Gustavus Henricus Heidtmann.

History of the town of Hanson online

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Company, This was used exclusively for the manufacture of
everything porcelain connected with electrical appliances.
The structure was divided into four compartments; an office,
mixing room, moulding room, and firing room. The entire
building is commodious, well lighted, and everything strictly



BURRAGE (Cont.)

ap to date for handling the work as expedlously as

possible. Sae raw naaterlal for this taanufac taring enterpriee

was imported.

The Wirt building was situated just across the tracks
on the right. A little farther north is the second build-
ing, and like the first, is composed of cement brick, manu-
factured by the cotapany a short distance away. This
building is used for the manufacture of tin foil - the raw
material being ing)orted.

Across the tracks from the factories a passenger
station and freight house was erected by the N.Y. N.H.
and Hartford Railroad Company. The building was constructed
of cement bricks, which the Manufacturing Company furnished
free of expense to the railroad. The station, named Burrage,
was built on modern principles, with a view to usefulness
nad an ornament to this fast growing section.

The town of Barrage begins iidiere the workmen's houses
were constructed on Pleasant Street. Houses were also
built on Reed Street - a new street laid out opposite the
Nelson Thomas* estate where Balboni's store is located,
and christened Reed Street by Mr. Damon. The Dave
I'lolntosh house was the hostlery.



BgRRAGE (Gont.)

Mr. Burrage set out the maple trees on Pleasant Street
and Indian Head Street so that wherever his oarriago went
it would roll in shade.

Facilities for shipping products were provided by a
side track which was laid out by the factories toxrards the
so-called "Sammy *s Neck",

For the Burrage interests, Walter E. Daroon asked the
managers of the N.Y. N.H. and Hartford road to stop the
5 o'clock train, southbound at Bournetown for the accommo-
dation of workmen frora Kingston, the company agreed to do
this if Mr. Damon guaranteed ten passengers. This was in
turn readily agreed to and in 1906 there were thirty passen-
gers getting onto the train dally.

In addition to the Wirt Manufacturing Company and the
Eastern Tinfoil Company, other corporations operating in
Burrage were the Hanson Electric Light, Gas & Power Company,
Ihe New England Construction Company, the Halifax Garden and
Wheeler Reflector Company.

Mr. Burrage expended large sums of money in the building
of tenements, hotel, station, post office, etc. In the few
months the factories ran a large number of hands were employed
frora in town as well as from neighboring villages.



BI3RRAGE (Coat.)

IQ April 1908 the fatal blow fell on A. C. Barrage's
pet scheme. He had had big plans for a model village, but
with the filing of bankruptcy papers by the Wirt Manufacturing
Company his entire concern was in serious straits. Besides
the many creditors there are others in Hanson who are sorry
they ever had any business dealings with the Barrage
interests.

Kr. Barrage owned a fine summer residence named
"The Needles", on the south aide of I'tequan Fond. It was
situated amid a beautiful grove of pines and oaks and
was the pride of Mr. Burrage»s heart. On May 27, I907
this building was totally destroyed by fire, including
household furniture, clothing, jewels, and cash. By
miracle only, did every member of the family make their
escape.



'SER CRAHB^JIY 3U3IJE:^3 IN HANSON

Ephrlaffi Albert &orham was born Id Harwich, Massachusetts,
November 7, l^kT * He received his education in the public schools
there. In early life, he went fishing to the Grand Banks, also
sailing Id the coasting trade, and was captain of a number of
fishing boats.

At the age of 33, he gave up his seafaring life, and com-
menced crangerry growing on the cape, later moving to Pembroke,
Plymouth County, where he continued the cranberry business.
Later he made his home in Hanson, still retaining his property
and Interests In Pembroke.

It is he who was the pioneer of the cranberry business,
building bogs for other Hanson people becaase they did not know
how,

John Foster and Richard Everson were the earliest cranberry
growers in Hanson. They had already started when Mr. Marcus
Urann entered the picture.

iflr. Urann was born October 2, iSyi?, in 3ullivan, Maine.
When only a little boy, he accompanied his mother on a visit to
Franklin, Maine. There he saw some farms with small cranberry
bogs and because they were neater and nicer farms than the others,
he was impressed and said, "Some day I vjIII own a cranberry
bog."

Mr. Urann *s first client was a S?>m Kelly in North aaston,
who owned a small bog. He realized eleven hundred percent in



The Cranberry Business In Ha3on (Cont.)

seven years, This Intrigued Mr. Urann and in 1897 he started a
bog in Halifax. From that, he went on to put up a building on
Main Street in Hanson (1912). He was convinced there vas a
big market for cranberries and he now began to think of canning.

He operated his own canning company until 1930 and then or-
ganized a co-operative, agreeing to stay on and manage until he
canned half the crop. He retired in 195U* ^^^ turned to research.
Through research the chief product brought out was cranberry
juice. They also brought out a cranberry shade of lipstick and
a combination of fruits. The real business, however. Is canning
the whole or Jellied berries.

The income amounts to 20 million a year. This is a big
income although in comparison to other food industries, it is
a small industry.

They have spent a lot of money in advertising, and building
up a demand for canned sauce under the brand name "Ocean %ray".
Miss Ellen Stillman was Mr. ITrann»s advertising "girl". Sbe
brought out the idea of cranberry sauce with chicken. We have
always had cranberry sauce with turkey, applesauce with pork,
mint with lamb, but never an accompanying food with chicken.

In the five years previous to 195U a million dollars a year
was spent in advertising and the sale of cranberries since
then has been increased 10% per year.



The Cranberry Buslneas in Hanson (Cont.)

Now they are spending 5 million dollars a year on advertis-
ing. They had 5^*000 barrels of cranberries this year (i960)
and own 700 acres of bog.

As the advantages of canning have been proven, growers have
come in and swamped the co-operative with berries in contrast
to the lack of support given in 1937.

The purchasing function of the business was turned over
to the Hanson Hardware Company, an independently owned and
operated concern located in South Hanson and directed by Mr.
Dpvid demons. Supplies need In the business were purchased
through this organization. {19I45) •



HISTORY OF PLYMOUTH CQUNOY HOSPITAL

The Plymoath County Hospital was built in accordance
with the provisions of Chapter 286, of the Acts of 1916.
Under this Act, the County Comraissioners were authorized and
directed to raise and expend such sums of moneys for ac-
quiring land and constructing and equipping the hospital
and for the purchase of alteration and enlargement of
existing buildings as may be necessary to carry out the
provisions of this Act.

- The Plymouth County Hospital was the first county hos-
pital constructed under this Act and much time and thought
went into the selection of the site. In this particular
era it was considered essential that hospitals should be
built at the highest altitude possible, Plymouth County
not being very high above sea level at any part, presented
somewhat of a problem. The Trustees also felt that central
location should also be considered so that the hospital
could be as near all parts of the County as possible,
IHierefore, diagonals drawn throughout the map of Plymouth
County crossed in Halifax so search for land was made in
this particular area. Bonney Hill was eventually selected
inasmuch as it was the second highest land in Plymouth
County and tliere were some 58 or 59 acres available.
Because of World War I construction was not completed until
1919, The hospital was dedicated May 31* 1919, and the
first patient was admitted June Ik, 1919,



HISTORY OF PLYMOirm C0UN1Y HOSPimL (Cont.)
Dr. Bradford H. Pierce of Cambridge was appointed
the first Superintendent and the hospitalization program for
tuberculosis patients in Plymouth County was under way. A
second building was added to the hospital and occupied in
November, 1921, and thus the long struggle in the fight
against tuberculosis for the whole of Plymouth County had
begun.

Because the length of treatment was so long in the
early days, patients required to stay an average of three
years, waiting lists were established in all county
hospitals and thus many patients had to wait several months
before they could be admitted to the hospital for treatment,
TSciia prevailed until 1952. Subsequent to that date the length
of stay of patients* has been gradually reduced to approxi-
mately one third of the original time and thus the actual
number of patients in the hospital at any one time has
diminished.

Inasmuch as our hospitals pioneered in tuberculosis, I
am sure the future holds pioneer work in other chronic
diseases. Dr. Pierce remained Superintendent until October,
191|8, when the second Superintendent, Dr. Donald A, Martin
was appointed and has remained to the present time.

I3ae hospital has kept pace with modern medicine so that
modern operating rooms, laboratories, and all departments
necessary to a hospital are to be found at the Plymouth



HISTORY OF PLYMOUTH COUNTS HOSPITAL (Confc.)
County Hospital. It is to hospitals such as Plymouth
County Hospital that the nation owes a great debt to the
early pioneers in paving the way for the modern treatment of
tuberculosis.



P13LLER AMD KEEWS GARAGE

Puller and Keene worked hard in building up tiielr busi-
ness in a garage on Ifein Street; owned by Herraan Beal.

August 18, 1922 it waa reduced to ashes in a short
time and the residences of Luke Heraraenway, Willard Howard,
and Sylvanua Wilson were seriously threatened.

District Forest Warden Shepherd was on an electric which
was passing Just as the blaze started, and helped in getting
streams froni garden hose directed on the roof at Heraraenway »s
before the fire department arrived.

Fortunately while the garage had been nearly full of
machines but a short time before, it had but one, which was
destroyed in the fire, that of E. W, Ford.



ELIAS C. POOLE

Ellas Poole waa born In Rocklasd on September 1,
1822. Ee came to Sanson in 181^8 and established himself
in the business of blackSBil thing. For nearly sixty-
years he was the "Tillage Blaoksoilth" and always ready
to talk theology while shoeing the horse.

Mr. Poole was the first passenger to ride on the
"Cornet", the first locomotive that ever came into Hanson.

He walked from his blacksmith shop to the North
Hanson railroad tracks, stood on the banking to wave as
it puffed through on its way to Plymouth, and was delighted
when the train stopped and the engineer Invited him to
ride to PlyiQouth and back.



EARLY INDUSTRIES AND BUSINESSES




Original Cranberry Packing House (1912)
The only plant of its kind in the country



■j


^ ^^^ j^^^






H





Gilbert Brewster's Barrel Wagon
maximum load 150 Barrels - driver Stephen Collins



EARLY INDUSTRIES AND BUSINESSES




Section of a cultivated Cranberry Bog







Traditional Cranberry Scoop
Harvesting Implement



EARLY INDUSTRIES AND BUSINESSES




Tallying by measure
Method in which pickers were paid



^



h' \



U!^-^;.iC^ -:



^^m







Cranberry Picking by Hand with early snap scoops



EARLY INDUSTRIES AND BUSINESSES




Flooding the Bog for frost prevention




The Cranberry Harvest
Final development of hand picking v/ith scoop



EARLY INDUSTRIES AND BUSINESSES






''^aSL^BM



A view of the Burrage Industries
and Railroad Station




Fire at Atlantic Dye Co. Plant,
Burrage Industries - March 6, 1919



EARLY INDUSTRIES AND BUSINESSES




The Porcelain Plant - Burrage Industries

(1905) now Wheeler Reflector
( Div, of Franklin Research & Development Corp.




The Power House - Burrage Industries



EARLY INDUSTRIES AND BUSINESSES




Moore's Saw Mill In Flood Season,

site of an original grist mill (1887)

Poor Meadow River (West Washington St.)




Another View of Moore's Saw Mill
Poor Meadow River (West Washington St,)



EARLY INDUSTRIES AND BUSINESSES





Thomas Saw Mill - Wampatuck Pond
(Liberty St.)




John Foster Lumber Co. Established 1879
(Main St.)



EARLY INDUSTRIES AND BUSINESSES




^ 15 -E



CO U



D) X



EARLY INDUSTRIES AND BUSINESSES




u




EARLY INDUSTRIES AND BUSINESSES



Hl



Small Family Shoe Shops

like this one were in many

backyards during the mid - 1800's




Plymouth County Hospital
dedicated May 31, 1919 (High St.)



EARLY INDUSTRIES AND BUSINESSES




Hanson Observation Tower
To Prevent Forest Fire Loss (1913)
(High St.)



EARLY INDUSTRIES AND BUSINESSES




One Day Shooting at Fern Island, Hanson




South Hanson, Mass.,-



h'






-190-



Bought of JOHN FOSTER,



MANUFACTURER OF



Interest from date of invoice unless paid within 30 days.



PAGHIfiG BOXES OF fliili Kips.



CRANBERRY BARRELS AND EXCELSIOR.

DEALER IN CEDAR, LUMBER, WOOD, Etc.




— FROM,—

^t^^"^ . \^ ' f Kill "I VNO c'CJvJFL IN

rarlif iikr M^ •■^'Huoi! t\\n\ lo Xnxmvi Kidshm Hijilowas mi
\\v,iv \\<\\m\ ti' all kiinl-.

•J . i '1111 " ,i's iiuuli to (i](l(] Ai )ii,> li i).i( ■-

i^ " ^n ,',,'oj ^1(1 t,, v2 .")() OiAi ,Ui.! Wi, ■ 'ii ii 1,111

Jt'H'a' i" >'i • iN" f I .i( vf ill s)/, s did ; i < -

\i?(>R«.ef' MUTTOS POR hALE t Hi' A r.
Osrdsr-i b7 j::i'l or stlierwisc- w;u receive promts attention



EARLY INDUSTRIES AND BUSINESSES



^' JOSEPH WHITE ESTATE "^*N"^




SIDNEY L FORD,

LlfERY AND BOARDING STABLES




Lane 01 Small Parlies Accomiilateil al My Time.



AGENT FOR



New York and Boston Despalcli Express.

Express leaves So. Hanson at 7
A. M. for Bryantville, Hanson
Centre and No, Hanson, connect-
ing with the 10.22 A.M. train
for Boston.



EARLY INDUSTRIES AND BUSINESSES

B. F. LIVERMORE,

Painter and Paperhanger

House and Sign Paint-
I ,s?-sL ing;, Gildlnor, Kalsomin-
^fTi^ mg, Glazing, Etc.

Full line of Wall Paper, Paints, Oils and Varnishes.

Also Dealer in BICYCLES and SUNDRIES,

FIRE ARMS and AMMUNITION.

Bicycle Repairing and Saw Filing.

Main St., opp. Railroad Station, SO. HANSON, MASS.



JOHN B. FABELLO, The Boston Barber.

FASHIONABLE HAIR DRESSER.




First Class work. Hair Cutting a Specialty. Satisfaction Guaranteed.

"''^'"■lorsaTe"''"""'' Main St., opp. Railroad Station, So. Hanson, Mass.



O. W. MAGLATHLIN. BARKER BAKER

0. W. MAGLATHLIN & CO.

MANUFACTURERS OF



Washington Street, No. Hanson, Mass.



EARLY INDUSTRIES AND BUSINESSES



HOWARD H. WHITE,

Dealer in Choice and Selected

Family, Gentlemen's Driving,

Heavy Draught and

Teaming



HORSES



BUY, SELL OR EXCHANGE.




Horse Glippiiig a Specialty.

Washington St., No. Hanson, Mass.



RICHARD A. EVERSON,

MANUFACTURER OF

Cape Cod Champion
Cranberry Pickers,

Cranberry Bog

Builder.




Buying and Selling: Bogf
Land a Specialty.

Also Dealer in Wood
and Lumber.

Wood sawed with machine at
your homes.

riain St., near the Depot, So. Hanson, Hass.



T^T^Tl^T' I 'TT^T^^ Having purchased the entire outfit of MR.
h^ry^ll^ I ll^Vjr FRIEND WHITE, which, added to the
^'^' large outfit I already had, gives me a very
large lot of type to select from. A share of patronage solicited.

Cards, Labels, Circulars, Envelopes, Letter Heads, Bill Heads,
Notices, Posters, etc., etc.

Also PAINTER, PAPERHANGER AND LICENSED AUCTIONEER.

PLEASANT STREET, - - SOUTH HANSON, MASS.



EARLY INDUSTRIES AND BUSINESSES



HANSON INSURANCE AGENCY,

ESTABLISHED 1889.

OSCAR L. GURNEY, Agent
Fire, Life, Accident, Piate=GIass,

Tornado Fidelity and Title Insurance.

SOUTH Hanson, iviass.



J. G. GROSSMAN
Garpenter and Builder







P.O. Pleasant St., So. Hanson, Mass.



JOHN H. IBBITSON,

Teaming and Jobbing

WOOD IN ANY QUANTITY,
SAWED and SPLIT to Order.

Elm Street near flain. South Hanson, Mass.



EARLY INDUSTRIES AND BUSINESSES



MflQUflN SflNITORIUM

F. S, THOMAS, M, D„ LL D., Physician,
HANSON, MASS.



In 1894, Dr. Thomas opened a sanitorium for the treatment
of chronic diseases.

Special preparations have been made to successfully treat
Nervous Prostration and Diseases of Women.

The Sanitorium is healthfully and beautifully located on
Maquan street, near Maquan pond, a short distance from Gordon
Rest, the sanitarium of the King's Daughters of Massachusetts.

Dr. Thomas is a graduate of Harvard Medical School, and
for many years has been physician to Gordon Rest.



Beautiful Drives,
Many Ponds,
Several Cool Groves,
Golf Links,
Large Library.



Dr. Thomas would refer to Drs. Billings and Osgood of
Rockland, Mrs. E. Trask Hill, State Secretary of the King's
Daughters of Massachusetts and Polks Medical and Surgical
Register of the United States and Canada.

His biography may be read in "Biographical Review of
Plymouth County," "Physicians and Surgeons of America,"
and "Biography of Eminent Physicians and Surgeons of
America."



a^i ;jiL LIPS AMP mmWi ?^g il



SOCIAL LIFE AHD MEETING PLACES

Some may inquire "did folks work all the time?" Bless
you - no J Diaries and scrap books have given us a clear pic»
tupe of the social life in the early days.

On Sunday the people came together from all parts of the
sparsely settled towns and between services « they had oppor-
tunity for social chats that were otherwise seldom possible.

In the Meeting House - or around the "horse sheds" - they
could discuss household affairs, crop conditions, and town
politics as well as carry on a little gossip about their
neighbors.

Apparently such gossip would sometimes include the minis-
ter, for we find a report of a retired clergyman stating that,
as a young man, he was advised never to accept a call to a
church that had horse sheds I

During the week there were spelling schools, husking beesj
sleigh rides and "kitchen sprees".

Kitchen sprees were a form of entertainment little known
to the young people of the present generation. Sometimes
these sprees took the form of a dance provided by some obliging
fiddler who could be induced to wield the bow with little or no
compensation beyond the love of Middling.

These sprees are described by Josh Billings as follows:

Now gather round the kitchen fire
Pile on the chunks higher and higher

Get out the fiddle and partners choose
And stroker down im your cow-hide shoes."



Seelftl ti fe an4 H»8tin:.: FXaewi (Cont.)

tn^iat th«z^ »«t« tiiBft £<xp ple&eurd «• <»«ii te for »ork is
iM»t«d i» a ^t&Tj 9ntrf dated Jamyftr? 2» 1%3 b^ Oharlee
SiaBhtng. *I ymnt t© Shaver this afternoon aod got 7h«odope»
Ifi the avaning «>e want to KSi^^all'a Hotel i'Sbm Half*May House)
%9 a ball* This la in Aaainippi* ^%a had a v«rj axeallent tiiae.
fhara vax^a 16 couplaa thera rrom this vioinlt^* Cu»lilng*a
B&n& fumlahed imialo and we could danoa aver/ time wa wlahad*
At aldnight va had an aKoallant suppar • turkaf* bollad hamii
all kinda of pie« and eak«» taa^ eoffaa and anything alaa
that tirftfi deaired. v'e danead as long aa wa oould B9e and then
atarted hoaaw* The nl«sht waa baautiful and the moon ran hlgh«
k'a got hon^ about 7 o*olook in tlmo to go to vork***

th»r9 ara ^any Intaraatlng inoidants in the Clashing
diariae tthieh pietura ao vividly the aooiai ^£&iy& as thay
wara a hundred yeara ago*

iiaroh 31$ 1®53 ''fhaodoret i>aoi*ga and 1 want to tha
dapkay o<mcart at Hf« !5opar*s Sail*"

&aeaid>ex' ^0# 1S&6 '*<rhaodor« and I want to S<^»r*8 Hall
to 9e% thraa Indiana and a ^quaw rapraaant th^ mskjsn&pB and
euatooa of the Indiana in thair uneivllisad atata* I liked
it very wall.**

Oete^ar 3» 1862 *I ^t&^« Bonnie to aattlesho^ in a light
trotting gig* Bonnie bahavad ad^iirablf and the baat looking
^onf in the crmtA^ Urn took tha firat prami^a of |i«6d and bora



Social Life and Meeting Places ( C ont . f

his blue ribbon triumphantly."

October 15> 1862 "I went to a husking in the evening at
Gad Soper's house. We husked until half past eight and then
had a party in the house until about 12".

October 19> 1862 "Father and I picked the 1; pair of coots
and the one pair of loons that he brought home from Brant Rock
last night. \ie had an excellent coot stew for supper".

November Ij., l862 "Sam House and I went to a ball at
Bourne's Hall, It was our first appearance in a ball room to
dance. Had a very good time,"

November 21, l86l - Thanksgiving Day "George and his folks
spent the day here. We had a nice large turkey and plum pud-
ding, a variety of fixings and pies, I think it was relished
exceedingly well by all (to judge by the quantity eaten). In
the evening we played whist".

These diaries also show how the life of a nine-year old
boy differs today from that of Charles Gushing' s time. He was
up early in the morning, worked around the mill with his steers
and apparently did as much work as a grown man. One entry on
Sunday, November 6, 1853 is quite amusing, "Jim caught a skunk
in a steel trap by his foreleg and took hold of the chain and
brought the skunk right into our bedroom and left the most
awful compound of villianous smell behind him that ever offended
nostril" - quite a graphic description from the pen of a



S<ffii<il ldt9 a nd lle»tia^ f^* ^^^f, (Q©»^«5
Bl&e*[email protected]&r 9ld boy*

f&e di^ji'l^s t«ll UK that hou8«62<Minliag stmrtt^ when m^thmr
felt timt winter «a« over ai^^ t^ sumlXamB had r«itxaraied« Thio
ims a ve«k*8 project md &othixi«g exoopt aleks^es lnterferr«£
imtiJL the last clean rug trnd been put dovn* the l&0t oleeisi
eurtaln himg in pl&oe» the Isst well^scin^bed shell* put in tat&m
end the lest i^t tress put out in the sun to thormr^^jT air« Xm.
tbofttt dftjre houeework wee done in order* deya fot thle and da^»
for thftt* Neighbors vied %i th eeeh other for the honor of
having the houaeeleanin^ f iniehed first and ho%^ proud they
were to see bmi niee and elean the whole hoiue looked after the
vork was over*

ilfter the houeeoleanln^ stunt ceae ti^eekly band oenoerte

as the hiehlighte of the eirasser eeason* All «dntttr and sj^ring
band me!ift»era had m»% to praotloe for the outdorr ooncerta*

ka 80ven o*olook neared the band-ataad laiapa idth their

silvered ref lee tors «^ere lighted* The band ^e$ent'@d a varied.
progrsnf i^ftrehes* walts^eSf o3.d hoise songSf and southern
^elodioe* At [email protected] o*oloek the band pl&se4 "aooclni^t Ladies*

and the fismilSar »ords r%[email protected] out in th& darkness frois several
hundred throats* "©oodnigbts*' «®re said and fsmilie® rettsrned
along <iountry road© to their h©is©@»

Children &n$of&4 the arrival of the ioe )»s.n» vho aould be
counted on to ohlp off pieees of his slipper;^ ice direct from



Social Life and Meeting Places ( C ont . )

his wagon for their licking pleasure. ¥e remember the clink of
his ice scales against the side of the cart, and the thudding of
the cakes of Ice as he thrust his ice tongs around a cake of ice
just right for mother's ice box. We can see the water dripping
from under the cart as the heat of the simimer's day gradually
ate away his cargo.

^y Childred like the hulled corn man who brought pickles and
hulled corn, and of course, the ice cream man who rang a bell
so that he progressed like the Pied Piper of Hamlin, drawing all
the children to the street for the ice cream cones he dispensed
for a nickel a piece.

In that day long since departed, simple pleasures at home
were enjoyed. Me cranked oiir own ice cream freezers on Sunday
and licked the dasher. V/e played croquet or tennis on the
lawn - no matter how loneven the area. We walked perhaps two
miles through the woods to Maquan Pond or to Little Sandy to go
swimming. We skated on every available stretch of frozen sur-
face. Some bolder spirits even made an Odyssey of skating from
one of the glacial ponds to the next, beginning with Maquan
and portaging across to Big Sandy, then to Little Sandy, the
cranberry bogs. Stetson Pond and the Monponsett Ponds.

The day that stood out as the most significant of the
Town's activities that attracted the most people was the ob-
servance of Memorial Day. The Town Hall to uld be filled down-
stairs with the wreaths and bouquets made to decorate the soldiers'


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Online LibraryGustavus Henricus HeidtmannHistory of the town of Hanson → online text (page 6 of 23)