H. Biglow.

The American monthly magazine and critical review online

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floating. Potarcwrmcohr^ rounded very
flat nearly entire, smooth, daric greeo
above, sienna brown beneath. Next tie
the genus Rmilaria of Rotfi, differing
by epidermis only above, &c.

I remain, respectfully, Gentlemen,
Your corresponding member,
C. 8. RAFINESQUE.

For the American J\tonM^ Msgazine and
Critical Review.

Facte concerning the Emgre^Ung of the

Spure of Co^ upontfuir Cot^, By

SamutUL.Jitit€kiU. Bead to the L^

ceum,Jtme 15, 1818.

Capt Shaw brought from New-Orieans,
in May, 1818, to New- York, a Bani-
door-Cock (Phasianus gallus,) &at was
reported to bear upon his head a pair of
horns. ^

I was requested to see the bird, and I
availed myself of the epportuni^ to ex-
amine the head, in the most satisfiictoiy
manner.

There were two excrescences of a
homy nature, about three inches kNig,
and of a curved tfiguro. They inc^ned
to the right and l^ft one each way. Tbety
did not grow side and side, but one was ia
front of the oUier.

They were not attached to the slraJI,
but Were merely rooted in the flesh of tfan
comb. In this, h<iwever, they had takes
finn root, and had derived abnndant
nourishment from the blood vessels.

I became satisfied that the bonis ai
they were called, and believed by the
owner to be, wero the spurs of another
cock, that had been'araputated and trans-
planted. In their living and bleeding stale
it is easy to comprehend how the wound-
ed suri^ices may have united by the &at
intention, and the spurs of one oock
grow upon the comb of another, as th*
teeth of one human being may bo asso-
ciated with the'jaw of another.

It is worthy of remaiic in the present
ease, that the inoeulated or transplantod
spurs, had received nouridunent and ac«
quired growth, in their new sitnatioR.
They were longer and stouter than the
leg-spurs of the individual oock himself i
aikl indeed of any oock I had ever aeen.
They were abo more crooked, and less
pointed. Their fimn and nuignitiide had
i)oth been changed by their translatioii
from the legs to the eooib.

The bird was four ^ears eild, and per^
kciij healthy. . B» appeanoce ««i



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The appearances were, in all the me-
norable particiilaiv, exactly like diete
which I obeenred in the cock brought last
aunmier, from New-Oiieant, by Mr. Gi-
raud, to New-Ymrk. In that breed, all
the facts and ciiciiniitances were sub-
stanttally the same as in this. The boniB
were loose in the comb, and had no con-
nection with the cranium. Their size
and fi^re, however, were somewhat
changed from spurs. The health was
good, and the most striking incident was
the whimsical appearance.

It would appHur probable from these
two cases, that there is an operator in
Louisiana, who is very sucoeasftd in
these experiments npon cooks.

0n the Mmgrel Race§ of JhdmdU. In a
XAUerfrmn Dr, AUen^ of Onondago^
to Dr. JdUehUL Read htfort the Ly-
eemh J^''^ ^^^ 1B18.
DnABSm,

I cannot forbear to give you an ae«
eountof a singularphenomenon in natural
Instory, well knowing your attachment
to every cirouastance of philosophioal
research. Sometime in the spring, now
past, a sow, the property of a Mr. Reed,
within two miles of this place, was de*
livered of a litter of animals, the ap-
pearance of whkh, has excited much
j|ieeuiation and surprise. The litter con*
•isted of six in number, one of which was
a perfect pig in every respect excepting
one of the hind feet, which instead of a
hoof,. terminated with three claws resem-
bling a dog's.

The other is?e were perfect dpgs, at
to feet, tail, hair, shape, l»3. to the foro-
sboolders which resembled a pig**; the
.head was short like a dog's, the eyes and
nose exactly in appearance like a pig^ ex-
cept as I observed befere, rather shorter.
They resembled a pig in nothing, except
the shape of the nose, the appearance of
the eyes, and the shape of the. fore-
dionkhBrs ; they were all bom alive, four
ef them died in ffileen minutes. But the
most perfect of the dop and the pig,
Hved and sucked until several hours
elapsing, were killed by the owner, and
to aH appearance would have lived to
arrive at maturity. The sow was a likely
voungwhite animal, this being her first
utter, and was put with a male equally weU
formed and handsome. About the time
she went to the male, the owner had a
bitch, and the yard waa frequented iot
% jHimber of n^hts^ bgr niunbeia of d<^



these were alkte oiremnataaottioow,
recollect attending.

I regret I was unable to dissect those
animals, in order to ascertain their analo-
gy to either class of animal in the viscera.
Thisisasirople statement of the fects, I foN
b^r to comment in the least, mean time
I should be happy (should your avoca-
tions admit,) to receive your opinion on
the snbriect, so much out of the common
order of the nature of the brute creatio^,
and on the union of two animals so dissimi-
lar in their habits and nature. Accept,
sir, the assurance of my particular regard
and esteem, .

Your obedient servant,
JAME& MEASE ALLEN, M. Dr

S. L. MzTCffiLL. M. D.
Clintonviliey Onondaga County^ JV*. F*

June 6t4, 1818.

Description of a Phoca VUuUna^ or Com*
mon Seal of the Long-hland and JV>i^-
York CoaH. By Samuel L. MUchilL

Account of a Seal or Phoca^ caught at

Sottth-Amboy, near Mw'Yorky June

13, 181J{.

The length was 5 feet and 6 inches, and
the girth around the thorax 4 feet and
4 inches.

There were no external ears, but only
orifices for admitting sounds through the
air and the water, in which the creature
subsisted by turns.

The animal could live more than three
minutes under water, without breathing.
To enable it to sustain itself in this way,
the extremity of the snout was so con-
tracted as ta enable the nostrils to be ac-
curately closed at pleasure, and thereby to
exclude the liquid element.

The back was of a dusky or iron gray
when out of water and dry ; though much
darker when immerged. Belly whitish
gray, or dirty white. Both have an un-
dulated varicf^ation of hue, in a trans-
verse direction. Under the chin and
along the throat, the hair is rather longer,
and approaches nearer to a cream colour.

Head and face roundish. Neck thick
and round, though susceptible of much
elongation and contraction. Whiskers
stifi^ thick and plaited in five or six rows.

Eyesglobose, nearly black, apdcapable
of being accurately covered by the lids.
Above each eye a patch of about &ve
bristles.

The anterior extremities about ten
inches loi^f, and capable of being em-
^oyed to scratch the head and the side.
They are capable of beii^ so expanded
•a to answer tlK double puipose of feet



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and fiof : hare on eaefa fi^diatiftct white
nails, obliquely dtuated. Betembie tho
fins of tbo marine tortoise. The postenor
extremities terminal, and webbed like the
feet of a water fowl. When at rest, their
fioles touch each other. There are on
each five nails, the middle one of which
ts situated on a toe-shorter than the rest.
Tail flat and tapering, but not more
than four inches laog.



Mouth capacions, teeth sanSSk and sharp.
The creature devours herrings witir vo>>
racity. Two teats on the ahdomcD,
which are retracted within the skin*.

There are several varieties, such as
that found in the gulf of Bothnia^ in lake
Baikal of Siberia, in the Caspian sea^
imd in the ocean, ifwn especially the
Berth Atlantic, aad of veiy different t '
and colours.



A«T. 4. ORIGINAL COMMUNICATIONS.



Tke Protcrest of the Human Mnd from
Rvdenem to Refinement ; exemplified in
an Account of the Method purtued by
Colonel Benjamin Hawkiniy under the
Auihorily <y the Oovemment of ike
United Statee^ to cwUite certain Tribee
of Savages within their Territory:
drawn up by Sawiuel Lt. JUitchiU^
Jf. z>. lL Z). S^. ^c.

THE war which in 1814 led the inha-
bitants of Tennessee and Greoigia,
to destroy, in their own defence, a con-
siderable part of the Creek nation, has
been interpreted by some persons as
proving the inutility of attempts to civil-
ize savages. Tliis conclusion is incorrect.
The Cberokees have been initiated into
the arts of improved, life as well as the
Oreeks ; and yet the Creeks gnly have
engagied in hostility against the United
States. There nrnst therefbne have been
6ome other cause than the iessons they
have learned from our ^ents. And this
waj probably the instigation of our secret
and avowed enemies. •

Until this extirminating warfare arose,
the great problem of civilising the abo^
rigines was believed by many to have
been in a fair way of being solved, or
rattier that it was already solved in the
United States. The subjects of this phi-
{anlhropie and . instructive experiment
(Were the Creeks and Cberokees. The
ibrjfner of these nations of Indians came
from the west of the MississippL , There
is a tradition among ^heni, that there are
in the fork of Rcd-Ri«^er, two mounds of
earth, and that at that place the Cussa-
tulis, Cowetuhs and Chickasaws found
themselv^; that being distressed by wars
with red-men, their forefathers crossed
the Mississippi, and travelling eastivard,
they passed the falls of Tallapoosa a^ve
Tookaubatche, and settled below the ra-
pids of Chatapooche. Hence they spread
out to Ocmulgee, Oconee, Savannah, and
down the sea coast towards Charleston,
where they first saw white people. Bjr



those they were resisted and conpefled
to retreat to their present setUements.

This nation possessed a traet of com*
try about tliree hundred miles square. It
is for soil aad climate, as well as natural
advantages in general, not surpassed
perhaps oy any spot of equal extent, upon
the face of the earth. The nuniber of
warriors at the last enumeration aKnount-
ed to about four thousand Their settle*
ments have been surrounded for many
yean hv the Americans, the French,
Spaniards and English. They werv
tempted in various ways to be concerned
in the leagues and stratagems of tfaesr
neighbours, who wished to get poosoiiion
of their lands. They, heiwever, generBl*>
ly conducted themselves with renmkablt
prudence, and avoided such alliances as
might implicate them in depopulating
wars. Accordingly, they preserved their
national existence, and at the commence-
ment of our federative government, at-
tracted a laige and early attention.

The greatness of thehr numbers, the
value of their lands, and their contiguity
to the colonies of the enterprising nations
of Europe, made it necessary to have
a seasonable and full exptanation with
them. At that time Geoi^ Washing-
ton-was President of the United States;
and the Creeks were in an hostfle roood^
Congress was sitting in the -city of New-
York; and the prinoipaA subject then
under consideration was, whether they
should be treated by forcible and warlike
operations, or by gentle and pttcHm
means. The considerate etatesmen of
the United States were divided in opinion
<m these peints. 'Some were in iavonr of
the exterminating, and others of the eon-
ciliatcM^y plan. Among the Hatter was
Benjamin Hawkins, then a Senator in
Cong^ress from North Carolina, who
dissuaded in strong terms the^pn^t of
hostile operations. against the Creeks. By
his interference a military expedition was
withheld until a n^^tiator could bnj



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into Che oflttum, and invite ibem to a
peacefal |>arley. The oian selected for
tikis aerviee wa0 Marinas WiUet He was
employed in preference to a clergyman
whom it was original^ intended to send.
WiUet penetrated tbev eomtry, obtained
a hearings, and brought with hi» M'Gil-
liyray, and a depntatioD of the nation to
New-York^ Here a troaty was held, and
a peace established in the year 1794.

The meditated war harrag thus fiuled,
the next Uiing to be done was to regulate
trade and intercourse between the red
men and the white. For this purpose
Congress passed a law directing the man-
ner of dealing with them, delineated the
boundaries, and appointed an agent to
superintend the departmeat of Indian
sl^irs south of the river Ohia This was
during the administration of Mr. Adams.
Mr. Hawkins was appointed the manager
of tins business. He had previously act-
ed a distinguished part in several nego-
^tions with tlie natives, and had acquir*
ed mnch knowledge 'of their situation,
their wants, and the mode of doing busmess
with thera. Accepting the commission,
this gentleman left the Senate, quitted
polisl^ society, and entered upon the
arduous'work of protecting and civilising^
the Indians.

An undertaking of this sort ^as of lato
keen deemed chimerical or unpossible.
The labours of the zealous Jesuits and the
industrious Moravians bad so frequently
proved abortive, that few even of the
well wishets of the experiment entertain-
ed mneh expectation of its success. The
agent however was sang^ne in the cause,
«nd the government seconded his views.
In the covrse of about ten years,, he suc-
ceeded in advancing some of these peo-
ple « from the state of hunters to those
ef herdsmen, cultivators of the soil, and
manufacturers ; and the changes in their
moral, intellectual and social disposition,
have been effected withoni the assistance
of other missionaries, and of scholastic
or collegiate educatioiK Indeed Mr.
Hawkins entertained an o|nnion that an
introduction to the mysteries of religion^
and an acquaintance with the intricacies
of literature, ought to foUow, and not pre-^
cede, an initiation into the more useful
and necessary arts, such, for exampft^ aa
those of procuring food and clothes..

This active reformer did not commence
his undertakings by teaching his pupils
the shapes and sounds of letters in the al-
phabet, nor the dogmas and doctrines in
the catechism. He omitted these things
altogether ; or rather he studiously for-
bade their introdnctioii* He adhmd to



a rule of interdiction agahist allj>reach»
ers of every sect, from holding converse
with the Creeks, but treated members of
the chmxh with great pohteness, in other'
r»pects, whenever they visited the agent
at the fectory ; and for several years, the
alarms of the natives were not excited by
the discipline and lessons of scboolmastersJ
When Mr. H. first presented himself
among the Indians, and talked to the as-
sembled chiefs on his project of civilizing^
^m, they replied to him in the most in-
snltiofi: terms, reprobated his scheme with
great bitterness ; and concluded by utter-
inr sounds of the most contemptuous sig-
nincation around the circle.

After their disgust and merriment had
in some measure subsided, he told them in
a mild and frank discourse, thnt he was
now done with the men ; but that, as he
was by no* means discouraged, be should
quit them, aodaddress liinr.8elf to the other
sex. This he soon found means to ac-
complish ; and by soothing arts, by kind
treatment, and by assering them that he
could teach them how to procure plenty
of provisions and clothes with their own
bands, he gained the confidence of several
girls and women. To them he imparted
&e arts of cardmgy rpmnxng and tceac-
tBg ; and to these they became soon at-
tached, because petticoats, jackets and
other articles of dress could thereby be
easily procured.

But it was not possible to make all the*
females spinsters. Some for want of in
dination or opportunity, and others
through lack of machinery, could not
practise tho<«e domestic employments.
They still laboured, after the manner of
Indian women ; and among other occupa >
tions tended a little patch of maixe for sirb^
sistence. Finding that sometimes, the #o-
men had a surplus of corn, the agent^snext
point was to teach them to exchange it for:
something to make petticoats, and other
raiment With this view he instructed^
them in the use of measures, and these
he reduced to an intelligible value in
money. A 4>ushel of com, for example*
was valued at a^uerter of a ck>Uar ; and
where this precise coin was not at hapd,
the sign of it was a single White mark,'
called a cAo/A:. This word thence hecam^
a nominal coin, or rate of value % and
as a diaUc tfcom denoted a **- busliel," so
a chaOc of caHtVy kthneca, or any thing
else would signify as much of either of
these articleif as could he bcmght by a
quarter of » dollar, the estimated value
of a bushel of com.

Wliile this agent was proceeding hy
t|i^8e meaos to improve aihI enlax^e thfr



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Bkinds of^the Creeki, be was not ne^lect-
Ail of the use and applicatioo of «0ei($^.
He made fig^ores to illustrate the con-
fitruction of steelyards, on a piece of pa-
per. He explained this to one woman,
and after nmidog her comprehend it,
Itanded it to another. And by aacer^
tainin^ the wei^t of bogs, and other
things, which amd always to be sold by
tale, and reducing them to duUki or quar-
ter dollars, he made his learners under-
stand that a heavy hog was worth more
than a light one ; and by actually payfng
them in proportion to the weight, demon-
strated to tiiem ^e difference in value
between things heretofore rated alike.
This gare them great satisfaction, and
made them more careful to fat their hogs.
The like happened in respect to com.
This was formerly sold by the varying
quantity of a basket full, till Mr. H. in-
structed ihem in the use of an established
and unvarying measure, the half bushel ;
taught them to reduce such a measure to
a certain weight by the steelyard; and
then again to calculate this weight in
chalkt or quarter dollars.

At the same time, as much pains was
taken as possible to instruct the boys and
giris about the agent's house, and in his
family, in the practice of the English
tongue. In like manner the Indian chil-
dren who lived with his negroes, were
taught to speak our tong^ie. But all tbk
was accomplished by rote, and without
the sight or mention of a book.

Progressing in these ways, the spinning
and weaving of cotton increased rapidly.
There were in 1805, twefUy looms in the
lower, and ten among the upper towns.
Of the former, twelve were wrought by
Indians, and eight of titem were con-
structed by Indians. Of the latter, three
were worked by natives, and tliree were
built by them. Three of the looms in the
Upper towns were kept agoing by whits
Women for a toll which was fixed at every
fifth yard. The women on the Flint rber
had then applied for fifty additional spin*
ning wheels. And such was^e power of
example prompted bv in|prest, that some
old men and boys learned to spin and
aeemed to take pleasure in the exercise.
& the upper towns there was at that tim#
t demand for five more looms and one
hundred and fi^ more spinning wheels.
Several men of the half breed, had both
Constructed looms and wove cloth in them,
with their own hands.

Encouraged by these prospects aad
successes, the women appointed a time
nnd solicited a talk with the agent. They
appointed ofte of their venerable matre^^



to ddiver the talk to bin in Oieir behalC
He met them, and in the assembly of tbt
women, was thus addressed i «< Father,
we women are poor and finlish ; but yvn^
as our great Ihtber, will excnse aox po-
verty, and pardon our folly. When wyfte
men have come into o^ nation, thc^
have never studied the good of the women«
nor endeavoured to b^er their oppressed
ooodition. All they have hitherto done it
to make onr situation more wretched*
They have empbyed every art to raise
and shorts onr petticoats, and have
thereby leftns more exposed and naked
than they found us. But yon, father,
ooromiaerate our condition ; yon pity o«r
nakedness and weakness ; you say you
will instmct us to cover ourselves, and be
decent and warm ; you will enable ns to
support ourselves, so tliat we and oor
children shall be in no danger of starv-
ing in the swamps. You come to lengthen
our petticoats, and extend them ever ua
from tlie hips to the ancles. Father, we
wfll folloir your advice i speak and we
win obey."

He by degprees encouraged ^emm to
spKt rails, to make fences of them, to in-
close their fields, and to till them with
their own hands ; himself showing them
how, and by his example, convincing
them that it was at once respectable anji
useful. Among the Creeks there was a
peculiar difficulty inovercoming the aver-
sion of the men to labour. Inured aiteF-
nately to hunting, indolence and war^
they threw all the toil of domestic afiadrs,
the carrying of burthens and the dradgerj
of life upon their females. It was thete-
fbre a hard lesson to make<lhe men work
at all; and particularly to assist the wo-
men in their laborloas occupations. The
men, however, had learned by this time,
tiiat as game grew soaroe in the forests^
the employments of the ffcmen and girls
turned to much better account than their
own, and that with their pigs, maiae and
cotton, the females had already rendered
themselves in a good degree independent
of the men. It was now that the agent
advised the young women to refuse favors
to their sweethes^, and the married wo-
inen to repeL the caresses of their hus-
bands, unless they would associate witk
then!, and 'assist tiaem in their daily la-
bours. This expedient though perhapa
not rigidly enforced, nor in all cases ad-
kered to, was however not without its ef-
fect in breaking the ferodty of the mas-
online temper, and reducing it to a milder
and softer tone.

To enforce the neeesiity of industiy,
Mr. H. avnUed^hkMif of the I



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of prcnrisioiis to give them an exhortation.
Some instances had been reported of chit-
dren dying of hunger, and partioularly,
of two little girls, as he was on bis way to
a conference with the chiefs. At the con-
ference, the subject was mentioned by
Mr. Cornells the interpreter, and after
jBome obserrations made by the chiefs,
Mr. H< stated that these events had made
a serious impression upon his mind, and
on the way to the conference he had put
the question to binnelf, who killed these
little girls ? This answer immediately ob-
truded itself; **You Mr. Hawkins, you
murdered these little girls. You Efau
Haiyo, Oche Haiyo, and Tushinroeggee
Tellico, you murdered these little girls.
¥du chiefe and rulers of the nation, you
murdered these little girls. In all coun-
tries it is the business of the rulers to
direct the labour of the community so
ifl to support the people, and if they ne-
glect to do it, they are answerable for the
consequences* If a bear, or any man, red
or white, had attempted to murder these
Mttle girls you would have risked your lives
indivKlually or collectively to save theirs.
And yet you would not exert yourselves
t6 destroy this enemy called fumger.^

The presenting the subject in this dress
caused some serious conversations among
tfie Indians, and the result was that they
would sow wheat, and exert themselves
to destroy the enemy called hunger.
Preparent to this they bad in 1 804, com-
mitted to the earth one hundred and
seventy-six bushels of seed ; this af-
£>rded an excellent crop, and was instru-
mental in saving several lives. The
a^nt furnished the seed from his own
stock. The wheat crop is ripe in May.
And the com crop, which in favourable
seasons is also exceedingly good, comes
to maturity in June.

The speaker of the nation has his farm
in gfood fence, staked and ridered. He
cultivates his whole c^p with the plough.
Last 3rear he planted «bout one hundred
and 6fty peach trees, and sowed three
bushels of wheat. He had also begun
the culture of cotton, and had a fine field
of it ; likewise a promising show of
com, potatoes, pumpkins, ground peas and
beans. He had nine females of his fami-
ly employed in spinning, and a loolfi in
his house with a spring shuttle. The like
was done by several other of the most
considerable men, who employed the
plough in agriculture, and clothed them*
selves in homespun.

j^eat cattle were owned in large num*

ben by tiie Indians. Several of them

have herds amonnting t» 1(K^| 600» 1000,

Vol. uu— No. f. 46



and even 2000 heads. They had become
very much attached to this kind of stock,
and took g-reat pains to procure them.
These creatures are computed to double
their numbers every three years. Their
owners exchange them with the Geor-
gians for cloths. Butter and cheese have
been made at more than an hundred
]:dace8. In 1804, (hese arts were rapidly



Online LibraryH. BiglowThe American monthly magazine and critical review → online text (page 73 of 99)