Cornwall.


j. Conclusion.

Prot. Aa must be called well verified, both from topographic,
statistical, and literary points of view. It could scarcely be expected to
betray itself more neatly.

Whereas the prototype does not especially enlarge our knowledge of
the region between the Rhine and the Elbe, the description of the
Cimbric Chersonese is a document of unrivalled importance in the carto-
graphic history of Denmark. This map, designed during the expedition
5 A. D., was destined to remain the only map of Denmark worth
speaking of for almost 1500 years. It was not surpassed till the Dane
Claudius Clavus designed a map of his country, as it looked in the 1 5th
century, and even he dared not emancipate himself from the famous
Ptolemaic scheme^).


a. Summary of Contents.

Prot. Ad is a special map, describing the Roman Limes Transrhenanus.
It contains fortification lines, rivers, and numerous towns, but no tribes;
no duplicates; Latin marks. The prototype would have been executed
after the construction of the Vallum Hadriani, i. e. towards the middle
of the second century A. D. Affinity with the Tabula Peutingeriana.
Cf. Fig.s I, 2, 4, 8 — II, 30 — 31 , and our article in Paul & Braune's "Beitrage
zur geschichte der deutschen sprache und literatur", vol. XLI, pag. 17
seq., where we provisionally discuss the objections of an anonymous

b. Ptolemaic Localisation.

On Ptolemy's map, Prot. Ad fills out the entire south-western corner

of Germany.

The main part of Ad, i. e. between the upper Rhine and Danube,
is roughly speaking correctly localised, but the northern and south-
eastern extremities are misinterpreted or displaced in various ways.

The mouth of the river Vidros, in the region of the middle Rhine,
was identified with the mouth of the river Ijssel or Vechte, debouching
into the Zuyder Sea. Correspondingly, the river Amisias, an affluent of
the Lahn, was mistaken for its larger name-sake, the present Ems which
debouches into the North Sea (already suggested by C. Miiller). It was
obviously the existence of two rivers Amisias which mislead the Ptol.

*) Cf. A. Bjornbo and C. Petersen, "Der Dane Claudius Clausson Swart", 1909.


66 Ptolemy's maps of northern Europe

constructor. And the consequence was that the part concerned of Prot.
A6 was stretched far too far towards the north.

Apart from this Procrustean extension, the rivers Vidros and Amisias
have been subjected to various metamorphoses.

In reality, the Ptolemaic Vidros represents two rivers: one is the
present Wied, debouching into the Rhine, and the other is the present
Wetter, debouching into the Nied, an affluent of the Main. The actual
courses of these two rivers have disappeared, being replaced by the
north-western part of the Limes Transrhenanus.

The river Amisias, according to Ptolemy, starts east of the mountain
Abnoba which reflects in its northern extremity the wing of the Limes
in the Wetter district-, and the homonymous town Amisia lies east of the
Abnoba. In reality, the corresponding river Emisa or Ems starts from
the north western side of the Limes, where also the hononymous town
Ems is situated. It is easy to understand that the Ptol. constructor felt
obliged to "correct" the original map, as soon as he identified the river
Amisias of the Limes region with its better known name-sake in north-
western Germany.

The eastern outline of the Abnoba and the northern outline of the
Albia reflect the Limes without displacement, but farther east the traces
of Prot. Ad become less certain.

It might seem as if the eastern Limes had been absorbed by the
Ptol. mountain Sudeta = Bohmerwald, but, on the other hand, details
from the extremities of the Limes perhaps occur farther south. We must
leave this question for the examination of details. '^

c. Definition of Limits.
Owing to the above-mentioned misconceptions of the Ptol. constructor,
the northern extremities of Prot. Ad invade the area of prototype Aa.
On the other hand. Ad is invaded by the contents of the dislocated pro-
totype C, e. g. Nouaision (i. e. the present Neuss), Vargiones (i. e.
Vangiones), Uispoi (i. e. Usipi), and Chaituoroi (i. e. Chattuarioi). The
confusion, however, causes no serious trouble, as the towns and riverg
belonging to the Limes region are generally easy to point out.

d. General Topographic Scheme.
If we subject the Abnoba and Albia to exact examination, using the
design in the Cod. Urbinas 82, we shall notice that they betray a marked
difference from other Ptol. mountains. The form of the two chains
mentioned, especially of the Albia, contains traces of a more minute
design than we are otherwise accustomed to. And, above all, both
chains are interlarded with towns, a quite extraordinary feature in the
Ptolemaic orography, cf. under the heading "statistical features".


The details constituting Prot. Ad must be spared for the heading h,
where they will be properly discussed. Provisionally, we may only
emphasize the observation that the traceable outposts of Ad cling to a
series of distinctly visible physical lines which are all disguised expres-
sions of Roman fortifications. The first section is the so-called river
Vidros, the second is the mountain Abnoba, the third is the mountain
Albia. Not all towns of Ad, it is true, lie west or south of this com-
bined line, — there are about half-a-dozen of outsiders, viz. Stereontion,
Munition, Amisia (with river Amisias), Kanduon, and Grauionarion. But
almost all of these only lie at a short distance from the demarkation
line, so that they may be regarded as what the French military language
calls "entfants perdus", i. e. advanced positions.

e. Statistical Features.

Prot. Ad is characterized by the presence of fortification lines and
numerous towns, whereas tribes are lacking. All of the surrounding pro-
totypes contain tribes, — so Aa, B2, C, and D. Aa and D have few
or no towns.

Also a more intimate statistical examination of Prot. Ab shows its
marked individuality.

Along the right border of the middle and upper Rhine, representing
full two thirds of the entire river-course, Ptolemy has only one single
town, viz. Tarodunon, the mediaeval Zartuna, now Zarten. We might
also count Mattiakon, the present Wiesbaden, but the map removes it
far away from the river. On the other hand, the neighbouring mountains
Abnoba and Albia are overloaded with towns, amounting to about 14.
They are literally interlarded with towns, for Kantioibis, Devona, Sego-
dunon, Lokoriton, and Melokabos are placed inside the mountain strip
and the two first mentioned have given rise to "lowland cauldrons" on
the copies designed by Donis, cf Fig. 4.

Such a distribution, from the statistical point of view, is obviously
absurd. We should have expected a dozen Rhenish towns for every
single mountain town, not the opposite proportion. Especially, we miss
Aurelia Aquensis, now Baden, the capital of the Grand Duchy of the
same name, and Brisiacus, now Breisach, the capital of the district
Breisgau. How did it occur to Ptolemy's mind to distribute the population
in this extraordinary way?

The explanation is no doubt to be sought in the assumption that
the original map, used by the Ptol. constructor, did not really describe
mountains, but another sort of geographical category. If we compare the
design of mountains and forests in other parts of the atlas, we shall
certainly find plenty of incisions, — e. g. the forest Gabreta in the New
York MS. includes no less than four, corresponding to the town vignettes


68 Ptolemy's maps of northern Europe

of Eburon, Strevinta, Meliodunon, and Arsikva, cf. Fig. 4. But it rarely
occurs that the mountains or forests are literally interlarded with towns;
in the Valencia MS., map of Spain, we observe e. g. two cases, one in
the Pyrenees, and the other in a south-eastern mountain, see the repro-
duction in J. Fischer's article, "Iberica" 19 14, p. 105. After noticing this
fact, it will strike the observer that the mountains Abnoba and Albia
contain no less th^n half a dozen; we mentioned 5 above, and the MS.
used by Donis must have added a sixth one, viz. Bomoi Flavioi, for
here his design shows a corresponding "lowland cauldron".

It was this observation that first caused us to suggest that the original
map of the regions concerned must have been a special plan of the Limes
Transrhenanus. and our further investigations fullly confirmed our as-
sumption, as the reader will realize by regarding our commentary upon
the topographic details.

The marked individuality of Prot. Ab also appears from the statistical
classification, undertaken by Ptolemy on Germanic ground.

There are two Germanic districts, in which the authentic towns con-
tain numerous instances of the second class. The one is the mercantile
road from the Danube to the Prussian Amber coast, cf. § 21, e. ; and
the other is the region of the Limes.

In the following, we have made a synopsis of the classification,
according to four of the best MSS., cf. p. 69.

Our synopsis is set forth with all reservation, as it is not always
easy to make out the true significance of the vignettes in the various
MSS. But at any rate, it seems to show that the distinction between
the second and third class reflects an actual difference of importance.
All of the 8 second class towns are situated inside the Limes, and most
of them possess remnants of Roman fortifications. Mattiakon and Bomoi
Plavioi are besides emphasized in various ways. The towns of the third
class, on the contrary, are to a great extent situated outside the Limes,
viz. Munition, Stereontion, Kanduon, and Grauionarion ; and none of them
seems to possess noticeable remnants of fortifications.

The Athos Atlas differs from the scheme of the other MSS., in so
far as it emphasizes only three of the towns concerned: Amisia I cl.,
and Mattiakon and Bomoi Flavioi, II cl. This scheme is too isolated as
to be regarded as Ptolemaic, but at any rate it reflects the geographical
horizon of classical times. P'or the superior rank, attributed to Mattiakon
and Bomoi Flavioi, corresponds to their actual importance, and this fact
could scarcely have been known by a mediaeval copyist.






Ancient supplementary

Modern continuation;

remnants of Roman












Astronomic observations (Pto-
lemy). Perhaps =: the
fortress built by Drusus
and restored by Germanicus


fEms 1
Remnants near
[ Heftrich






Bomoi Flavioi



Aquae Mattiacae, fashionable
bathing place (Ammianus)

"Imperial Flavian altars"; the
name translated into Greek
(Ptolemy). Aris Flavis (Ta-
bula Peutingeriana)

Tenedone (Tab. Peuting.)

(Wiesbaden) |
.Remnants /

I Remnants j

Zartuna, Zarten
fLoricha, Lorch
\ Remnants J

town on the river
J Gunzenhausen ? |
(Remnants j


























Grinarione (Tab. Peuting.)
Biricianis (Tab. Peuting.)?

Groningen?, outside
the Limes

(Walhesdorf ?), outside

the Limes
Strinz, outside the

Kohden, outside the





















Septimiaci VII (Tab. Peuting.)


Biburg?, outside the


Finally, one more statistical observation must be added. As we men-
tioned above, the towns of Prot. Ai? cluster about the mountains Abnoba
and Albia. East of these mountains, the Ptolemaic map suddenly dis-
closes a relatively large region without towns, only filled with displaced
tribe-names such as Kuriones — Buroi, Chaituoroi = Chattuarioi. Then


further east, in the region of the mountains Semanus and Sudeta, the
towns begin again, among which the fictitious place Marobudon =
"castellum Marobudui" (Tacitus, "Annals" II, 62), and the disguised
mountain Bikurgion ■= Asbikurgion, Askiburgion, transplanted thither from
north-eastern Bohemia.

It is obvious that the empty room marks the eastern limit of Prot. Ab.
What lies farther east, is derived from other sources, such as the Tacitean
Annals, the Ptolemaic prototypes Bi^ B2, D etc.

f. Occurrence of Duplicates.
It is not possible to point out a single obvious duplicate which is
shared by Ab. The town-names within its sphere make the impression
af containing no fancy repetitions. Apart from solitary invaders such as
Nouaision, they seem to betray a pure and well preserved tradition.

g. Linguistic Marks.

Within the relatively limited number of names, belonging to Prot. Ab^
we observe some noteworthy Latinisms.

Munition, the Latin appellative "munitio" = "fortress"..

Vulgar Latin casus obliquus -one in yiwrnWon and Grauionari<?«. Cf.
the correspondence to the latter name on the Tabula Pentingeriana:
Gr'msinone. Grauionarion is perhaps a misread Latin word "granary".

Setuako-ton, = Septemiaci (VII) Tab. Peuting., seems to have been
enlarged through misreading of the Latin figure VII. It must be noticed
that the Athos Atlas adds the Latin figure LIIII above Tarodunon,
whereas the Tab. Peuting. writes Tenedone XIIII. If the reading of the
Athos MS. is no late interpolation, it must be connected with that of
the Tab. Peuting. De^/^ona and Riusia^^^a contain the typical Ptolemaic
transscription of Latin v, not occurring in the sections drawn from Greek

There are no Greek marks, except the translation Bomoi Flavioi
instead of Arae Flaviae. In this solitary case, the importance of the
town concerned makes the translation quite natural.

Whereas it is generally difficult to decide, whether the Latinisms
belong to the local prototypes or to the collective one (A), the question
in the present case seems easier to solve. Vulgar Latin forms such as
Munition and Grauionarion are the typical mark of itineraria like the
Tabula Peutingeriana. If the termination in Setuako-ton is to be derived
from a Latin figure of road distance, it points decidedly towards a source
of the same sort.

We therefore conclude that Prot. Ab has a marked linguistic indivi-
duality, betraying that this original map was a Latin document with the
vulgar spelling, known from the itineraria.


h. Literary Milieu.

The chronological position of Prot. Ad is relatively easy to define.
We know that the establishment of the Limes was begun under the
Emperor Domitianus, continued under Trajanus (98 — 117 A. D.), and
completed under Hadrianus (117 — 138 A. D.). As Al? contains at any
rate the Vallum Trajani, it cannot have been designed earlier than about
100 A. D. ; if it contained also the Vallum Hadriani, it would originate
from after 117.

Corresponding to this chronological definition, there are no traceable
affinities with the stage of Strabo, Mela, and Pliny, who all lived before
the establishment of the Limes.

But the negative statement is of no great value, as the existing
affinities with later Pre-Ptolemaic authorities are conspicuous almost ex-
clusively by absence.

Tacitus, it is true, mentions the establishment of the Limes, but he
supplies scarcely any local particulars which re-appear in Prot. Ad.

A vague affinity with Tacitus may be seen in the fact that the
Ptolemaic place-names behind the Limes betray the predominance of
Celtic nationality. Tacitus, *'Germania" ch. 29, states directly that the
corner between the Rhine and the Danube had lately been occupied by
Celts from Gaul.

The important fortress Amisia at the north end of the Abnoba, as
we mentioned above, may be connected with the fortress built in the
Taunus mountains by Drusus and restored by Germanicus, see Tacitus,
"Annals" I, 56.

All other traceable affinities with classical authorities seem to point
towards Post-Ptolemaic times.

Affinity with Ammianus Marcellinus XXIV, 4: Mattiakon = Aquae

Affinity with Vopiscus ch. XIIL Albia = Alba.

Affinities with the Tabula Peutingeriana :

Tarodunon (LIIII?) = Tenedone XIIIL
Bomoi Flavioi = Aris Flavis.

Grauionarion = Grinarione.

Setuako-ton = Septemiaci VIL

Riusiaua = Biricianis.?^).

An important common element of Prot. Ad and the Tab. Peuting.
is the knowledge of that mountain which is in the former document
called Albia, = the present Alb.

*) Suggested by C. Miiller,


Also the eastern Limes, the Vallum Hadriani, may have been re-
presented on both maps, although in disguised form. We mentioned
above that the Ptol. constructor may have identified this part of Limes
Map with the Sudetian mountains. On the Tab. Peuting., the Limes i&
obviously reflected by the so-called Danube, for the towns, placed "south"
of this river, in reality belong to the region north of it and are the
fortresses along the Limes: Samulocenis, Grinarione, ad Lunam, Aquileja,
Opie, Septemiaci.

The southern part of Prot. Ab is evidently drawn from a document
from which equally the corresponding part of the Tabula Peutingeriana
must be derived.

The Tab. Peuting. contains nothing corresponding to the Ptol. map
of the middle and northern Limes. We may compare the facts that
Ptolemy and the Tabula are most intimately related with eachother in
northern, middle, southern, and south-western Dacia, whereas the Tabula
lacks any sign of correspondence with Ptolemy's description of the
eastern and north-eastern section. It seems that the selections were made
from the source of the Ptolemaic map in an unequal manner by the
author of the Tabula who left out entire sections for more or less
arbitrary reasons.

i.. Examination of Details.

The design of the original Prototype Ab seems to have been

Its present appearance has of course suffered deterioration through
the Ptol. constructor, as we saw above. But even in the Ptolemaic
disguise, several parts of Prot. Ab may still be used for the design of
the Limes without altering a single stroke. Cf. the map accompanying
the publications of the Limes Commission, and reprinted in Meyer's
"Konversationslexikon", Art. 'Tfahl" *).

We shall now try to identify the names contained in Prot. Ab, using
as material the Ptolemaic Version I, especially Codex Urbinas 82.

The mouth of the river Vidros, as we mentioned above, corresponds
to the present river Wied, debouching into the Rhine at the beginning ot
the Limes. From the linguistic point of view, the correspondence is not
quite exact. Probably, the original form of the name was not directly
Vidros, but at any rate ressembled this name so much that the Ptol.
constructor was led to make a mistake.

The so-called "river-course" of Vidros = the north-western part of
the Limes. Notice the exact representation of the winding wall!

^) Sarwey, Fabricius & Hettner, "Der obergermanisch-raetische Limes des Roemerreichs".
Heidelberg, 1895 seq.


Stereontion, town east of the "Vidros" = the present Strinz east of
the Limes. It is subdivided into Strinz-Trinitatis & Strinz-Margaretha.
The name appears on p. 41 — 52 of Andre's Atlas, 4th edition, where
also most of the other modern names mentioned beneath may be found.

River Amisias, running parallel with "Vidros" = the mediaeval Emisa,
now Ems, running parallel with the north-western part of the Limes.

Fortress Amisia, represented as town of the first class, with three
towers and astronomic observations, situated directly south of the head

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