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H. A. (Horace Arthur) Rose.

A glossary of the tribes and castes of the Punjab and North-West frontier province (Volume 3) online

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From him descended the Deo dynasty of Sidlkot, whose pedigree ia thus
given : —

RAja RIm Deo, 11th in descent from Jograj.



f



r

Narsingh Deo.

I
Jodh Deo.



Sajji Deo.
I



Rai Jaggu.



")



Sacsar Deo.



Jaismgh Deo.



r —

Mai Deo,



— )

Jhagar Deo.

I
The Minhas.



r —

Pakhar Deo.



Hamir Deo.



r

Raja Khokhar Deo.

I

Jas Deo, founder

of Jasrota.



M4nak Deo, founder
of Maukot.

I
The Mankotias.



Kapur Deo.



f

Sindha, founder of Sanaa.

I

The Sunial Rajputs.



,1
Singram Deo,

I
Dhruk Deo.
)



r



'^



Rija Ranjit Deo. Balwant Deo. Mansa Deo. Snrafc Singh
I I

Brij R4j Deo, Kas^r Singh,

killed at Kuwul by
the Sikhs and tlie laat
of the Deo dynasty.



r

Raja Gulab Singh,

founder of the ruling

house of Jammu

and Kashmir.



I

Raj4 Dhi^n

8ingh.



Raja Suchet
Singhi



In Hoshidrpur the Rdjputa rank as a sept of the 1st grade.









y>






r/



^ y f I. i u.^^^L ti:C ^ 1^ J "^ a i t. :f Itn^






Ja n — Ja njn a, 353

Jan, a wild and lawless tribe dwelling in the southern part nf She Bilri
Dod,b, and famous marauders: Pa ?;jia 6 i D{c(y.,\f. 475. Probably the
same as tho Jun.

Jandani, a olan of the Khosa Balooh.

Jandapur, see Gandapur.

Jandi, a Kamboh clan (agricultural) found in Amriti?!ir.

Jandrake, a Kbarral clan (agricultural) found in Montgomery.

Jandra, 'cotton-clad,' a term applied to the Hindus of the plai:is as opposed
to those of the hills, e. g., the Gaddis, who wear wool. (Kitngra).

JandRAN, (1) an Arain, (2) a Muharamadan Jdt clan (both agricultural)
found in Montgomery, aud (3) an agricultural clan found in Shilhpur.

Janer, a tribe of Jdts, found in Kapurthala, whither it migrated from tho
east, beyond the Jumna,

Janoal, a Gujar clan (agricultural) found in Amritear.

Janqali, a Jd^ clan (agricultural) found in Multd,n.

Jangla, a Jdt clan (agricultural) settled in Multd,n from Jhang in Mughal
times.

Janqli, a generic name for the nomads of the Sdndal Bar. The term is of
recent origin : see Hithdri.

jANi, a Jat clan (agricultural) found in Amritsar.

Janikhel, see under Utmdnzai.

Janil, a Jd^ clan (agricultural) found in Multdn.

Janjua, a Rajput tribe found, though not in large nnmbers, throuoliont iho
eastern Salt Ilangc, their head-quarters, in the south-west Punjab
iucluding Bahdwalpur,* in Hoshii'irpur and Amritsar. The Janjua once
held almost the whole of the Salt Range tract, but were gradually
dispossessed by the Gakkhars in the north and by the Awilns in tlie
west, and they now hold only the central and eastern parts of the Range
as tribal territory, which is exactly what they held at tfie time of
Bilbar's invasion. They still occupy a social posirion in this tract
which is second only to that of tlie Gakkhars, and are always addressed
as Rdjd,. Various origins have been ascribed to the Janjua.

According to Bdbar the hill of Jud was held by two tribes of common
descent, the Jud and Janjiihah. The Janjuhah were old enemies of the
Gakkhars.t Bdbar records that a headman among them receives tho
title of Rdi (the same purely Hindu title was used by tho Khokbars
and Gakkhars), while the younger brothers and sons of a Rai were
styled Malik.

According to a modern account Raja Mai, Rather, had eix sons :
Wiridl and Jodha, whoso descendants intermarry, their settlements
being contiguous ; while those of the other four, Khakha, Tarnoli,
Dabochar and Kdla, do not. Disputes between the brothers led to
their dispersion and disintegration, so that tlie septs regard themselves
as distinct tribes. Moreover many adopted various handicrafts, so that

• Where they are said to bo a clan of the Gakkliars.

t E. II. I. IV, pp. 232, 231-5. Nearly all traces of the Jud, as a tribo, Lave disappeared,
but see under Jodb.



354



Tlie Janjua pedigrees,



Janj(ia gots are now found among the Telis, Loh^rs, Tarkhana and even
Miisallis : and the Ghumnian, Ganjidl, Bliakridl, Nathi^l, Bdn^h,
Basoya and other Jdts are of Janjua descent.

The four younger septs are each endogamous, and it ia considered
discreditable to marry outside the sept. Widow remarriage is strictly
prohibited. Their observances are the same as those of the Chibhs,
The following pedigree conies from the mirdsi of the tribe :—

RAJA MAL.



f—
Raja Wir.

I
Achar.

I
KirpAl.

I
Chohar.

Daulat.

I

Descendants
at Dalwal
in Jhelum.



R4j4 Jodli.

I

Sanpal.

Bililwal.

I
Amli Khan,



Khakha. Tarnoli.

I In Hazara,

Descendants Peshawar and
found in the ildqn of Pakhli
Kashmir. in Hazro.



Dabuchara.

I

Descendants

niunerous in

Hazara: some

also found in

Sialkot.



Pir K^la.

Descendants in

ildqa Kahro

in Rawalpindi.



Ki4s-iid-din.

I

Taman.

I

Budha Kh4n.

I

Aziz.



Sultan Saht.



Nur Ali.

I

Descendants in different
N localities.



r

Snltin Bah at a.

1

At Badshahpnr in

Jhelum.



^



I . I

Sultan Alam. Sultan San^u. Sultan Ali.

Sultan Khair Descendants in

Muhammad. Jhelum..



(
Sultin Taj a.

I

Descendants in

Makhyala and villages

near Jhelum.



Sultan Raja.



Dasondi.



Descendants in Khaul,
Tahsil Kharian,



Nana Kh4n.

I
Islam Kuli.



Chuhar.



Descendants at Rajur in
Khariin tahsil,



Another pedigree* makes them descendants of Jaipal who opposed
Mahmud of Ghazni at Nandana 900 years ago. B^bar certainly de-
scribes them as rulers, from old times, of the Salt Range hills and of the
tract between NiMb and Bhera. He also describes Malik Hast, Janjua,
as hahim of the ih and nlnses in the neighbourhood of the Soh^n. As
rulers the Jvid and Janjuha ruled according to fixed customs, not
arbitrarily, realizing a slmh-nikM i2\ rupees) yearly on every head of
cattle and seven shah-ruhhis on a marriage.t

* Jhelum Gazetteer. 1904, p. 93.

I SMh Rukh was a son of Timiar nnd succeeded to his father's empire in 140-l-0.'i, A. D.
The fact that his coins were in use among the Janjua points either to their having been
tributary to him or to the inclusion of the Salt Range in his dominions. The latter con-
jclusjon is the more probable.



The Janjuas. 3b5

Mr. Thomsou'b account of the tribo in Jhelunij \\\uv\\ follo>\>, ib not
contradicted on any material point by tlie prcssent day Janjuas : —

" Al suine uncertain perioil, then, some clans of Rahtor Rijputs, cmi^iating ficni Judlijmr.
occupied the uplands of the Salt Ivauf;c. The leader of this nioveinenl accurdjug to the
coninion account, was Raja Wal ; but this chieftain is a lilllc mythical, and any liirge action
of doubtful origin is apt to be fatheied upon him. 'i'lio Rajputs lirsl se.'.ted themselves at
Malot in the west Salt Range. This jdace, although picturesque, i& so inacccssjblo and
unfruitful, that it must have been chosen for safety more than convenience. From here the
Rajputs extended their supremacy over the uplands of Jhangar and Knhun and the plain
country near Girjal<h and Darapur. In these regiouK Ihcy were rather .^etlk-is than con-
querors. They not only ruled, but to a great extent occupied also. It sien.s very doubtful
wiicther their real territories ever extended much further, but their trr.diiions certainlv
point tu a former lordshij) over the western upland of VHuhar, and over much of the present
tahsils of Tallagang and C'hakwal. If Babar's account be read \\\\\\ attention, it will be
.seen that he represents the Janjiias as confined to the liilJs, and ruling over various subject
tribes who cultivated the plains. This account serves to explain the utier extirpatirm that
has befallen the Janjuas in the Vunhnr and elsewhere. If we conceive them as holding
detached forts in the midst of a foreign jjopidation which giadually grew hostile, then this
extirpation cin easily be understood. 'J his also serves, to explain how one or two villages
of peasant Janjuas have escaped, while all the Chiefs and Rajas round about have perisht-d.
The vague accounts of the people seem to point to some such history as this, and not to any
great racial or tribal war.

The Janjcas were long the predominant race in the centre and west of the District. Raja
Mai is said to have reigned in the days of Mahnnad of Ghazni, and his authority was pro-
bably more or less recognised from Rawalpindi to the Jhelum. When Mahinud invaded
India the Janjuas opposed him, were defeated, and fled to the jungles. Mahmud followid
Iheiu up, and succeeded in capturing Ruja Jlal himself. The Raja was released on condi-
tion that he and his tribe should embrace Isl^rn. When this conversion took place, the
jaiiju, or caste-thread was broken, and the neophytes have been called Janjuas ever since.*

Raja Mai is said to have left five sons. Three of these settled in Rawalpindi or Ilaz^ra.
Two, Wir and Jodh, remained in Jhelum. They speedily divided their possessions. "Wir took
the west, and Jodh the eastern share. Choya Saidan Shah was the boundary between them.
AVir's descendants are now represented by the Janjuas of Malot and the Kahihi iluqa.
Their chief seat is at Dihval. Jodh's descendants have split into many branches. A general
supremacy was long exercised by the Sultans of Jlakhiala in Jhangar. .But the chiefs of
Kusak and B^ghJinwala soon became practically independent, as did also those of Liliir,
Karangli, and Girjakh, whose descendants are now either eitinct or much decayed. The
plain ildqa of Darapiir and Chakri seems to have broken oil from the main stock even earlier
than the others. This passion for separatism is fatal to any large authority. The feuds to
which it gave rise, joined with an endless Gakkhar war, and the establishment of new and
strenuous races beyond the mountains brought the .lanjiia dominion to destruction. The
Dhani country, called Maluki Dhan after the great Raja, and the forts in Tallagang and the
Vunhir seem to have been all lost not long after the lime of Babar. But in the centre and
cast Salt Range and round Darapur the Janjua supremacy remained imdisputed until the
advent of the Sikhs. And the rich >SaIt Klines at Khewra and Makrach must have alwavs
made this territory important. The Sikhs conquered the whole country piecemeal. Ranjit
Singh himself besieged and captured Makhiala and Kusak, Most of the influential chiefs
received jiigirs but were ousted from their old properties.

The Janj-uas are physically a well-looking race. Their hands and feet in particidar are
often much smaller and more linely shaped than those of their neighbours. They largely
engage in miliUiry service, where they prefer the cavalry to the infantry. They arc poor
farmers, and bad men of business. They are careless of details, and ajit to be passionate
when opposed. Too often they lix their hopes on impossible objects. As landlords they
are not exacting with submiissive tenants. They are willing to sacrifice something to retain
even the poor parodies of feudal respect which time has not destroyed. Their manners are



* The Janjuas themselves now reject this t-tory, which is not in itself very plausible : thev
say the name of the tribe is derived from that of one of their forefathirs. Janjuha. who in
xtio<-i of the genealogies comes eight or nine generations before Raja iial. it is moreover
improbable that the general conversion of the Janjiias took place 900 years ago ; it is likely
enough that Mahrai'id made converts, and that these reverted as soon as his back was turned:
but (he Junjua village pedigree tables nearly all agree in iutrcducing Muhaniniadan names
only about 15 generations back, A\hich woidd jjoint to their general conveision about the
middle of the 15th century. Cracroft however noted that the Janjuas in Kawalpindi etill
continued to feast Brahmans, etc., at weddings.



356 Janjukan-^Jaiia.

often good. They have a largo share of vanity which is generally rather amusing than
oflensive. Tlioy arc at the same time self-respecting, and not ■without a certain kind of
pride, and are eminently a people with whom slight interludes of emotional government are
likely to bo useful."

In Hosliiarpur tlie Janjuds are fairly numerous to the nortli-east of
Dasiiya.''^" The Bilials of Badla are said to bo an al or sub-iHvision of
the Janjua which takes its name from the village of Beata in ta'p'pa
Kamiihi. Bah means a settlement, and the Janjua villages seem
often to begin with Bah. The Janjuas in this District say they migrated
from Hastinapura to Garh Makhuila in Rd,walpindi or Jhelum, and
thence, to escape Muhammadan oppression to Badla under Rdja
Sahj lYil, 8th in descent from K^jd Jodh. His son Pahar Singh
held 132 vilhiges round Badla. They claim to be Kanas of the Dogars,
and the head of the family is installed t with the common ceremony of the
tiha under a banian tree at Barnd,r or Bah Ata, though Badla (Bar- or
Boharwcila) also claims the honour, amidst the assembled Pogars of Mehr
Bhatoh, a village near Badla, who present a horse and shawl, while the
Bihdls pay a nazar of Re. 1 or Rs. 2 each. They are said to only give
daughters to Dadwd,ls, who are 1st grade Rajputs, and to take them from
Barangwdls, Laddus, and Ghorewrihd,s, who are in the 3rd grade.

The Badlial is another Janjua sept, deriving its name from Badla,
the ancient Rajput i^^•a. Badla is now in ruins and its rand's family
is extinct, but the sept has made one of its members their rand and
presents nazardna, etc., to him as usual. Still, as he has not been
installed or made a tilakdliari, his rdndsJiip does not count for much.

Janjdhan, a MiJiammadan Jat clan (agricultural) found in Montgomery,

Janjuxha, an Arain clan (agricultural) found, in Montgomery.

Janoha (doubtless Janjua).— A Rajput sept, an offshoot of the Bha^tia
whose ancestor Johad (? Judh) came to Garh Makhila in Aktar^s reign
and founded Niirpur Janoha in Kapurthala.

Jan SAN, a Muhammadan Kamboh clan (agricultural) found in Montgomery.

Janwas, a Muhammadan Jat clan (agricultural) found in Montgomery.

J A?., a Gujar clan (agricultural) found in Amritsar.

Jara, an agricultural clan found m Sh^hpur,

Jarah, a Jdt clan (agricultural) found in Mult^n.

Jaria, a sept of Jcits found in Jind, In that state fire gots of Jats derive
their names from as many parts of the beri tree, viz. :■—

(i) Rangi, from the rang, or bark of the heri tree used for dyeing,
{ii) Jana, from jar, the root, I [iv) Jbari, or seedlings, and
[iii] Beiia, from ber, the fruit, 1 {v) Khichar, or bud.

These five gots may however intermarry and are, collectively, called
Jaria, which is also said to be derived from /om and to mean ' twin.'

* The Pahri of Kuhi is a branch of the Janjiias which has taken to l-areica and so lost
status, so that Janjuas and clans of equal or higher grade do not intermarry with them.

t The formalities at the accession of a new fcjultan of Makhiala are somewhat similar;
7, 9, 11 or 13 days after his predecessor's death the principal men of the tract are feasted ;
in the afternoon they assemble at a rock behind the Sultin's house and the family
Brahman puts the tika on his forehead. The Sultan then appoints a %mxir and four diwdns.






'/



/u, ^ t' 4, *. ff/yu^



/



/ /



■ /^ ^^■



7'













:./^<^







7 x; '



/^, /f. ui/;^^^/,/. ■il^y y^''^'






Jaridl — Jdf. 357

Jaeial, a clan of Hindu Rdjpuls found in Hoshij^qiur, in greatest numbers in
the north-east of Dasuya laLsil. AUo a clan of agricultiii-il l^ralmians
in the Kdjgiri tahika of Haniirpur tahsil in Kungra. Tliey rank in the
2ud grade in both castes.

Jaroi.a, (1] an agricultural clan found in Shahpur, (2) a J^^ clan (agricultural)
found in Multdn.

jAPvKAn, a surgeon and dentist who is almost always a ncii.

Jaesodh, Balochi : a washerman, iv.jar clothes, ^hodhagh to wash,

Jarwar, a clan of the Khosa Baloch.

Jasgam, a clan of Muhammadan Rajputs, found in the Mm-rto lulls. Liko
the Dhdnds and Khatrils they claim descent from Manaf, an ancestor of
the Proi)liet, and got possession of the tract they now occujty under
Gakkhar rule, when one Zuhair, a descendant of the Prophet, came from
Arabia and settled near Kahuta.

Jasial, a clan of Hindu Rcijpufcs, of Saldmia status, found in Hoshiiirpur.

Jaspal, an agricultural clan found in Shdhpur.

Jaska, an agricultural clan found in Shahpur.

Jaseotia, a Rftjput clan, an offshoot of the Jamwal. It derives its name
from Jasrota and is of Jaikaria status.

Jaswara, see Jaiswitra.

Jastab, a Jilt clan (agricultural) found in Amritsar.

Jaswal, an offshoot of the Katocli, the great Rajput clan which gave rulers
to the kingdom of Trigarta. It derives its name from (or |)ossibly "ives
its name to) the Jaswan Dun of Hoshiarpur, and at its original seat, Bhir
Jaswdn, are remains of buildings, wells and fountains which attest ita
former power. It still ranks high, being of Jaikaria status. In 1596 the
Jasuwdlas were described as ' Zamindars with an army ' and gave some
trouble to the imperial authorities.^

Jat, fern. Jatni, dim. Jate^a, fern, -i, the child of a Jdt. The form
Jdt is used in the South-East Punjab. In the Central Punjab Jatt
ftm. Jatti, is usual. Another dim. Jatiinganl, a Jatt's child, is used
conteinptuously. In the south-west of the Province the Multaui and
Balochi term for a Jat is Jagdal, and Jat (with the soft t) is used
to denote a camel-driver, as in Upper Sindli, where jat now means
a rearer of camels or a shepherd, in opposition to a hnsbandman.

The Jdfs in History.

Fragmentary notices of the Jdfs occur in the Muhammadan historian?
of India, as will be seen from the fallowing excerpts from Elliot's
History of India.

Ibn Khurdildba, writing ante 912 A. D., gives the distance from
the frontier of Kirmiln to Mansura as 80 />ar«6a?/^.y, and adds :—
" This route fat'Ses through the country of the Zats (Jats) who keep
watch over it." E. H. L, I, p. 14,



♦ Elliot's Hist, of India, VI, p. 120.



368 The Jdts in history.

Ac-cordiog to the author of the Miijiiial-ut-Tawdrikh^ the Jatst and
Mods were reputed desceudauts of Ham. They both dwelt in SindJ
and on (the banks of) the Bahar river, and the Jata were sub)eet to
tlie Meds wliose oppression drove them across the I'ahan river. The
Jats were, however, accustomed to the use of boats and were thus able
to cross the river and raid the Meds, who were owners of sheep.
Eventually the Jats reduced the Med power and ravaged their country.
A J at chief, however, induced both tribes to lay aside their differences
and send a deputation of chiefs to wait on King Dajushan (Dur-
yodhaua), son of Dahrdt (Dhritarashtra), and beg him to nomin-
ate a king, whom both tribes would obey. Accordingly the emperor
Dajushan appointed Dassal (Duhsala), his sister, and wife oi" the
powerful king Jandrat (Jayadratha), to rule over the Jats and Mods'. As
the country possessed no Brahmans, she wrote to her bixither for
aid, and he sent her 30,000 from H.industd,n. Her capital was Askaland.
A small portion of the country she made over to the Jats under their
chief, Judrat.§

Chach, the Brahman usurper|| of Sind, humiliated the Jats and
Lohanas. He compelled them to agree to carry only sham swords :
to wear no under-garments of shawl, velvet or silk, and only silken
outer- garment 8, provided they were red or black in colour: to put no
saddles on their horses : to keep their heads and feet uncovered : to
take their dogs with them when they went out: to furnish guides and
spies and carry firewood for the royal kitchen.^ Of the Loh^na, ^. e.
Lakha and Samma, who were apparently Jats, it is said that the same
rules were applied to them and that they knew no distinction of great
and small. *^ Muhammad bin Qdsim maintained these regulations,
declaring that the Jats resembled the savages of Persia and the moun-
tains. He also fixed their tribute.t+

The Bheti Thakurs and Jats of Ghazni, who had submitted and en-
tered the Arab service, garrisoned Sagara and the island of Bait,t J ^^
the time of Muhammad bin Q4sim, c. 712 A. D.

The Jats, like the Baloch, the Sammas and the Sodhas, revolted
against Umar,§§ but they were soon reduced to submission, ante 1300
A. D.

In 834 A. D., and again in 835 Ajff bin Isa was sent against the
Jats, whose chief was Muhammad bin 'lJsmaii|| || and commander Samlu.
Ajif defeated them in a seven months' campaign, and took 27,000 of
them, including women and children with 12,000 fighting men to



» Written circa 1126 A. D.

t ' By the Arabs, ' tlie writer interpolates, ' the Hmdim jire callod Jats.'

X Sind = the valley of the Indus from the modern iJianwali down to the moutha of the
river.

§ E. H. I., I, pp. 103-5.

II His usurpation dates from 631, A; D.

<; E. H. I., I, p. 151.

** lb. p. 187.

ttlb. p. 188.

it E. H. I., I, p. 167. this can hardly be the modern Ghazni. It can only U the Oarll
Ghazni or Ghajni of modern Jat legend, as it lay apparently on the Indus.

§§ Or Unnai- : E. H. I., I, pp. 220-1.

ililE. H. I., II,p. 247.



The Jdffi in history. H59

Baghddxl, whence they were transported to the northern frontier and
Boon perished, exterminated in a Byzantine raid. The seats of these
•Tats lay on the roads of Hajar, which they had seized.

Amran, the Barmecide governor of the Indian frontier, marched to
Kikiln"^' against tlie Jats wliom ho dofeatod and subjugated. There he
founded Al-Baiza, the ' white city ', wliioh he garrisoned, and thonco
proceeded to Mnltan and Kandiihil. The latter city stood on a hill and
was hold hy Muliammad, son of Khalil, whom Amriln slew. Elo then
made war on the Mods, but sunnnonod the Jats to Alrur, where lie
sealed their hands, took fioia them the Jizya or poll-tax and ordered
that every man of them should biincr wjtli him a dog when he waited nn
him. He then again att^acked the Meds, liaving with him the chief
men of the Jats.t Amr.in was appointed in 836 A. D. to be governor
of Sindh.

The Tuhfat-n'l-Kiram appears to assign to the Jats and Bilochcs
the same descent, from Mnhamraad, son of Hd,run, governor of Makran,
who was himself descended from the Amir Hamza, an Arab^ by a
fairy, t

The Jjits of Jud, which we must take to mean the Salt Range,
were, according to the later Muhammadan historians, the object of
Mahmud's 17th and last expedition into India in 1026 A. D. It
is however hardly possible that Mahmud conducted a naval campaign
in or near the Salt Hange, and the expedition probably never took
place. It is moreover exceedingly donbtfnl whether the Salt Range
was then occupied by Jats at all.§

Jats, under Tilak, hunted down Ahmad, the rebel governor of
Mult:4n, in 1034 A. D., until he perished on the Mihran of Sind. For
this they received 100,000 dirhamsnsH reward. The Jats were still
Hindus.ll

After the defeat of Rai Pithaura in 1192, and the capture of
Delhi by Muhammad of Ghor, Jatwan raised the standard of national
resistance to Muliammadan aggression at Hansi, but was defeated
on the borders of the Bagar by Qutb-ud-din Ibak who then took
Hjlnsi. It is apparently not certain that Jatwan was a Jat loader.
Firishta says Jatwan was a dependent of the Rdi of Nahrwald in
Guzerat.U

In November 1398 Timur marched through the jungle fi'om Ahruni
in Karndl to Tohana, throjigh a tract wliich he found inhabited by
Jats, Musulnians only in name, and without equals in theft and high-
way robbery: they plundered caravans on the road and were a
terror to Mnsulmdns and travellers. On Timiir's approach the Jats
had abandoned the villnge (Tohana) and tied to their sugarcane
fields, valleys, and jungles, but Timur pursued them, apparently after

* Or Kaikan, ' which was in the occupation of the Jats ': E. II. I., I, p. 449.

!E. H. I., I, p. 128 : rf. App. pp. 449-50
E. II. I.. I, p. 330.
E H. I., II, p. 477
II E.H. I., II, p. 133
JffT. N.,pp. 51G-7. '



360 The Jdts in history.

n contest in wliich the Jats had held their own, and put 2,000 of the
demon-like Jats to the sword.^

About 1530 the Sultitu Muhammad ibn Tughliq had to suppress the
Binihas, ]\landahars, Jats, Bhat(ti)s, and Manhis (Minas), who had
formed mandals round Sundm and Sdmdaa, withheld tribute and
plundered the roads.t

"In the country between Nilab and Bhera, " wrote B^bar, "but
distinct from the tribes of Jud and Janjuhah, and adjacent to the
Kashnifr hills are the Jats, Gujars, and many others of similar tribes,
who build villages, and settle on every hillock and iu every valley.
Their hdhivi was of the Gakkhar race, and their government resembled
that of the Jud and Janjuhah.' 'J

" Every time," adds Babar, ''that I have entered Hindustan, the Jats
and Gujars have regularly poured down in prodigious numbers from
their hills and wilds, in order to carry off oxen and buffaloes." They



Online LibraryH. A. (Horace Arthur) RoseA glossary of the tribes and castes of the Punjab and North-West frontier province (Volume 3) → online text (page 48 of 78)