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LIBRARY

OF THE

University of California.

Class ^K


\

i









DISEASES OF



CATTLE, SHEEP, GOATS
AND SWINE



G. MOUSSU

Professor at the Veterinary College of Al fort; Doctor of Medicine,
Doctor of Science, etc.



AND

JNO. A. W. DOLLAR, M.R.C.V.S., F.R.S.E., M.R.L

President of the Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons; Vice-President of the Royal

Institute of Public Health; Corresponding Member of the Central Society of

Veterinary Medicine of Paris; Associate of the Society of Veterinary

Medicine of Brabant {Belgium); Life Member of the Royal

Italian Society of Hygiene, etc.



OF THE "^

UNIVERSITY I

OF




NEW YORK

WILLIAM R. JENKINS
VETERINARY PUBLISHER AND BOOKSELLER

851 AND 853 Sixth Avenue

1905
iAll Rights Reserved^



,4






r-'rgiMi



Copyright, 1905, by William R. Jenkins



All Rights Reserved



PREFACE



No apology seems called for in presenting to English-speaking
veterinary surgeons and students a treatise on the diseases of
cattle. To those entrusted with the onerous task of preventing or
curing disease in cattle, sheep and swine the scantiness of
permanent literature dealing with the subject must always have
proved a matter of some embarrassment, while to teachers and
students alike the want of a concise and modern text-book has
long been a difficulty of the first order. It is hoped that the
present volume may go some way towards remedying this state of
affairs.

As on previous occasions, the writer has freely availed himself
of foreign sources of information. Two years ago he purchased
the literary rights in Professor Moussu^s " Maladies du Betail,"
which had even then attained an European reputation, and which
forms the backbone of the present volume. To obtain further
information, the more important German treatises have been laid
under contribution, while all accessible English, American, and
Colonial literature of recent date has been referred to. (The
references practically extend up to the moment of writing— the
latest being June, 1905.) In this way the work may in some
degree claim to have assumed an international character. The
extent of the additions is indicated by an increase in the number
of illustrations of 140, and of the text of nearly 50 per cent.

Professor McQueen has performed the greatly- valued service
of reading proof-sheets and advising the writer as the book passed
through the press.

To Dr. Salmon, of the United States Department of Agri-
culture, special thanks are due for his generous permission to
quote from the annual reports of that body.

Other acknowledayBflBifiUfiilIiifi-£iIU.nd in the text.



|(>2336



VI PKEFACE.

Once again the writer, wlio on this occasion chances also to be
the President of the Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons, appeals
for lenient judgment on work performed under no common stress
of duties, professional and political.

JNO. A. W. DOLLAR.



CONTENTS



SECTION I.
DISEASES OF THE ORGANS OF LOCOMOTION.

CHAP. PAGE

Methods of Examination 1

I. DISEASES OF BONES. 3

General Diseases 4

Eachitis 4

Osseous Cachexia .7

Local Affections 20

Fractures 20

Fractures of the horns 21

Detachment of the horns . 23

Fissuring of the horns . ... . ' . . . .24
Fractures of the horns 25

Exostoses . . . ... . . . . ■. .27

Spavin in the ox. ......... 27

Eing-bone 28

Suppm-ating ostitis 29

Bone tumours 30

II. DISEASES OF THE FOOT 31

Congestion of the Claws 31

Contusions of the sole .31

Laminitis 32

Sand crack ...,.,.,,.. 34

Pricks and stabs in shoeing 36

Picked-up nails, etc. (" Gathered nail") 37

Inflammation of the interdigital space (Condylomata) ... 38

Canker 40

Grease 41

Panaritium — Felon — Whitlow . , , . . , .41
Foot rot ,..,,. 43

III. DISEASES OF THE SYXOyiAL MEMBEANES AND OF THE

AETICULATIONS .......... ia

I. Synovial Membranes and Articulations .... 45

Synovitis , 45

Inflammation of the patellar synovial capsule . , . , 4^



VIU CONTENTS.

CHAP. TAGK

III. DISEASES OF THE SYNOVIAL MEMBEANES AND OF THE

AETICULATIONS— cor.^mwec^.

I. Synovial Membranes and Articulations — continued.

Distension of the synovial capsule of the hock joint ... 46

Distension of tendon sheaths in the hock region . . . 46

Distension of the synovial capsule of the knee joint ... 47

Distension of the synovial capsule of the fetlock joint . . 48

Distension of tendon sheaths 48

Distension of tendon sheaths in the region of the knee . . 49

Distension of the bursal sheath of the flexor tendons ... 49

Traumatic synovitis — " Open synovitis " 49

Traumatic tendinous synovitis ....... 50

Traumatic articular synovitis — • Traumatic arthritis — ' ' Open

arthritis" . . . .51

II. Strains of Joints . 52

Strain of the shoulder ......... 52

Strain of the knee 53

Strain of the fetlock 54

Strain of the stifle joint . . . . . . . .54

Strain of the hock joint 55

III. Luxation of Joints , . 56

Luxation of the femur 56

Luxation of the patella ........ 58

Luxation of the femoro-tibial articulation 61

Luxation of the scapulo-huraeral joint 63

IV. Hygromas 64

• Hygroma of the knee ......... 65

Hygroma of the haunch . , . . . . . . ' 67

Hygroma of the trochanter of the femur 67

Hygroma of the stifle ........ 67

Hygroma of the point of the hock 68

Hygroma of the point of the sternum 69

IV. DISEASES OF MUSCLES AND TENDONS 70

Eupture of the external ischio-tibial muscle (Biceps femoris) . 70

Rupture of the flexor metatarsi . . . . . . . 72

Parasitic Diseases of Muscles 73

Cysticercus disease of the pig . . . ' . . . .73

Beef measles . . . . . . . . . .-79

Trichiniasis— Trichinosis 84

V. RHEUMATISM 89

Articular rheumatism ........ 89

Muscular rheumatism ........ 92

Infectious Forms of Rheumatism or Pseudo-rheumatism . 94

Infectious rheumatism in young animals 94

Infectious pseudo-rheumatism in adults . . . . .99

Scurvy — Scorbutus . . . . . . . . ? 1P4



CON'J'ENTS.



SECTION II.
DISEASES OF THE ])IGESTIVE APPARATUS.

CHAP. PAGE

Semiology of the Digestive Apparatus 106

I. DISEASES OF THE MOUTH . . , 121

Stomatitis 121

Simple stomatitis .121

Catarrhal stomatitis in sheep . . . . . . 122

Necrosing stomatitis in calves . . . . . .123

Mycotic stomatitis in calves 124

Ulcerative stomatitis in sheep 125

General catarrhal stomatitis in swine . . . . .126

Ulcerative stomatitis in swine . . . . . .127

Mercurial stomatitis . 128

Glossitis 130

Superficial glossitis 130

Acute deep-seated glossitis , 131

Chronic glossitis . . . . . . . . .132

II. DISEASES OF THE SALIYAEY GLANDS, TONSILS AND

PHARYNX .134

Parotiditis (Parotitis) 134

Acute parotiditis . . , . . . . . .134

Chronic parotiditis —Parotid fistula . . . . .136

Inflammation of the submaxillar}^ salivary gland . . .137

Tonsilitis in pigs .......... 138

Pharyngitis. .138

Pseudo-membranous pharyngitis in cattle .... 141

Pseudo-membranous pharyngitis in sheep .... 142

Pharyngeal polypi . . . 143

III. DISEASES OF THE CESOPHAGUS 145

(Esophagitis . 145

Stricture of the oesophagus . . . . . . . .148

Dilatation of the oesophagus . . . . . . . 149

CEsophageal obstructions .' . . . , . . .152
Euptures and perforations of the oesophagus . . . .157

IV. DEPEAVED APPETITE— THE LICKING HABIT— INDIGESTION 158

Depraved aj^petite in the ox. .158

Depraved appetite in calves and lambs 160

Colic in the ox 162

Colic due to ingestion of cold water — Congestive colic . . 162

Colic due to invagination . 163

Colic as a result of strangulation 167

Diseases of the stomach 169

Indigestion 170

Gaseous indigestion . .170



X CONTENTS.

CHAP. PAGE

IV. DEPEAVED APPETITE— THE LICKING HABIT— INDIGESTION

— continued.

Indigestion — contin ued.

Impaction of the rumen — Indigestion as a result of over-
eating . . . . . . . . . . 175

Impaction of the omasum (third stomach) .... 179

Abomasal indigestion ........ 182

Acute gastric indigestion in swine . . . . .185

y. INFLAMMATION OE THE GASTEIC COMPAETMENTS . . 186

Eumenitis — Eeticulitis — Gastritis . . . . . . 18G

Acute gastritis 188

Catarrhal gastritis in swine . . . . . . .190

Ulcerative gastritis 191

Chronic tympanites . . . . . . . .194

Gastric disturbance due to foreign bodies . . . .198

Tumours of the gastric compartments ..... 202

VI. ENTEEITIS 203

Acute enteritis 203

Hsemorrhagic enteritis ........ 206

Chronic enteritis (Chronic diarrhoea) . . . . . . 207

Dysentery in calves . . . . . . . . .210

Diarrhoeic enteritis in calves . . . . . . . .212

VII. POISONING 215

Poisoning due to food . . . , . . . . .215

Poisoning by caustic alkalies . . . . . . .216

Poisoning by caustic acids . . . . . . . .217

Poisoning by common salt . . . . . . . .217

Poisoning by the nitrates of potash and soda . . . .217

Poisoning by tartar emetic . . . .• . . . .218

Poisoning by arsenic . . . . . . . . .218

Phosphorus poisoning . . , . . . . . .219

Mercurial poisoning . . . .. . . . .219

Lead poisoning : Saturnism ........ 220

Copper poisoning . . . . . . . . . .221

Carbolic acid poisoning . 221

Poisoning by aloes 221

Iodoform poisoning 222

Iodine poisoning : iodism . . ... . . . 222

Strychnine poisoning ......... 222

List of plants poisonous to stock 223

Colchicum poisoning . . . . . . . . .256

Poisoning by annual mercury ....,,. 256

Poisoning by bryony 256

Poisoning by castor oil cake ,.,,.,. 257

Poisoning by cotton cake . . , . . / . . . 257
Poisoning by molasses refuse ....... 258

Diseases produced by distillery and sugar factory pulp . . 259

VIIL PAEASITES OF THE DIGESTIVE APPAEATUS . . . .263
Gastro-intestinal strongylosis in sheep ..... 263

Lumbricosis of calves .,,....,, 2§7



CONTENTS. Xi

CHAP. PAGE

VIII. PARASITES OF THE DIGESTIVE AVF AUATVS-continue'l.

Strongylosis of the abomasum in the ox 268

Parasitic gastro-enteritis, diarrhoea, and ansemia in cattle, sheep

and lambs 268

Intestinal coccidiosis of calves and lambs (Psorospermosis, hsemor-

rhagic enteritis, bloody flux, dysentery, etc.) . . . .271

Intestinal helminthiasis in ruminants 275

IX. DISEASES OF THE LIVER 279

Congestion of the liver 280

Nodular necrosing hepatitis 280

Cancer of the liver and bile ducts 282

Echinococcosis of the liver 283

Suppurative echinococcosis 288

Cysticercosis . . . 290

Distoraatosis — Liver fluke disease— Liver rot .... 293

SECTION III.
EESPIEATOKY APPAEATUS.
I. EXAMINATION OF THE RESPIRATORY APPARATUS . .311

II. NASAL CAVITIES 319

Simple coryza . . . 319

Gangrenous coryza . . . . . . . . . 320

Tumours of the nasal cavities 325

Purulent collections in the nasal sinuses. Nasal gleet . . 326

Purulent collections in the frontal sinus 327

Purulent collections in the maxillary sinus 329

(Estrus larvae in the facial sinuses of sheep 330

III. LARYNX, TRACHEA AND BRONCHI 333

Laryngitis 333

Acute laryngitis '. . 333

Pseudo-membranous laryngitis ...... 333

Tumours of the larynx . . . . . . .335

Bronchitis 336

Simple acute bronchitis . . . . . . .337

Chronic bronchitis . . . . . . . .337

Pseudo -membranous bronchitis ...... 339

Verminous bronchitis in sheep and cattle (Husk, hoose, etc.) 340

IV. LUNGS AND PLEURA 343

Pulmonary congestion 343

Simple pneumonia ......... 343

Pneumonia due to foreign bodies — Mechanical pneumonia . . 347
Pneumonia due to the migration of foreign bodies from the

reticulum .......... 348

Pneumomycosis due to Aspergilli 350

Gangrenous broncho-pneumonia due to foreign bodies . .351

Infectious broncho-pneumonia 354

Broncho-pneumonia of sucking calves ...,., 356



Xll CONTENTS.

CHAP. PAGE

lY. LUNGS AND TL'EUnM— continued.

Sclero- caseous broncho -pneumonia of sheep . . . . 858

Pulmonary emphysema . . 359

Diseases of the pleura I^Gl

Acute pleurisy . . . 361

Chronic pleurisy 362

Pneumo-thorax . . 362

Hydro-pneumo-thorax and pyo-pneumo-thorax . . . 366

V. DISEASES OE STEUCTURES ENCLOSED WITHIN THE MEDI-
ASTINUM 368

Tumours of the Mediastinum . . • 369



SECTION lY.
THE OEGANS OF CIRCULATION.

Semiology of the Organs of Circulation 370

I. CAEDIAC ANOMALIES 374

Ectopia of the heart 374

II. PERICARDITIS . . . . .375

Exudative pericarditis due to foreign bodies . . . .376

Chronic pericarditis ......... 389

Pseudo-pericarditis ......... 390

III. ENDOCARDITIS 394

IV. DISEASES OE BLOOD-VESSELS . . . . . . .396

Phlebitis 396

Accidental phlebitis 396

Internal infectious phlebitis (Utero-ovarian phlebitis) . . . 398

Umbilical phlebitis of new-born animals ..... 399

Umbilical phlebitis or omphalo-phlebitis 402

V. DISEASES OF THE BLOOD 406

Septicaemia of new-born animals ...... 406

Takosis : a contagious disease of goats . . . . .412

Blood-poisoning (Malignant oedema) in sheep and lambs in New

Zealand 415

Piroplasmosis 416

Bovine piroplasmosis . . . . . . . .416

Bovine piroplasmosis in Erance ...... 424

Ovine piroplasmosis ........ 425

Diseases produced by trypanosomata . . . . . . 426

Louping-ill 429

Suggested measures for prevention ..... 435

Braxy . . . . • . . . . . . 435

Bilharziosis in cattle and sheep . . . . . . .439

Heat stroke— Over-exertioi^ , . , .' , . ,442



CONTENTS. XIU

CHAP. PAGE

VI. DISEASES OF THE LYMPHATIC SYSTEM 444

The lymphogenic diathesis ........ 448

Caseous lymphadenitis of the sheep 453

Goitre in calves and lambs 453

SECTION V.
NEEVOUS SYSTEM.

Cerebral congestion 456

Meningitis 456

Encephalitis 458

Cerebral Tumours .459

Insolation 460

Post-parfcum paralysis — Milk fever — Mammary toxaemia — Par-
turient apoplexy — Dropping after calving . . . .461

Coenurosis (Gid, sturdy, turn-sick) . . . . ^ . 467

" Trembling," or Lumbar prurigo, in sheep .... 475

SECTION YI.

DISEASES OF THE PERITONEUM AND ABDOMINAL

CAVITY.

I. PEEITONITIS . . . 478

Acute peritonitis . . . 478

Chronic peritonitis . .481

Ascites ............ 483

Peritoneal cysticercosis 485

II. HEENI^ 487

Congenital hernise . . . 487

Perineal hernia of young pigs ...... 487

Umbilical hernia 488

Acquired hernise 489

Hernia of the rumen ......... 490

Hernia of the abomasum. 493

Hernia of the intestine 494

Treatment of hernise ......... 495

Diaphragmatic hernia 496

Eventration 499

Fistulse of the digestive apparatus . . . . . . 500

SECTION YII.

GENITO-URINARY REGIONS.

Diseases of the Urinary Apparatus 502

L POLYPI OF THE GLANS PENIS AND SHEATH . . .506

Inflammation of the sheath ........ 506

Persistence of the urachus 508



XIV



CONTENTS.



CHAP.
II.



DISEASES OE THE BLADDEE

Acute cystitis ....

Chronic cystitis ....

Urinary lithiasis. Calculus formation
Calculi in bovine animals
Urinary calculi in sheep

Paralysis of the bladder

Eversion of the bladder

Haematuria .....



III. DISEASES OF THE KIDNEYS



Congestion of the kidneys

Acute nephritis .

Chronic nephritis .

Hydro -nephrosis .

Infectious pyelo-nephritis

Suppurative nephritis and perinephritis

The kidney worm {Sclerostoma pinguicohi]



of



IV. GENITAL APPAEATUS



Vaginitis

Acute vaginitis
Contagious vaginitis
Croupal vaginitis .
Chronic vaginitis .

Metritis

Septic metritis
Acute metritis
Chronic metritis .

Epizootic abortion in cows

Salpingitis — Salpingo-ovaritis

Torsion of the uterus .

Tumours of the uterus .

Tumours of the ovary .

Genital malformations .
Imperforate vagina

Nympho-mania .



V. DISEASES OF THE MAMMAEY GLANDS

Physiological anomalies
Wounds or traumatic lesions

Chaps and cracks .
Milk fistulse ....
Inflammatory diseases .

Congestion of the udder
Mammitis ....

Acute mammitis .

Contagious mammitis in milch cows

Chronic mammitis

Gangrenous mammitis of milch ewes

Gangrenous mammitis in goats



Contents. xv

Chap. pagr

V. DISEASES OF THE MAAIMAEY GTANDS— co>,^/,/u(?.

Cysts of the udder . . . . . . . . .585

Tumours of the udder ......... 585

Verrucous papillomata of the udder ...... 586

VI. DISTURBANCE IN THE MlLK SECEETlON AND CHANGES

IN THE MILK 587

Microbic changes in milk. Lactic ferments .... 588

VII. MALE GENITAL ORGANS 594

Tumours of the testicle ........ 594

Accessory glands of the genital apparatus ..... 597



SECTION YIII.

DISEASES OF THE SKIN AND SUBCUTANEOUS

CONNECTIVE TISSUE.

L ECZEMA 599

Acute eczema .......... 599

Chronic eczema . . . . . ... . . . 600

Sebaceous or seborrhoeic eczema . . . . . . .601

Eczema due to feeding with potato pulp ..... 603

Impetigo in the pig ......... 605

Acne in sheep 606

Fagopyrism (Buckwheat poisoning) ...... 606

II. PHTHIRIASIS .608

Scabies— Scab— Mange 611

Scabies in sheep . .611

Sarcoptic scabies . , .612

Psoroptic mange — Sheep scab 614

The tobacco and sulphur dip 626

Lime and sulphur dips 627

Arsenical dips ........ 632

CarboHc dips 633

Chorioptic mange — Symbiotic mange — Foot scab . . . 636

Mange in the ox 638

Sarcoptic mange . . . 638

Psoroptic mange 639

Chorioptic mange .640

Mange in the goat 641

Sarcoptic mange . . . 641

Chorioptic mange . . . . . . . . .642

Mange in the pig . 642

Demodecic mange . .643

Demodecic m^inge in the ox . . . . ... . 644

Demodecic mange in the goat ...... 644

Demodecic mange in the pig ....... 644

Non-psoroptic forms of acariasis 645

Hypodermosis in the ox (warbles) 64^



XVI



CONTENTS.



CHAP. • P^rjK

III. EINGWOEM 649

Eingworm in the sheep, goat, and pig . 653

IV. WAETS IN OXEN 655

Urticaria in the pig . . . . . . . . . 656

Scleroderma .......... 657

V. SUBCUTANEOUS EMPHYSEMA 659



SECTION IX.

DISEASES OF THE EYES.

Foreign bodies ......

Conjunctivitis and keratitis ....

Verminous conjunctivitis ....

Verminous ophthalmia of the ox .



661
662
662
663



SECTION X.
INFECTIOUS DISEASES.



-Preparation of vaccine



Cow-pox — Vaccinia

Cow-pox and human variola -

Tetanus

Actinomycosis . ...
Actinomycosis of the maxilla
Actinomycosis of the tongue .
Actinomycosis of the pharynx, parotid
Tuberculosis

Tuberculosis of the respiratory apparatus

Tuberculosis of the serous membranes

Tuberculosis of lymphatic glands .

Tuberculosis of the digestive tract

Tuberculosis of the genital organs

Tuberculosis of bones and articulations

Tuberculosis of the brain

Tuberculosis of the skin

Acute tuberculosis — Tuberculous septicaemia
Swine fever — ^ Verrucous endocarditis and pneumonia of the pi^

Swine fever .........

Verrucous endocarditis of the pig .....

Pneumonia of the pig .......

Hsemorrhagic septicaemia in cattle .....




665
669
670
672
673
674
675
682
690
694
696
699
700
701
702
703
7C4
710
710
713
714
716



SECTION XL
OPEEATIONS.

I. CONTEOL OF ANIMALS 720

Control of oxen . . 720

Partial control 720

Control of the limbs ........ 720



CONTENTS.



XVll



I. CONTEOL OF ANIMALS— continued.

Control of oxen — continued.
General control
Control by casting

Control of sheep and goats

Control of pigs

Ansestliesia .



II.



CIECULATOEY APPAEATUS

Bleeding

Bleeding in sheep .

Bleeding in the pig
Setons, rowels, plugs, or issues



III. APPAEATUS OF LOCOMOTION

Surgical dressing for a claw

Amputation of the claw or of the two last phalanges

IV. DIGESTIVE APPAEATUS .



Einging pigs . . . . .
OEsophagus . . . ...

Passing the probang

Crushing foreign bodies in the oesophagus

QliSophagotomy ....

Sub-mucous dissection of the foreign body
Eumen ......

Puncture of the rumen .
Gastrotomy . . ...

Laparotomy

Hernise . . . . . . .

Inguinal hernia in young pigs

Imperforate anus ....

Prolapsus and inversion of the rectum



V. EESPIEATOEY APPAEATUS .

Trephining the facial sinuses
Trephining the horn core
Frontal sinus
Maxillary sinus .

Tracheotomy



VI. GENITO-UEINAEY OEGANS



Urethrotomy in the ox

Ischial urethrotomy

Scrotal urethrotomy
Passage of the catheter and urethrotomy in
Passage of the catheter in the cow
Castration ......

Castration of the bull and ram

Bistournage .....

Martelage .....

Castration by clams. . . . ,



the



D.C.



XVlll



CONTENTS.



CHAP.

VI.



OENITO-URINAEY OnGA^S—conthiued.
Castration — continued.

Castration by torsion .
Castration with the actual cautery
Castration by the elastic ligature .
Castration of the ram .
Castration of boars and young pigs
Castration of cryptorchids
Female genital organs .
Castration of the cow
Castration of the sow .
Suture of the vulva
Trusses ....
Section of the sphincter of the teat
Dilatation of the orifice of the teat
Ablation of the mammae



DISEASES OF CATTLE, SHEEP,
GOATS AND SWINE.

SECTION I.

DISEASES OF THE ORGANS OF LOCOMOTION.

METHODS OF EXAMINATION.

Accidental and local diseases of the aj^paratus of locomotion are
matters of less urgency in the case of cattle than in that of the horse.
On the other hand, general affections, such as rheumatism and osseous
cachexia, demand a larger share of attention, and are of the utmost
importance.

As the accurate diagnosis of any disease demands careful and
systematic examination, the practitioner usually observes a certain
order in his investigations, as indicated below : —

(1.) Inspection, from the side, from the front and from behind, re-
veals the existence of deformities of bones, limbs, muscles and joints,
articular displacements, and irregularities of conformation or of gait.

By inspection of an animal as it walks various forms of lameness, and
their particular characteristics, are rendered visible.

(2.) Palpation and pressure will detect changes in local sensibility,
the softness or hardness of tissues, 'the existence of superficial or deep
fluctuation, oedematous swelling, and abnormal growths like ring-bones
and exostoses, as well as the exact character of articular enlargements.

(3.) Percussion is of little value in examining the apparatus of loco-
motion. Nevertheless, percussion of the claws, and of certain bones of
the limbs, or of flat bones, may afford valuable information in cases of
laminitis, ostitis, and periostitis. Percussion along the longitudinal
axes of the limb bones is also useful in diagnosing intra-articular frac-
tures, sub-acute arthritis, osteomyelitis, etc.

(4.) The gait. Lame animals should be made to move, in order to
assist both in discovering the cause, and in estimating the gravity of the
condition. Sometimes it is advisable to turn the animal loose, but most
frequently it is moved in hand, either in straight lines or in circles.

D.C. B



2 DISEASES OP THE ORGAKS OF LOCOMOTIOX.

Information so obtained should always be supplemented by local
manipulation and by passive movement, such as flexion, extension,
abduction, adduction and rotation of the joints.

A knowledge of the characteristics of normal movement in any given
joint, renders it comparatively easy to detect abnormality, such as
increased sensibility, articular crepitation or friction, and to diagnose
fractures with or without displacement, ruptures of tendons or
ligaments, etc.



^ OF THE '^ \

UNIVERSITY

OF



CHAPTER I.

DISEASES OF BONES.

The diseases affecting bony tissues may broadly be divided into local
and general. Local diseases like ostitis, periostitis, necrosis, fracture,
etc., are somewhat rare, and are less important in cattle than such
general diseases as rachitis and osseous cachexia.

Rachitis is a disease of young animals, and occurs during the growing
period. Osseous cachexia is a disease of adults. Nevertheless, there is
a relationship between these two morbid conditions, for they frequently
co-exist in one family. Moreover, brood mares and cows suffering from
osseous cachexia give birth to foals and calves, which, if left with their
mothers, almost inevitably become rachitic.

The general characteristic common to both rachitis and osseous
cachexia consisting in diminution in the normal proportion of mineral
salts entering into the constitution of the bone, numerous theories have
been advanced to explain this irregularity in nutrition.

The theory of insufficiency is one of the oldest. It presupposes that
the young animals' food contains insufficient mineral salts necessary for
building up the skeleton, hence rachitis ; or again, that the daily food
of the adults does not afford sufficient mineral salts to compensate for
the normal transformation which is continually going on within the
organism, and for the direct losses which occur through the medium of
the urine, milk, etc.

This extremely simple theory appears perfectly logical, but unfortu-
nately does not fit in with all the observed facts. In reality, rachitis



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