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weavers. They are said to divide their girls into two classes; one
they marry themselves, and them they do not prostitute ; the other
they keep for puiposos of prostitution. The Kanjars appear to be
of higher status than the Nat, though they are necessarily outcasts.
They "worship Mdta, whom thsy also call Kdli Mjii; but whether they
refer to Kali Devi or to Sitla does not appear, most; probably to the
former. They also reverence Guga Pir. Delhi is said to be the
headquarters of the tribe. But the word Kanjar seems to be used in
a very loose manner ; and it is not certain that these Kanjars are not
merely a Bauria tribe ; and it is just possible that thev have received
their name from their habit of prostituting their daughters, from the
Panjdbi word Kanjar. The words Kanjar and Bangdli also seem
often to be used as synonymous. Further, to quote Mr. H. L. Williams,
Sansis in Hindustan and the Districts of the Punjab east of the
Ghaggar river are known as Kanjars, but the relations between the
S^msis of the Punjab and the Kanjars of Hindustan are not always
clear. There are permanent Kanjar colonies in several important
cantonments, the men being mostly employed in menial offices in
the barracks while the women attend the females of other castes
in domestic duties, as cuppers and sick-nurses ; they also sell embroca-
tions and curative oils. The members of these colonies intermarry on
equal terms with the wandering Kanjars of the Delhi division,
journeying down country for the purpose. They admit a relationship
between The Sansis and the Kanjars of the south, and that they
speak a common dialect, which may be a thieves' patter or a 'patois
of their original home. Wandering Sdnsis style themselves Kanjars
only in the Delhi territory and parts of the east, dropping the name
when they approach the Sutlej. (2) A J^t clan (agricultural) found
in Multiin.

Kanju, an agricultural clan found in Slnlhpur.

ECa-NON, a J^ clan (agricultural) found in Multan.

Kanonkhob, a J^t clan (agricultural) found in Multd,n.

KANSARf, see Sayyid.

K.\>r^VAK£, a Jat clan (agricultaral) found in Multi'in.

Kan WEN, a J'^t clan (agricultural) found ia Multdn.

KAPAHf, (of the colour of tha cotton-plant dower) , a section of the Khattris,

Kapai, a Jd,^ clan (agricultural) found in Multin.

Kapri, a caste which claims Brahman origin and makes the mor and othe

ornaments worn by the bridegroom at weddings, artificial flowerr

and similar articles of talc, tinsel and the like. (Those would appeas

to be by caste Phul Malis). They also appear to be connecte-l, ar

least in Delhi, with the Jain temples where they officiate as priests^t



476 Kdpria-^Karldni.

and receive offerings.* They also act in Gurg^ou as Bhd-ts at wed-
dings in singing the praises of the pair. Tliey are said to conie
from R^jpatana or the Biigat", where they are known as Hindu Dums.
The following account appeais to confuse them with the Khappari : —
In Rohtak the Ktlpri are a Brahman clan, which is divided into two
classes, tdpashi and kdpri. The story goes that when Mahddeo was
going to be married, he asked a Brahman to join the pi'ocession and
ceremony. He refused saying, ' what can I do if I go ? ' Mah^deo then
gave him two (Shatura flowers and told him to blow them as he
went along with the procession. He sjiid, ' how can I blow two
flowers ? ' He then told him to pick up a corpse {kr'tyd) lying {pari) on
the ground, but it at once rose up and rook the other flower. The
progeny of the Brahraan were henceforward called tapshi (worshippers)
and the offspring of the corpse kdpri [hdydpari).

In N^bha they make cups (dunna) of leaves and also pattaU or
platters of them. In Ambala they are said to print cloth.

Kapria, Kapari, a sect which covers the whole body, even the face, with
clothes. MacHuliffe's Sihh Religion, I, p. 280; VI, 217.

Kapur (camphor, fr. Arabic kd/ur), a section of the Khattris.

Kaear, see Kiear.

Karaunkh, Karawak, see Kieaunk.

Karela, a Kharral clan (agricultural) found in Montgomery.

Karhalah, a Jdt clan (agricultural) found in Multan.

Karkhiad, a sector order of the Sufis, founded by Khwaja Maruf Karkhi.

Karlani, one of the principal branches of the Pathiins, whose descent' is
thus given : —

Yah-fida (Judah),



Bani Makhzium.

Walid.

Khilid.

Qais-i-Abd-ur-Rashid, the Patan.

Saraban,

Sharf.ud-Dfn alias Sharkhabun.

Araar-ud-Din or Amar-Din. Miana. Tarfn.

Urmur.

Two men of Urmur's family, Abdulla and Zakaria, were once out
hunting, and Zakaria, who had a large family and was poor, found a
male child abandoned on an encamping ground, where Abdulla who
was wealthy and childless found a shajlow iron cooking vessel {kardhai
or karhai). The brothers agreed to exchanore their fiuds, and Abdulla
adopted the foundling whom he named Karldnai. Another account



* These are probably the Kapria or Kapari, q. v.



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t*^ i*^^rfi -JK.*^^ —



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i/\*, ^ ^'T*.



Kdrlugh — Karrdl. 477

makes Karl^,nai a Saraban by descent and the adopted son of Amar-
ud-Din; while Muhammad Afzal Khdn, the Khattak historian^ makes
Karl^nai a brother of Amai and Urmur, and relates how the latter
found Karlclni, who had been left behind when the camp was
hurriedly struck, and placed him in a Jcarhai. Amai accepted tlie
karhni in exchange for him, and he was then adopted by Urmur who
gave him a girl of his family to wife. On the other hand, the
Dilaz^ks give Karldnai a Say3 id descent.

By his Urmuf wife Karlanai had issue : —

Karlanai.







Kodai.




]

Kakal

1










f

Utman,


1 1
Dilazak. Warak.


1
Manai.


1 1 1

Luqmau alias Khogai. Mangalai.
Khatak. |

Jadran,






1








f

Sulaiman.

1


Mir, G




1
Sharaf-ud-din alias Shitak.

1




Wazir.


1 1
Bai. Malik


f
iwai.


i 1 '
Ado. Dawar. Malakhai.


Surrinai .



KliushhalKhdn, however, gives a different table. He makes Burhan,
progenitor of the Dilazdks, and Warak, sons of Kodai; but he gives
Khatak, Utmd,n, Usmdn and Jadrdn as descendants of Kodai.

Further, Sayyid Muhammad, a pious darwesh, espoused a daughter
of the Karlanai family and had by her two sons, Honai and Wardag.

The Karlanis, generally, were disciples of the Pir-i-Roshdn, and
those of Bangash (the modern Kurram) were peculiarly devoted
RosHANiAS, but they were regarded as heretics by both Shias and
Sunnis. Their tenets brought gi-eat disasters upon the Karldnis as the
Mughals made frequent expeditions against the tribes addicted to the
Roshd,nia heresy.

Kabluqh, Kaeluk, see Qa«hjgh.

Karnatak, a got of the Oswdl Bhdbras, found in Hoshidrpur.

Karnadl, a Mahtam clan (agricultural) found in Montgomery.

Karnere, an agricultural clan found in Shdhpur.

Karol, see Qarol.

Karijla, a Muharamadan clan (agricultural) found in Montgomery.

Karral, a tribe found only in Hazd.ra. According to the late Colonel H. G.
Wace " the Karral country consists of the Ndra ildqa in Abbotttlhdd
tahsil. The Karrills were formerly the subjf^cts of the Gakkhnrs, from
whom they emancipated themselves some t«o centuries ago. Originally
Hindus, their conversion to Islam is of comparatively modern date.
Thirty years ago their accjuaintance with the Muhammadan faith wa^



478 Kartdri — Kashmiri.

still slio-lit; and though they now know more of it, and are more careful
to observe it, relics of their former Hindu faith are still observable in
their sociul habits. They are attached to their homes and their fields
which they cultivate simply and industriously. For the rest, their
character is crafty and cowardly." He further noted that the Karrdla
are identical in origin and character with the Dhunds. This would
make the Karrdls on? of the Rajput tribes of the hills lying along the
left bank of the Jhelum ; and they are said to claim Rdjput origin, though
they have also recently set up a claim to Kayd^ni Mughal descent,
in common with the Gakkhars ; or, as a variety, that their ancestor
came from Kay^n, but was a descendant of Alexander the Great ! But
the strangest story of all is that a queen of the great Rdja Rasdlu of
Punjab folklore had by a paramour of the scavenger class four sons,
Seo, Teo, Gheo, and Karu, from whom are respectively descended the
Si^ls, Tiw^nas, Ghebas, and Karrd,ls. They intermarry with Gakkhars,
Sayyids and Dhunds.

Kartari', Kaltari, a Hindu sect which has sprung up in the south-west of
the Punjab of late years. Its founder was one Assa, an Arora of
Bhakkar, in Dera Ismail Khdn, who made disciples not only from among
the Hindus, but also from among the Musalm^n cultivators of that
District. The followers of this Pir usually s:o through the ordinary
business of the world up to noon, after which they will paint their faces
with tilaks of wonderful patterns and various colours, and will either sit
in the bazar without uttering a ^yord, even when spoken to, or will
wander about with fans in their hands. They are indifferent to the
holy books of either creed. Their behaviour is harmless and the sect
does not appear to be progressing.

Karunjara, fem. -i, a seller of vegetables, i. q. Kunjra.

Kasai, fem. -in, (fr. Arab. Qasab, a butcher).

Kasanye, a Gujar clan (agricultural) found in Amritsar.

Kasbi, a synonym for Juld-ha in Hazd-ra.

Kasera, a brazier, a worker in pewter or brass. See Thayhera.

Kashmiri. — The word Kashmiri is perhaps applicable to the members of any
of the races of Kashmir; but it is commonly used in Kashmir itself to
denote the people of the valley of Srinagar. In any case the term is a
geographical one, and probably includes many of what we should in the
Punjab call separate castes. The cultivating class who form the great
mass of the Kashmiris proper are probably of Aryan descent, though
perhaps with an intermixture of Khas blood, and possess marked cha-
racters. Drew describes them as " large made and robust and of a
really fine cast of feature," and ranks them as " the finest race in
the whole continent of India." But their history is, at any rate in re-
cent times, one of the most grievous suffering and oppression ; and
they are cowards, liars, and withal quarrelsome, though at the same
time keen-witted, cheerful, and humorous. A good account of them
will be found in Drew's Jummoo and Kashmir.

In the Punjab the term Kashmiri connotes a Muhammadan Kashmiri.
It is rarely, if ever, applied to a Hindu of Kashmir. The most ip)-



^A^.jrf^^'^- '



■Vv-



■"- . ij



^y. T //



/Lt.>7-u, 4*. CuiT'., 'i. i>yt.-



Kashmiri titles.



47^



portanfc Kashmiri element in the Punjab is found in the cities of Ludhiana
and Amritsar, which still contain large colonies of weavers, employed
in weaving carpets and finer fabrics. Besides theijc, many Kashmiris
are found scattered all over these Provinces, many being descended from
those who were driven from Kashmir by the great famine of 1878 into
the sub-montane districts of the Punjab. Many of the Kashmiris in
Gujr{it, Jhelum and Attock are, strictly speaking, Cliibhfilis. A full
account of the Kashmir krdma and. tribes will be found in Sir Walter
Lawrence's Valley of Kashmir, Ch. XII. The principal tribes returned
in the Punjab are the Bat, Batti, D^r, Lun, Mahr, Man, Mir, Shaikh,
Wain and Warde. Ju is also common and like Bat and other tribe-
names is now practically a surname. A Khokhar tribe — who do not
intermarry at below 20 years of age — is also found in Ferozepur.
Watcrfield noted the followiog castes and titles or occupations among
the Kashmiris in Gujrilt : —



No.


Caste or desig-
nation.


Corresponding to


No.


Caste or desig-
nation.


Corresponding to


1


But (Bat)


Pandits and Brahman
proselytes.


1^


Mochi


Mochi.


2


Beg




15


Pandit


Proselytized Aroras or
Khatris.


3


Busbainde


High caste.


16


Pallu


Ajar-Ahfr.


4


D4r


Low-class zaini)iddrs.


17


Palik


Dak-runner.


5


Don


Painja.


18


Pandi


A porter.


6


Gar


Atiir Pansiiri.


19


Pande


0/ high rank.


7


Kanae


Average zainindd<'s.


20


Riithur


Za?>M'/irfd)-.s of good










degree.


8
9


Khan

KarrAr


Those who may he con-
nected by marriage
with Pathans.

Kiimbar.


21
22


Raishu

Shah


Majawar, Pirzida.
Sayyid-Fakir.


10


Kotu


Paper, maker.


2S


Sufz


Darzi.


11


Lavinali


Dharwai.


24


Aram


Rain.


12


Malli


Manjhi.


25


Vair


Khoja, Bannia,


13


Malik


Rajput.









480 Kasrdna — JS^assar.

Kasrana, a Kharral clan (agricultural) found in Montgomery.

Kasrani, Qaisarani, is the northernmost of the Baloch organised tumans,
its territory lying on either side of the boundary between the two Deras,
and being confined to the hills both within and b^^yond our frontier
and the sub-montane strip. 'I'he tribe is a poor one, and is divided into
seven clans, tlie Lashkarani, Rubadan, Khepdin, Buddni, Wasu^ni,
Leghari, Jar war and Bada, none of which are important. They are of
Rind origin, and are not found in the Punjab in any numbers beyond
the Dera Ghazi and Dera Ismail Kh^n districts.

Kassar. — The Kassars hold the grnater part of the norfch-wesfc quarter of the
Cliakwal tahsil in Jhelum, and as far as is known are not found in any
numbers in any other part of the Province : Ibbetson (Census Keport,
§ 508) remarks that until 1881 they seem to have enjoyed the rare dis-
tinction of being one of the few Salt Range tribes which claimed neither
Kdiput, Awan, nor Mughal descent, but according to Bowring they
once claimed Rajput origin* asserting that their original home' was in
Jammu ; and that they obtained their present territories by joining the
armies of Bdbar ; most of them, however, recorded themselves as Mughals
at the Census ot 1881, a claim ''evidently suggested by their association
with the Mughal power": this claim has now developed into a genea-
logical tree in which the Kassars are shown as being of common origin
with the Mughal emperors. Their present account of their origin is as
follows : —

" They were originally located in the country of Kinan in Asia Mioor, whence they
migrated to Ghazni at some time unknown with the ancestors of the Mughal dynasty,
and subsequently accompanied Babar in his invasion of India in A. D. 1526, their ances-
tors at that time being Gharka and Bhin (or Bhol), according to some ; or Jajha, Lati and
Kaulshi according to others : all agree, however, in stating that Gharka is baried on a
mound in Mauza Hatar, not many miles from Dhok Pipli in Bfil Kassar, which is said to
be the original settlement ot the tribe in these parts. The Dhanni was then in tbe hands
of wandering Gnjars, while Changas Khan Janjua held the hills to the south, living at
Fort Samarqand near Mmoza Maira. Babar made over to them the western part of tho
Dhanni, on condition that they would drain off the water with which the eastern part
was then covered, a work which they proceeded to carry out: and Gharka obtained soma
additional country to the south-west as a reward for restoring to Changas Khan a
favourite mare, which the Janjua Raja had lost. 1 hey claim that the name, Baluki Dan,
under which the tract figures in tho Aiu-i-Akbari, is derived from that of their ancestor
Bhal, who also gave his name to the important village of Bal Kassar ; and in this they
are supported by the spelling of the lithographed edition of the Ain-i-Akhari, against the
assertion of the Janjuas, that the name is Maluki Dhan, from the Janjua chief, Mai of
Malot. They explain the presence now of the Mairs and Kahiits in the Dhanni by stating
that, as relations of the reigning dynasty they were themselves able to keep out all intru-
ders in the time of the Mughals ; but in Sikh rule the Mairs, being of the same stock as
the powerful Jammu Raja, were able to obtain a footing in the tract : they generally
admit that the Kahiits came with them in Babar's train and settled here at the same
time as themselves, but say that they were of small account until the time of tho
Sikhs. They state that the original profession of the tribe was ' hdhumat ' or govern
ment; and that it is now agriculture or Government employment. They use the title
of chaudhri. They have no special Pirs or places of worship, and their customs do not
differ in any respect from those of the tribes surrounding them, except that the graves of
women are distinguished by stone at the head and foot parallel to the breadth of the
grave, while those of meu'vS graves are parallel to the length ; -this is just the opposite of
the custom in the Jhelum Pabbi."

Whatever may be thought of tbe claim of the Kassars to rank as
Mughals, they certainly have a good position amongst the tribes of the
District, ranking in popular estimation with the Mdir?. and Kahuts, they

* J. A. S. B., 1850, pp. 43—64 (the Kahuts also claimed Rajput descent).



Kat^Kathdl. 481

intermarry freely with the former, both giving and taking daughters :
but a Kassar of good family who married his daughter to a Kahut of
fair standing incurred the displeasure of tlie brotherhood : they do not
intermarry with any other tribe, thouofh as is usually the case in the
Jhelum district low caste wives are occasionally taken by them. Mdirs,
Kassars and Kahuts eat together, but not wif,h kamins.

The doggerel rhymes of the tribal Mirasis contain little of interest,
either setting forth in extravagant terms the power of individual chiefs
of bygone generations, oi- recording the incidents of the comparatively
recent internecine feuds of the tribe : the following is well known, and
another version is given by the Mdirs also : —

Charhid Bdhar Bddshdh ; Kahdr tamhu tande :
Bhin te Gharkd Kassar doen ndl de.

" Bdbar B^dsh^h marched, and pitched his tent at (Kalla) Kahdr :
Bhin and Gharkd,, the Kassars, both came."
An abbreviated tree of the tribe is given below : —

Abchal Noian,

r; ' 1

7 generations. 8 generations.

Kassar. Bibar,
I
5 generations,
I

r 1

}5hol (or Bhin). Gharka.



4 generations, f I ~ -|
I Ghanni. BhAdar. Bal.
Bhin,
\

r \ 1

Kaul Shfnh. Lati. Jhajhi.

The earlier part of the tree connecting the tribe with Bdbar is obvi-
ously fanciful, and the latter part not altogether reliable. Such names
as Tilochar, Nand, Pres, etc., are mixed up with Muharamadan names
ill thefoi'mer part, while a Jhan Deo occurs low down in the tree : these
names may indicate a Hindu origin, though the tradition of the tribe is
that they were Musalmitos long before they came to these parts. About
35 generations on the average intervene between Kassar and members
of the tribes now living. In character they resemble the Mdirs.

Kat, a Jat clan (agricultural) found in Multan.

Katalbashi, see Qizzilbdsh.

Katarye, a Gujar clan (agricultural) found in Amritsar.

Katal, a sept of Rdjputs found in the Simla Hills. To it belong the chiefs
of Jubbal, Itawin, Sairi and Tarhoch. The Khaus or Khash sept of the
Kanets is also called Katdl.

Kataria, a small Jdt clan, found in Bdwal ; it derives its name from hafnr
a dagger.

Kataya, a fine wire^drawer : see under Tdrhash.

Katbal, a Baloch clan said to be found in the Derajdt, as well as in Multdq
and Lahore. But cf. Katpdl.



482 Kathdne-^Kdthia.

Kathane, a Gujar clan (agricultural) found in Amritsar.

Kathanye, a Gujar clan (agricultural) found in Amritsar.

Kathab, Kahtar, see Khattar.

Kathia. — One of tlie Great Rd,vi tribes, and next in importance amoug them
to the Kharral. The Kd,tliias claim to be Punvvar Rdjputs, and are
almost confined to the Havi valley of the Multan and Montgomery
District?, but they hold a considerable area in the south of Jhang, which
they are said to have acquired from the Kamldna Sid.ls in return for aid
afforded to the latter against the Naw^b of Multd.n. The Kdthias once
practised female infanticide. Previouj'ly they had lived on the Rivi
and in the lower part of the Sdndal B^v. They were supposed to be the
same people as the Kathaei, who in their stronghold of Sd,ngla so stout-
ly resisted the victorious army of Alexander. The question was elabo-
rately discussed by Sir Alexander Cunningham at pp. 33 to 42 of Vol. 11
of his Archmological Rp/ports, and in Vol. I, p, 101^ of Tod's Rdjasthdn
{Madras Reprint, 1880). Captain Elphinstone thus described them in
his Montgomery Settlement Repoj^t : —

" The remarkable fact that a people called ' Kathaioi ' occupied a part of the Gugaira
district when Alexander invaded the Punjab, invests the Kathia tribe with a peculiar
interest. After much enquiry on the subject, I have come to the conclusion that the
Kathias of the present day have a strong claim to be considered the descendants of
the same ' Kathaioi ' who so gallantly resisted the Macedonian conqueror. Their own
account of their origin is, of course, far different. Like all Jats they take a particular
pride in tracing their descent from a Rajput prince about the time of their conversion to
Muhammadanism under the Emperor Akbar. But an examination of their alleged pedigree
shows that, like many other popular traditions of this kind, this account of their origin
must be altogether fictitious. They state that a prince named ' Khattya,' reigning in
Rajputana, was compelled to yield up one of his sisters in marriage to the emperor of
Delhi. After brooding for some time over this great outrage to Rijput honour, he contrived
to assemble a large army with which he attacked the imperial forces : he was, however,
overcome by superior numbers, and was made a prisoner after nearly all his adherents had
been slain. Ho was then conducted with great honour to the Court of Delhi, where the
emperor treated him with kindness, and at last induced hira to embrace the Muhammadan
faith, and placed under his charge an important post near the Court. Some time afterwards
he was sent with a force to subdue a portion of the Ravi tribes who had risen in insur-
rection, and after conquering them was so much attracted by the beauty of the country,
that he remained and received a grant of the whole tract for himself and his descendants.
All the Kathias claim descent from this prince, but, unfortunately for the credibility of this
story, the only way that his 8,00(J descendants manage to arrange the matter is by assuming
that the prince had no less than 150 sons; whilst in a pedigree prepared by the chief
Mirasi of the tribe, in which the increase of offspring in the different generations is arranged
with more accordance to probability, the line is only brought down to a few of the principal
families of the tribe.

" In their habits the Kathias differ little from the other Jat tribes. Before the accession
of Ranj It Singh they lived chiefly on cattle grazing and plunder. Like the Kharrals and
Fattianas they still keep up Hindu paro/u7s, who take a prominent part at all marriage
festivities, an undoubted sign of their conversion to Muhammadanism having been of recent
date. They are n handsome and sturdy race, and like nearly all Jats of the ' Great Ravi '
do not allow their children of either sex to marry until they have attained the age of
puberty, because, as they justly consider, too early marriages would be detrimental to the
'physique' of the race. Their chief and favourite article of food is buttermilk; the
consumption of wheat among them is very inconsiderable."

Mr. Purser, Iiowever, gave a somewhat different account of their
migrations. He said : —

" The Kathias have been identified with the ' Kathaioi ' of Alexander's time. According
to their account they are descended from Raja Karan, Sdrajbansi, Originally they resided
in Bikaner, whence they emigrated and founded the State of Kathiawan From there they
went to Sirsa and then to Bahawalpur. Next they crossed over to Kabula and went on to









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Kathura — Kdiil. 488

Daira Dinpanah. Here they quarrelled with the Balochis and had to leaTe. They then
settled at Mi'rah Sial in Jhang. They stole the cattle of A14wal Khan of Karailia, who wai
killed pursuing them. Saadat Yar Khan obtained the release of their leaders (who were
imprisoned on account of this al!air) on condition of their settling on the Ravi. Thus the
Kathias obtained a footing in this District. They always held by the Kamalia Kharrals,
but plundered the others whenever they could get a chance. The Kathias arc Punwar
Rajputs. There are two main divisions ; the Kithias proper and the Baghelas.' *



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