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t Trikha's gotra is Farashar and it is sub-divided into the Palwarda, Aura and Dwija
bub- sections.

t The Jetli !7o^ra is Vatsa, and its sub- sections are Vialepotra, Chandipotra, and Rupe-
potra — all eponymous. The two former are replaced by Hathila and Harnpotra, according
to another account. The Mihrotra Khatris make them ofierings on the 12th of the light
half of each lunar month.

§ The Kumbria gotra is also Vatsa and they too have three sub-sections.

II Apparently the same as the Paumbu. below.

*|[Lhe Mohlas gotra is Somastam, audits sub-sections are Dalwali, Shiv-Nandi and Akashi.

*" Of the Vasiaht gotra. They have five sub-sections, Veda Vyas, Gacgahar {sic),
Gosain, Saraph, and Gangawa&hi, so-called because they used to lead bands of
pilgrims to the Ganges. They were exempt from tolls under former governments.
The Sar4ph (Sarraf) were bankers. The Gosains had many jajmdns and the Veda
Vyas were learned in the Vedas. 'the Gangahars still perform their jhand or tonsure rite
near the ruins of old Jhang, near which town they possessed a number of wells, each
inscribed with their names.

■ft Or Tawaria. At marriage they do not let the bride go to her father-in law's house,
but send instead a big gur cake wrapped in red cloth. If however the mukldwd ceremony is
performed at the same time us the wedding, they let the bride go also, otherwise they sen4^
her afterwards when her mulddud is given.

+1 Probably the same ;isthe Bhabakkar, a. got named after a llishi. Its members make
a boy don the janeo (sacred thread) in his 8th j'ear. Clad as a sddhu in a faqirs dress with
the alfi or chola, the mirg-chhdla (deer-skin) and kachkol (a wallet for collecting alms) he
begs from door to door and is then bidden to go to the forest, Lut his sister brings him
back.



Brahmans of the Ehatrts. 125

The Zdt-wdle : —

Sith-group Hi. — Panj-zati ii. About 116 years ago the Brahicans
of the five sections below used to give their daughters in marriage to
the Dhdighar- Lahoria Brahmans ; —

(1) Kalie. I (3) Kapurie. I (5) Eaggo.

(2) Malie. I (4) Bhaturie. |

When their daughters ' began to be treated harshly in the houses of
tlieir fathers-in-law, these Bralimans {i-)anjzatov five sections) arranged
to contract marriages only among themselves ' and ceased to form re-
lationships with the Dhaighar-Lahoria.

Sub-group iv.- — ChheZcit-wala. — Similarly several other sections of
Brahmans gave up giving daughters to the Dbaighar-Lahoria Brah-
mans, such as—

(1) Pandit. I (3) Dhniide. ( (5) Dhan Kaji.

(2) Patak. I (4) Gadhari. I (6; Chhukari.

Stib -group v. — Panchzdt-w^le iii —

(1) Chuni. I (3) Lamb. I (5) Sarballie.

(2) Rabri. I (4) Neule. *

Suh-group vi. — Sat-zdti —

(1) Sajre. (4) Neasi. j (6) Sardal.

(2) Punj. (5) Chujii. (7) Anni.

(3) Bandu, '

The above four sub-groups are called collectively Zat-wale,

Suh-group vii. — This comprises the remaining Bunjdhi sections.

The Zd,t-wd,Ie stand higher than this last sub-group vii, in that
they do not accept offerings from, or eat in the houses of, Ndis,
Kaldls, Kumhdrs or C'hhimbjis, whereas the latter do both. Moreover,
the Asht-bans and Chhe-zdti sub-groups claim to be superior in status
to the B^ris, but some families of these two sub-groups stooped to
give daughters to the latter sub-group, and were, therefore, excom-
municated by the remaining families of the Asht-bans and Chhe-zati
sub-groups, so that they lost status and formed a new sub-group called
Bans-puj. This sub-group now gives daughters to the Asht-bans and
Chhe-zati sub-groups, but takes its wives, it is alleged, from the B^ris.

Thus the Brahman organization reflects the main outlines of the
Khatri scheme, but, thougli on many points of detail our information
is incomplete, it is certain that local conditions modify the organiza-
tion. For instance in Bahd-walpur the Khatris are few, while the
Aroras are numerous aud infiuential, so that we find the following
scheme : —

Sub-group i. — Five sections, Mohla, Jetli, Jhingran, Trikha,
Kumaria.

Hyper gamous sub-group ii. — Five sections, Dhaman-potra, Sama-
potra, Bhoja-potra, Setpal, Takht-Lalhdri ; and

fJypergamous sub-group m.— Seven sections, Lai hd,ri, Bias, Kandaria,
Kathpala, Shangru-potra or "Wed, Malakpura, and Bhenda.

Of these three sub-groups, the five sections of the first are Brah-
mans of the Khatris generally, not of the Dhdighar-Bdri Khatri9
exclusively, while sub-groups ii and iii are Brahmans of the Arorfie
in that part of the Punjab.



126 Brahmans of the Khatris.

The rules of marriage. — Like the Khatris, the Bunjdhi Brahmans
profess to folJow the usual ' ionr-got ' rule in marriage, but, precisely
like the Dhiiighar Khatris, the Zd-t-wale Brahmans avoid only their
own section and the mother's relations. At least this appears to
be the usual rule, but it would be rash to say it is an invariable
one. For example, the B;ins-puj are an exception. The Asht-bans
obtain wives from them, but if a father has taken a Bans-puj wife,
the son may not : he must marry an Asht-bans or lose status. That
is to say, the Asht-bans may only stoop to iuter-marriHge with the
Bans-puj in alternate generations.

Similarly the ' ionr-got ' rule is relaxed in other cases. Thus the
Kanchan-Kamal section of Hoshiarpnr are also called Suraj Doaj,
(Sun-worshippers). Their ancestor came from Delhi as a qdnungo
at Haridna ; hence they are called Qanungos. These Brahmans can
marry in the ndnka got, avoiding only the father's got. They do not
take any dan (charity) and may either take service or engage in trade
or cultivation. If any one of them takes to receiving charity, he is
considered an outcast! and they do not intermalrry with him.

The ages of marriage. — Among the Bunjahi Brahmans the age of
betrothal is from 4-8 and that of marriage from 8-12 years in
Rawalpindi. It is, however, impossible to lay down any universal
rules, as, generally speaking, the ages of betrothal and marriage
depend upon the status of each family within the group, as is the
case among the Khatris.

The revolt against hypergamy. — It will be seen how the lower sub-
groups of the Khatris have endeavoured to shake off the yoke of the
higher in matrimonial matters. A similar revolt against the position
of the JDhd-ighar occurred amongst the Sarsut Brahmans. About 116
years ago, says the account received from Areritsar, the Lahoria
Pbdighar used to take daughters from the Panj-zat ii; but owing to
the ill-treatment meted out to the girh by the phd.iKhHr, they resolv-
ed to discontinue the custom, aud the three other groups of the Zat-
wdle followed suit while the remaining Bunjahis continued to give
wives to the Zdfc-wale, but no longer received them in return. The
result was that the Bunjahis could not obtain wives and many fami-
lies died out, so it was resolved by the Bunjahis that they should for
the future break off all connection with the Zat-wdle, unless any of the
latter should agree to give them daughters in return. This was prior to
Sambat 1932 when a second meeting at Amritsar renewed the compact.

It may be worth noting that in both castes the proceedings of
these conferences were conducted in a formal manner, written agree-
ments being drawn up, and the families which agreed to the de-
mands put forward being entered in a register from time to time.

The territorial groups. — Like the Khatris the Brahmans have terri-
torial groups, but these groups do not usually correspond with the
territorial groups of the former. For instance, the Brahmans of the
Murree Hills are divided into two sub-castes-^ Pahdria and Dhakochi,
who do not interman-y or eat together. The Dugri Brahmans corre-
spond to the Dugri Khatris of the Si^lkot sub -montane, but they are
said, on the one hand, to give daughters to the Sarsut, aud, on the



r Bbojapotra.
.. < Shamapotra.


Sitpal.
Takht Lalri.*


( Dhannanpotra.

f The Panchzatia, together with the—
1 6. Puchhrat.
.. -) 7. Shingnpotra.
1 8. Malakpiira.
1,9. Khetopotra,


10. Rlifirdwaji.

11. Kathp4la.t

12. Kandhiara.



The Brahmans of Knngra. 127

other liand, to intermarry with the Batehru group of Brahmans in
Kangra. Allusions have been already made to tlie Paclibflda and' to
the Laboria, terms which seem to be applied exclusively to the five
highest sectior-s who serve the Dhdighar Khatris.

The Sarsdt Brahmans op the ArorAs.

The gfrouping of the Brahmans of the Aroriis has already been des-
cribed iu dealing with the Wateshars' system, and they further are said
to be thus divided :

Panch-z^ti



Biri



But the most interesting territorial group of the Sdrsut is that of
the Kd,ngra Brahmans whose organization shows no traces of the
Khatri scheme, but reflects that of the Hindu Rajputs of Kilngra, and
which will, therefore, be described at some length.

The Brahmans op Kang^a.

The Sarsut des or jurisdiction extends from the Saraswati river in
Kurukshetr to Attock on the Indus and is bounded by Pehowa on the
east, by Ratia and Fafehdbad in Hissar, by Multan on the south-west,
and by Jammu and Nurpur, in Kangra, on the north.

Thus the Brahmans of Kangra, who are or claim to be Sdrsut by
origin, stand beyond the pale of the Sarsut organisation, but they
have a very interesting organisation of their own.

We];find the following groups : —

i. — Nagarkotia.
ii. — Batehru.
iii, — Halbaha, or cultivating.

Group I. — ^The Nagarkotia are the Brahmans of the Katoch, the
highest of the Rdjputs, and they were divided by Dharm Chand, the
Katoch Raja of Kdngra, into 13 functional sub-groups, each named
ft; er the duties it performed in his time. These are —

i. — Dichhit, the Gurus of the Katoch, who used to teach the Gayatri
mantra.

ii.— Sarotari, said to be from Sanskrit saw ladh. Their duty was
to pour alioii or offerings of ghi, etc., into the hawan kund
when a jag was performed. They had learnt two Vedas.

iii.— Achdria, who performed the jag.



* The Lalri have five sab-sectiona :-Lal Lalri, Viaa Lnlri, Takht Lalri, Ghauijal
Lalri and Raj Bakht or Jan.

t By ffofra Shamundal, the Kathpdlaa have fonr sab- sections, Surangu, Sidha, Gilkala
and Fathak.



128 The Brahmans of Kdngra.

iy. — Upadbyaya, or TJpadlii,* or ' readers ' of the Vedas at the jag.
V. — Awasthi, those who ' stood by ' the Icalas or pitcher at the Muni-
pursh, and who received the pitcher and other articles (of
sacrifice).

vi. — Bed birch, who made the hedi, or square demarcated by four
sticks in which the halas was placed.

Yii. — N^o- Pundrik, whose duty it was to write the prescribed in-
scriptions on the hawan Jcund.

viii. — Panchkarn or secular Brahmana engaged in service on the
Rajds. They performed j^t-e out of the six duties of Brah-
mans, but not the sixth, which is the receiving of alms.

ix. — Parohits, who were admitted to the seraglio of the Raja and

were his most loyal adherents.
X. — ^Kashmiri Pandit, literate Brahmans from Kashmir, who are
found all over the Punjab.

xi. — Misr,t said to mean ' mixed,' also Kashmiri immigrants, who had
preserved their own customs and rites, but had intermarried
with the Nagarkotia.

xii. -Kaina, who helped the rulers by their incantations in time of

war. (Said to be from ran, battle-field.)

xiii. — Bip (Bipr), now extinct in Kdngra, These were parohits of
the Nagarkotia and of some of the Batehru,

Of these 13 sub-groups numbers x and xi seem to be territorial
rather than functional. One cannot say what their relative rank
is or was. The first six are also called the six Achdrias and were
probably temple priests or menials of inferior status. The Bip pro-
bably ranked high, and the Raiua, or magic men, were possibly the
lowest of all. The Khappari are also said to be found in Kaiigra, but,
no account from that District alludes to them.

Group II. — Batehru. — There are two sub-groups—
i, — Pakkd Batehru. — With 9 sections—

(1) Dind, (2) Dohru, (3) Sintu, (4) Pallialu, (5) Panbar,
(6) Rukkhe, (7) Ndg-Kharappe, (8) Awasthi-Chetu and
(9) Misr-Kathu.



* But apadhi is in Orissa translated ' title.' Vide Tribes and Castes of Bengal, I, p. 161.
Upadhyayais, correctly speaking, qnite distinct from Upadhi.

t It will be observed that the Misr (section) occurs in both the Batehru snb-gronps
and among the Nagarkotia, so that we have three sub-sections —

(1) Kasbmiri-Misr, Nagarkotia.

(2) Kathu-Misr. Patka Batehru.

(3) Mali-Misr, Kachcha Batehru.

Of these the last named are parohits of the Kashmiri Pandits, the Kashrairi-Miara and
the Rainas.

The Nag (? section) are also thus found, for we have —

(1) Nag-Pandrik, Nagarkotia,

(2) Nag-Kharappa, Fakka Batehru.

(3) Nag-GosaUi, Kachcha Batehru.

It is explained that Kharappa (cobra) and Gosalu (? grass-snake) are nicknames im-
pljit.g contempt, as these sub-aections are of low status. But a comparison with the
Brahmans of Ur'issa suggests a totemistic origin for those sections : V. Tribes and Castes
of Bengal, I, p. 161.

The Awasthi too are found in all three groupa.



The Brahmans of Kangra, i20

ii. — Kachchd Batehru. — With 13 sections —

(1) Tagnet, (2) Gbabru, (3) Suglie (Parsr^mio), (4) Chnp]ial,
(5) Chatlivvan, ((3) Awasthi-Tliirkanun, (7) Awasthi-
Gargajnun, (8; Ghogare, (9) Nag-Gosaiu, (10) Mali-Misr,
(11) Acluiriapathiarj, (12) Pandit Bariswal and (13)
Awasthi-Kuiarial.

Group III. — Halbalia. — The Halbahas have 29 got.s or sections : —
(J) Pandit-Marchu, (2) Bhntwan, (3) Khurwal, (4) Gidgidie,
(5) Lade, (6) Pahde-Koptn, (7) Pahde-Saroch, (8) Korle,
(9) Awasthi-Chakolu, (10) Pandit-Bhangalie, (II) Narchalu,
(12) Mahte, (13) Diikwal, (14) Saiihalu, (15) Pahde-Daroch,
(16) Pandore, (17) Thenk, (18) Pahde-Kotlerie, (19) Bngheru,
(20) Bhaiiwal, (21) Bashist, (22) Ghutanie, (23) Mir.dhe-
Awasthi, (24) Prohit-Golerie, (25) Prohit-Jaswal, (26) Hasolar,
(27) Poi-Pahde, (28) Faiiarach and (29) Pharerie.

Of these the first fourteen now intermarry with the Batehru, giving,

and, apparently, receiving wives on equal terms.

Hijpergamy. — The Nagarkotia take brides from both sub-groups
of the Batehru, and th^y have, since Sambat 191 J, also taken brides
from the Halbaha. The Batehru take wives from all the sections
ot the Halbaha. When a Halbaha girl marries a Nngarkotia, she is
seated in the highest place at marriage-feasts by the women of her hus-
band's brotherhood. This ceremony is called sara-dena and implies
that the Halbaha bride has beconio of the same social status as the hus-
band's kin. Money is never paid for a bri-ie. Indited Barnes observed : —

" So far do the Nagarkotias carry their scruples to exonerate tho bridegi'oom from all
expense, that they refuse to partake of any hospitality at the hands of the son-in-law, aud
will not even drink water in the village where he resides.''

Social relations. — The accounts vary and tho customs have, it is
explicitly stated, been modified quite recently. The Nagarkotia
may eat with Batehrus and have even began to eat 'kachlii from
the hands of a Halbaha according to one account. According to
another this is not so, and a Nagarkotia who has married a Halbaha
girl may not eat at all from the hands of his wife until she has
borne at least one child, when the prohibition is said to be removed.

The Batehru and Halbaha section names. — These show an extraor-
dinary jumble of Brahminical gotras {e.g., Bashist.), functional and
other names, so that the accuracy of the lists is open to doubt.
It appears certain, however, that some of the sections are named
from the tribes to whom they minister. Thus, we may assume, the
Pahda-Kotleria are Pahdas of the Kotleria Kiliputs ; the Parohit-
Goleria and Parohit-Jaswal to be jiarohits of the Goleria and Jaswal
Riljputs, and so on. This is in accord with the system, which has been
found to exist among the Sd,rsut of the plain?, whereby the Brahman
takes his status from that of the section to which he ministers. But
status is also determined by occupation. Like tlie Gaddis and Ghirths
of the KAngra and Chamba hills the Brahmans of Kdngrabave numerous
als with vaguely totemisLic * names. Thus among the Nagarkotia the



* In Hiflsar there is a section of Br&hmanH, called Bh^da or sheep- This is interesting',
because on the Sutlej, at least in Kulla Sarilj, there is a small caste called Bb^hv, who are
hereditary victims in the sacriiicial riding of a rope down the cliffs to tho rirer. Other*



130 The BraJimans of Kdngra,

Pakkd Bateliru have tlie section called Kharappd, (or cobra) Ndg and the
Kaclichd Batehru, a section styled Ghoslu (a species of fish or possibly
grass-snake) Nilg. Pundrik also appears to be a snake section. These
snake sections are said to reverence the snake after which they are
named and not to kill or injure it.

In addition to these, the Batehrn (Pakka and Kachchd.) have the
following sections : —

(i) Chappal, an insect ; no explanation is forthcoming.

(ii) Sugga, a parrot ; no exi^lanation is forthcoming,
(iii) Bhangwaria, fr. bhdngar, a kind of tree.

(iv) KhaJTire Dogre : Date-palm Dogra, a section founded by a man who planted a gar-
den of date-palms, and which originated in the Dogra countiy on the borders of Jammu.

^v^ Ghabru, a rascal ; one who earns his living by fair means or foul.

In the Chaniba State the Brahmans form an agricultural class,
as well as a hierarchy. Those in the capital are employed in the
service of the State or engaged in trade, while others are very poor
and eke out a living as priests in the temples, or as parohits and even
as cooks, but they abstain from all manual labour. Strict in caste ob-
servances they preserve the ancient Brahmanical gotras, but are divided
into numerous als which form three groups : —

Group I. — AU : Baru, Banbaru, Pandit, Sanju, Kashmiri Pandit, Kolue,* Baid, Gautaman,
Bugalan, Atan, Madyan.f Kanwan, Bodhran, Baludran, Bilparu, Mangleru, Lakhyinu,
Suhklu, Nunyal, Nonyal, Sungl^l, Bhararu, Turnal, Haryan^, and Purohit.

Group II. — Als : Chhunphanan, Thulyan, Dikhchat, Osti, Pads, Bhat, Dogre, Pantu,
Kuthla, Ghoretu, Pathania, Myandhialu, Mangleru, Katochu, Pande, Datwan, Dundie,
Hamlogu, Bhardiathu, Gharthalu, Hanthalu, Gwaru, Chibar, Barare, and Datt.

Group III. — Als: Acharaj, Gujrati, Gwalhu and BujUru."

The first group only takes wives from the second, and the first two
groups have m caste relations with the third. The Brahmans of
Chaniba town and Sungal§ disavow all caste connection with the
halbdh or cultivating Brahmans who are hardly to be distinguished
from the general rural population, though many act as priests at the
viUage shrines and as iiurohits. Many Brahmans are in possession of
sdsans or grants of land recorded on copper plates. The hill Brahmans,
both men and women, eat meat, in marked contrast to those of the
plains. In the Pangi wizdrat of the Chamba State Brahmans, Rajputs,
Thdkurs and Rath is form one caste, without restrictions on food or
marriage. In the Rd^vi valley, especially in Church, and to a less degree
in Biahmaur also, free marriage relations exist among the high castes,
good families excepted. But in recent years there has been a tendency
towards greater strictness in the observance of caste rules. H



wise traces of totemism are very rare among the Brahmans of the plains, though in the
Bub-montane district of Ambala two are noted. These are the Pila Bheddi or 'yellow
wolve^',' so called because one of tlieir ancestors was saved by a she-Wolf and so they now
worship a wolf at weddings ; and Sarinhe, who are said to have once takf^n refuge under a
sari7i tree and now revere it.

* From Kullii, so called because they came with an idol from that country. They are
priests of the Lakshmi Narain, Damodar and Radha Krishna temples.

t The Kanwan are descendants of the Brahman family from which Raja Sahila Varma
of Chamba purchased the site of the present capital.

X The Ilaryan are in charge of the Hari Rai temple.

§ The ancient Sumangala. a village noAv held entirely by Brahmans under a fdsan grant
of the If'th century A.D They are descended from two immigrants, a Brahmachari and his
rhe'a, from the Kurukshetra. The two families intermarry and also give daughters to the
Brahmans of Chamba town.

11 See the Chamba State Gazetteer by Dr. James Hutchison, pp. 130 — 132.



i/cfi t::^JZzi^c. j^ ^^^^1^^ 'C^, 7.^.0









The Brahmans round Simla. 131

The Brahmans op the low castes.

As we have seen the Bralimans of the higher castes form a scries
of groups whoso status depends on that of their cHcnts. On a
similar principle the Brahmans of the castes which are unclean
and so outside the pale of Hindiiisui form distinct sub-castes outside
the circle of those who minister to the higher castes.

These sub-castes are—

I. — The Chamarwd. — The Brahmans of the Chanor sub-caste of
the Chamdrs.

II. — Dhanakwa.~The Brahmans of the Dhdnaks or Hindu weavers
in Rohtak.

III. — The Brahmans of Chiihr.'is.

Each of these three sub-castes appears to be now strictly endogamous,
though the Chamarwa are said to have until recently intermarried
with Chamiii'S. However, it seems clear that they do not intermarry
with the other Sdrsut Brahmans if indeel they have any claim to
Silrsat ancestry. No Charaarwa Brahraaa may enter a Hindu's house.
According to a tale told in Amh^Xa, the origin of the Chamarwa
Brahmans was this : — A Brahman, on his way to the Ganges to bathe,
met> Ram Das, tlip famous CliHtnar hliagat. Ram Das gave him two
coteries and told him to present them to Gangaji (Gangos), if she held
out her hand for them. She did so, and in return gave him two hangans
(bracelets). The Brahmnn went back to Ram Das, who asked him
what the goddess had given him, and he, intending to keep one of the
two hangans, said she had given one only; but when he looked for them
they were not on his own body, but in the kiinda (breechea) of Ram
Das. Ram Das then gave him the bracelets and warned the Brahman
in future to accept gifts only from his descend ants, otherwise great
misfortune would befall him. Accordingly his descendants only serve
Chamars to this day. The Chamarwa are only iiaroliits of theChamars,
not gurus. They must not be confounded with the masands who act as
their guriis, though either a Chamarwa Brahman or a (Chamar) mnsand
can preside at a Chamar's wedding. It is said that tlie Chamarwa is
also called a Husaini Brahman.

The Brahmans in the Simla Hills.
North and east of Simla the Brahmans both Gaur and Sdrsut have
three groups : Shukal, Krishan and Pujdri or Bhojgi, the two latter
equal but inferior to the first. The Shukal are further divided into
two occupational groups (i) tlioso who hold /ay/r^^ granted by chiefs
and who receive ample dues and (ii) those Tvho receive little in fees.
The former are generally literate and do not cultivate: they observe
the rites prescribed by the ShAstras. The latter ai'e mainly agricul-
turists and practise informal as well as formal marriage and even
polyandry. The former take wives from the latter, hut do not give
them. The Shukal gi'oup does not intermarry with the other two*.

The Krishan Brahmans are also cnltivatf)rs and accept {dmost any
alms. They also practise widow remarriage and the rit custom. The



* The Shukal are not stated to correspond to the Shukia, or to le Brahmans to Brahmaca
only.



132 Brahmans degraded hy function.

Pujdris or Bliojgis are temple-priests or chelas of a god. They appear
to have only recently become a distinct group. Some are merely 'pujaris
and accept no alms living by cultivation. These do not intermarry with
the Krishan Brahmans. Others accept alma in the name of a deceased
person and use the ghi with which idols are besmeared in Mdgh, They
intermarry with the Krishan group.

When Paras Ram* a Gaur Brahman overthrew theRdjputs the Sdrsuta
protected those oi: their women who survived and when the Rdjputs
regained power they replaced the Gaurs by Sdrsuts. Parns Ram had
extended his conquests as far as Nirmand in the Sard,] tahsil of Kullu and
there he established a colony of Gaur Brahmans in 6 villages, still held
in mucifi by them. These colonists are now spread over Bashahr, Kulld,
Sard] and Suket, and they are called Palsrdmi or Parasrdmi to this day.

Both the Gaur and Sarsuts are also cross-divided into the Sasani, or
beneficed, and Dharowar groups.t The former are priests or parohits
oi the ruling families, being supported by the rents of their lands and
the dues received from their clients. The latter live by cultivation, but
do not hold revenue-free grants. Neither group accepts alms given to



Online LibraryH. A. (Horace Arthur) RoseA glossary of the tribes and castes of the Punjab and North-West frontier province (Volume 3) → online text (page 17 of 78)