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Guy Carleton Lee, Ph. D.

Johns Hopkins and Columbian Universities, Editor


From the painting in the Hotel de I ille at St. Malo, France.








Entered at Stationers 1 Hall, London.


THE history of the United States is so interwoven with
the history of Canada that every American must possess a
working knowledge of the progress made by the Dominion
if he would properly understand many of the important
phases of the development of the United States. It is, how
ever, from the Canadian and not the American standpoint
that the account of the history of the British possessions in
North America must be viewed if one is to have a correct
estimate of the reciprocal influences exerted by the United
States of America and the Dominion of Canada and a fair
judgment of the policies and achievements of these two
great governments.

These statements will not meet with denial from either
intensive or extensive students. Both classes of scholars
will admit, with more or less readiness, the importance of a
knowledge of Canadian history to every dweller in the
United States and yet neither will take steps to bring that
knowledge to the general reader, though some historians,
indeed, will go so far as to admit our postulate that a knowl
edge of Canadian history is almost as important to citizens
of the United States as a knowledge of English history. No
student can acquire that knowledge either from the usual
histories to which the general public has ready access, or
from those which the students in institutions of learning
are obliged to study. The information given in general
histories of the United States is inadequate and in school


histories, dealing with the same subject, of little extent or
value. With these facts in mind, I determined to present in
this history of North America a clear exposition of Canadian
history from a Canadian standpoint. Such an exposition
in fact as would not only give to Canadians a satisfactory
retrospect of the progress made by their country but also give
to Americans an adequate conception of the events whose
sequential narration is as much a part of the history of North
America as is that of the United States.

I was particularly fortunate in securing the cooperation
of distinguished Canadian scholars in making choice of an
author for the present volume, and I believe that our selec
tion has been justified, for Dr. Munro has shown a nice
judgment in the selection of points of stress, a happy faculty
of expression and withal has written from the point of
view of a Canadian to whom his country is a great and
important unit in the sum of American progress.

The volume, after describing the country where England
and France were to contend for mastery, recounts the earliest
voyages of which we have trace, and then with clearness and
force tells the story of the several provinces that have now
been welded into the Dominion. In relating this story of
the cradle days of his country the author, with keen appre
ciation of the picturesque, introduces that element of human
interest created by unusual or romantic episodes so abundant
in those years when French and English strove for mastery
in the great Northland. But if the romantic is accent
uated in the earlier chapters of the book, which deal with
discovery, colonization, and adjustment of dissimilar popu
lations to their environment, it is quite another phase of
the subject that occupies the middle portion of the work.
In this it is politics that are to the fore although the mate
rial and mental advance of Canada is by no means neglected.
The politics of the middle period of Canadian history occu
pied the statesmen quite as much as the military events
which marked the struggles between the Anglo-Saxon
peoples of this continent; but historical writers have as


a rule shown little appreciation of the relative importance
of political movements in the governmental history of
Canada. With politics Dr. Munro exhibits exceptional
familiarity. He places before us the spirit of the various
movements whose steps led to the present governmental
structure of Canada. The exposition is luminous and clear.
So, too, is that third portion of the history that portion
which embodies the presentation of the Canadian govern
ment of to-day and sets forth the state of the people under
its control and the land in which they live.

I may, therefore, in conclusion recommend most highly
this volume of THE HISTORY OF NORTH AMERICA because
of its vigorous style, its clear grasp of the facts, and its
accuracy of conclusion, all combined with a breadth and
depth of learning which causes confidence to walk hand in
hand with appreciation.

Johns Hopkins University.


THE annals of the Canadian people are of interest and
importance from at least two distinct points of view. In
the first place they have that natural interest and import
ance which every free people are wont to attach to the
history of their own land ; in the second place they present
what is perhaps the best extant material for the compara
tive study of French and British colonial systems in their
political, social, and economic aspects. It has been my
aim, so far as it has been practicable so to do within the
limits of a single volume, to make this work at once a
history of the Canadian people and a general analysis and
comparison of French and British colonial policies as ex
emplified in the northern half of North America. This
latter action has seemed to me to be justifiable not alone
because of the intrinsic importance of the subject itself, but
because, as De Tocqueville says, " the physiognomy of a
government may be best seen in its colonies." And no
where as in Canada may one study to such good advantage
the logical working out of the Latin and Teutonic types
of colonization and colonial administration. Believing as
I do that history is not alone " past politics " but a narrative
as well of the social and economic life and development of a
people, an endeavor has been made to give due prominence
to these latter features.

The volume, it may be said, makes no claim to origi
nality either as regards the matter which it contains or
as regards the method of presentation. The greater part



of the source materials in the field of Canadian history have
been so well worked over by careful investigators that it
seemed needless to glean where they have garnered. To such
general works as those of Lescarbot, Charlevoix, Ferland,
Faillon, Garneau, Parkman, Christie, Suite, McMullen, and
Kingsford, as well as to the special works of Harrisse, Cas-
grain, Martin, Lorin, Gravier, Dionne, Doughty, Turcotte,
Dent, Read, Lindsey, Edgar, Biggar, Pope, Willison, and
many others, my obligations are great and obvious. Still I
have not hesitated to go to the sources whenever the
necessity or even desirability of so doing appeared. Had
the symmetry of the series so permitted, the various works
from which material has been derived would have been
definitely indicated in footnotes; in this matter as in others,
individual judgment has been obliged to defer to the opinion
of the general editor and his associates.

Many kind friends have given cheerful assistance in the
acquisition of material for use both in the text and in
the illustrations : to all of these grateful acknowledgment
is made.

Cambridge, Mass.






Physical features. Geographical divisions. The Hudson
Bay basin. Its extent and climate. St. Lawrence and Great
Lakes basin. Earliest settlers. Progress of settlement. Set
tlement west of the Ottawa valley. The British influx into
the Upper Province. The basin of the St. John. The Cli
mate. Settlement of Acadia by the French. British loyalist
settlers. The Northwest Territories. Their extent and
attractions. The settlers. The western slope. Its harbors.
British Columbia and Yukon Territory. Climate and popu
lation. The French-Canadian element. Distribution of the
Indians. The French governmental system. The British
rule. Contest between Gaul and Briton.


Henry the Seventh s grant to John Cabot. First voyage,
1497. The question of the Cabot landfall. Scope of dis
covery. The Cabot Mappemonde. Second voyage, 1498.
Sebastian Cabot s narrations. Uncertainty of the records.
Verrazano s explorations. Doubts of their genuineness. Rea
sons for the prior inactivity of France in matters of explora
tion. French fishermen and the Newfoundland fisheries.
Jacques Cartier. His first voyage, 1534. Explores Gulf of
St. Lawrence. Second voyage, 1535. Reaches Montreal.
His account of his explorations. The winter in Canada.
Cartier s descriptions of Indian life. Etymology of the word



" Canada." Carder s third voyage, 1541. His connection
with Roberval and its results. Disputes. The meeting at
St. John s. Reasons for Cartier s sudden departure. The
fourth voyage, 1543. Obscurity regarding it. De la Roche
attempts to colonize Sable Island. Pontgrave and Chauvin.
The monopoly of the fur trade. Enlargement of its benefits.
De Chastes sends an exploring expedition under Pontgrave
and Champlain. Champlain s first voyage in 1603. The
De Monts colony at Ste. Croix. At Port Royal. "L Ordre
de Bon Temps." The colony abandoned. The De Monts
charter annulled. Champlain founds Quebec settlement. Ex
plores the Richelieu. Espouses the Huron cause. Is imposed
on by Vignau. Discovers Lake Champlain. Explores the
Ottawa. The Huron country. The Recollet missionaries.
Georgian Bay and Lake Ontario. The De Caen monopoly.
Dissensions in the colony. The Jesuits arrive. Active mis
sion work. Richelieu s influence. The Company of New
France. Its powers and privileges. Champlain in charge
at Quebec.


COMPANIES, 16271663 39 59

The first expedition sent by the Company of New France.
Difficulties with England. Causes of the trouble. Kirke s
expedition. The Company s fleet captured. Distress in
Quebec. An English fur trading company. Quebec sur
rendered. Champlain carried prisoner to England. Restora
tion of Quebec and Acadia to France. The disputes over
the seized furs. Resumption of operations by the Company
of New France. Champlain resumes control. His death.
Estimate of the man. His early life. Was he a Roman
Catholic ? The effect of Jesuit influence. The Relations.
Great Jesuit leaders. Religious enterprise. Maisonneuve
and Mademoiselle Jeanne Mance. Montreal founded. En
mity of the Iroquois. Administrative reforms. The Iroquois
destroy the Hurons. French victims of the Iroquois. The
colony in distress. Le Moyne s peace mission to the Onon-
dagas. Its temporary effect. The Mohawks hostile. Treach
ery of the Onondagas. A general uprising. The defence
of Long Sault. The tribes abandon their attack. Conflict
between the Sulpitians and the Jesuits. Laval and Queylus.
Tension with the civil authorities. The liquor question.
Laval s despotic attitude. The Company surrenders its rights
to the crown. The king s edict.



Canada a royal province. Establishment of the Sovereign
Council. Its composition and powers. The first provincial
government. The Gaudais mission of investigation. Laval
and Dumesnil feud. Indian raids. The bishop and the
executive. The first regular troops in Canada. Expedition
against the Iroquois. Mohawk settlements destroyed. Peace
with the Iroquois. Jesuit missions established among them.
Colonial commercial development. Disbandment of the
Carignan-Salieres Regiment. The military seigniories. Jean
Talon and the ecclesiastical authority. The king s dowry.
Governor Frontenac. His qualification for the post. Revival
of explorations. Marquette and Joliet. Descent of the
Mississippi to the Arkansas. La Salle receives seigniorial
grant of La Chine. Abandons it in favor of exploration.
Erection of Fort Cataraqui. Its grant to La Salle. The
Perrot- Frontenac difficulties. Reorganization of the Coun
cil. Frontenac s quarrel with Laval. The liquor question.
Administrative conflicts.


De Tonti, Hennepin, and Lamotte-Cadillac. Niagara post
established. La Salle s expedition west in the Griffon. At
Mackinac. Explorations southward. Defection of some of
La Salle s followers. La Salle returns to Montreal. No
news of the Griffon. Returns west. His losses at Mackinac
and Niagara. Search for De Tonti. De Tonti and the Iro
quois. Hennepin on the Mississippi. Meeting of La Salle
and De Tonti. A new expedition. La Salle descends the
Mississippi. Takes possession of Arkansas country. Reaches
the mouth of the Mississippi. Claims and names Louisiana.
Returns to Mackinac. Importance of the new discovery.
La Barre appointed governor and DeMeules intendant. Que
bec destroyed by fire. La Salle despoiled of Fort Cataraqui.
Returns to France. Leads an expedition to the Mississippi
by sea. Oversails the river s mouth. Overland journey.
Is assassinated. La Barre outgeneralled by the Iroquois.
The inglorious peace of La Famine. Denonville succeeds
La Barre. Trouble with English governor of New York.
A settlement. Expedition against the Senecas. The mas
sacre at La Chine. Montreal threatened by the Iroquois.
Further friction with the English governor. Frontenac
once more governor. His operations against the English
colonies. The raids of Schenectady, Salmon Falls, and Casco


Bay. The English take Port Royal. Expedition against
Quebec. Its withdrawal. A period of Indian troubles. The
rebuilding of Fort Frontenac. Chastisement of the Onon-
dagas. Active operations against English colonies. Affairs
in Quebec. Death of Frontenac. New peace with the Iro-
quois. The outposts of New France. Renewal of the war
with England, 1702. The Indians incited against the English
colonies. The massacre at Deerfield. Raid on Haver-
hill. Retaliation. Port Royal again taken by the British.
The Nicholson- Walker expeditions. Causes of their fail
ure. Incapacity of the leaders. Trouble with the Foxes at
Detroit. Treaty of Utrecht. Territorial adjustment. Death
of Louis XIV.


Paternalism the policy of the French government. Obligations
imposed upon the companies. Their neglect of agriculture
for the fur trade. The land tenure system. How land grants
were made. Obligations of clearing and cultivating. Rela
tions of the seignior to the crown. Fealty and homage.
Seigniorial land grants. Rights and duties of seigniors. The
seignior and the censitaire. Obligations of censitaires. Jus
ticiary rights. The noblesse. Effect of the system on agri
cultural development. The homes of the seigniors and the
habitants. Industry. Its beginnings in the colony. French
policy in regard to colonial industries. Jean Talon the Col
bert of New France. How far responsible for tardy develop
ment. Commerce and trade. Monopolies. Imports and
exports. Imposts and restrictions. Internal trade. The
coureurs de bois. Character of these traders. The western
posts. Lamotte-Cadillac, the founder of Detroit. Opposition
of the church to these posts and to their system of trade.
Evidence of debauchment drawn from the Jesuit Relations.
How far reliable. Colonial currency difficulties. The card
money. Origin of this form. Way in which it became a
permanent factor in the currency of the colony. Defects of
Louis the Fourteenth s colonial policy.


Resources of New France and the British colonies. Amicable
relations after Treaty of Utrecht. New conflicts. Oswego
post. Troubles with the Foxes. New France prosperous.
Demoralization follows. Acadian boundary in dispute. Bor
der troubles. Louisburg built. The Acadians. Their


opposition to British rule. The War of the Austrian Suc
cession. Its causes. The tension in America before the
outbreak. French and Indians attack Annapolis. Shirley s
expedition against Louisburg. Surrender of the fortress.
Plan to capture New France. Proposed French invasion of
New England. French raids on New England borders and
in Acadia. Peace of Aix-la-Chapelk. Mutual restoration
of conquests. Colonial resentment at loss of Louisburg.
Limits of Acadia in contention. Halifax fortified. Acadian
emigration to lie Royale. Le Loutre incites the Acadians
against the British. French activity in the west. Celoron
takes possession of territory in the Ohio valley. Control of
the strategic points. Fort Du Quesne established. Expedi
tion against it under Washington. Its failure. Colonial
conference at Albany. The French forces strengthened. Ar
rival of Braddock. New campaign against Fort Du Quesne.
Other expeditions against the French. Defeat and death of
Braddock. Shirley s abortive expedition. Johnson s suc
cess at Lake George. French surrender in Acadia. Ex
patriation of the Acadians. War between France and Great


Preparedness of France and Great Britain. The relative
strength of the French and British American colonies. The
arrival of Montcalm and reinforcements. British plans. Os-
wego surrendered. Shirley degraded. Fort William Henry
surrendered. Inactivity of the British commander. Massacre
of the garrison by French allies. Pitt directs British govern
ment. "I can save England." Howe supersedes Loudoun
in Canada. New plan of campaigns. Wolfe and Amherst.
The French leaders. Administrative pilferers. Successful
attack on Louisburg. The Ticonderoga expedition. Death
of Howe. Abercrombie s gross blunders. His flight. Fort
Frontenac captured. The British occupy Fort Du Quesne.
A year of French disaster. Montcalm s difficulties. The
British colonies aroused for the final struggle. The cam
paign of 1759. Capture of Fort Niagara. French attempt
on Oswego. Abandon Ticonderoga and Crown Point.
Wolfe at Quebec. His difficulties. The attempt at Mont-
morenci. The battle of the Plains. Montcalm s position.
Capture of the city. Attempt of De Levis to retake the
city. Murray s errors. Amherst advances on Montreal.
Its capitulation. Importance of the conquest.



IX ACADIA 225-237

The early years of Acadia. First settlement. Port Royal
burned. Claims of the English and French. The La Tours.
Alexander s colony. Scotch colony at Port Royal. Acadia
restored to France. French colonization. Territorial dis
pute. Disputes among the French leaders. De Charnisay
and La Tour. The siege of St. John. Madame La Tour s
defence of the post. De Charnisay master of Acadia. Denys
driven from Cape Breton. La Tour and Denys recover their
posts. The expedition of Le Borgne. The English cap
ture the settlement. La Tour s new move. France claims
Acadia. Ceded by the Treaty of Breda. French rule.
Boundary difficulty with New England. Saint-Castin s
Penobscot settlement. Andres s raid. Phipps takes Port
Royal. Le Moyne takes Fort William Henry (Pemaquid).
Acadia confirmed to the French. The French harass the
New England coasts. Port Royal again in English posses
sion. Acadia confirmed to the British. He Royale (Cape
Breton) confirmed to France. The rise of Louisburg. Its
position and strategical advantages. The Treaty of Utrecht.
Acadia under British rule. Attitude of the Acadians.


1774 239-259

Proclamation of 1763. System of military administration.
Division into districts. The Treaty of Paris. Effect on the
British colonies of French expulsion from Canada. Exodus
of Canadians. The conspiracy of Pontiac. Siege of De
troit. Successes of the Indians. Attack on Fort Du Quesne.
Bouquet s victory at Bushy Run. Pontiac abandons Detroit
siege. Peace effected. Military administration ends. The
four provinces. Civil government. Murray s administration.
His difficulties. Carleton s government. Legal reforms. De
mand for an Assembly. The Quebec Act. Proclamation of
1763 repealed. Boundaries of the province. Roman Catholics
relieved from restrictions. Church lands settled. Land pro
cedure established. An Assembly refused. A Legislative
Council. Attitude of the colonists toward the Act. American
Congress fosters Canadian disaffection. Defensive measures.


Events leading up to the Revolutionary War. The Stamp
Act. Its repeal. The Townshend Acts. Repeal of same,
except tax on tea. The " Boston Tea Party." Repressive


legislation of 1774. First Continental Congress. Canadian
cooperation asked. Hostilities opened. Washington in com
mand. Campaign against Canada. Fall of Ticonderoga
and Crown Point. Expeditions against Quebec and Montreal.
Americans enter Montreal. Siege of Quebec. Privations of
the invaders. Are driven up the St. Lawrence. Montreal
abandoned. American forces withdrawn to Crown Point.
Failure of invasion. Canadian hostility to the Americans.
The attitude of the French-Canadians. Causes of Amer
ican failure in Canada. The importance of Lake Cham-
plain. The campaign in America. British evacuate Boston.
They hold New York. Operations on Lake Champlain.
Burgoyne s expedition. Ticonderoga abandoned by the
Americans. Difficulties of transportation. British defeat at
Bennington. Surrender at Saratoga. Philadelphia occupied
by the British. Its evacuation. France openly aids America.
Effect on French-Canadians. Carleton succeeded by Haldi-
mand. Change in opinions regarding his character. The
Du Calvet case. l Butler s Rangers. Brant s coopera
tion. Use of Indian allies not peculiar to the British. Sur
render of Cornwallis. Peace treaty of 1783. Boundaries.
"United Empire Loyalists." Their severe treatment. What
they did for Canada.


GOVERNMENT, 1774-1791 283-296

The Loyalist (Tory) migration. Their settlements in Nova
Scotia and Upper Canada. Extent of the influx. British
aid. Character and influence of the immigrants. Unrest of
the French-Canadians. Discontent with the operations of the
Quebec Act. The question of habeas corpus. Haldimand s
difficulties. Carleton, as Lord Dorchester, again in control.
Change in administrative system of the provinces. Lieutenant-
governors. Judicial reforms. Opposition to educational
reform. The seigniorial tenure system. Political reforms.
Division of the colony. Unfulfilled provision of the treaty
of 1783. Difficulties as to western boundaries. The Con
stitutional Act of 1791. Its provisions. Separation of the
provinces. Opposition of the English in Lower Canada.
Early difficulties and disputes.

XIII THE WAR OF 1812-1815 297-318

Canada in view of the struggle. The influence of European
policies. Napoleon s successes. His attempt to destroy
Great Britain s trade. Retaliation. Effects on American



commerce. Futile legislation. Impressment. Right of
search. Why the British acts had more effect. United States
declares war against Britain. Preparations by Canada. The
American plan of invasion. British successes at Detroit and
Queenston Heights. American naval successes. The cap
ture and burning of York (Toronto). Operations on the
Niagara frontier. The expedition to Sackett s Harbor.
Perry s victory on Lake Erie. Its significance. Proctor
abandons Detroit. Tecumseh s struggle at Moravian town.
Border ravages. Wilkinson s abortive campaign against
Montreal. American flotilla destroyed on Lake Champlain.
Result of the 1813 campaign. The Chesapeake and the
Shannon. The campaign of 1814. Attack on Lacolle.
British operations on Lake Ontario. The Niagara peninsula.
Fort Erie surrenders. Battles of Chippewa and Lundy s
Lane. Operations in the West. Attack on Mackinac.
British flotilla destroyed on Lake Champlain. Prevost s in
glorious expedition against Plattsburg. British blockade of
seaboard strengthened. Washington in the hands of the
British. Baltimore successfully resists. The Creek Indians
on the warpath. Jackson s defence of New Orleans. Peace

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