H. D. (Henry Duff) Traill.

Social England; a record of the progress of the people in religion, laws, learning, arts, industry, commerce, science, literature and manners, from the earliest times to the present day (Volume 3) online

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date of its first introduction: but it was certainly used medi-
cinally before that time. Under the year 1578 of his " Chrono-
logy," Harrison writes ' In these days, the taking-in of the
smoke of the Indian herb called Tabaco by an instrument

formed like a little ladle, whereby
it passeth from the month into
the head and stomach, is greatly
taken up and used in England,
against rheums and some other
diseases engendered in the lungs
and inward parts, and not without
effect." In 1587, he was com-
plaining of its want of efficacy,
due perhaps, he says, to the
'' repugnancy of our constitution
unto the operation thereof.
Spenser and Lilly write of it as
a drug ; Shakespeare, strange to
say, never mentions it.

It was Sir Walter Raleigh's
example that first made smoking
fashionable in England. In 15Sli,
three sea-captains had drawn
much attention to themselves bv
" drinking " tobacco in the streets
of London in the form of twisted

leaves or " segars." In ten years' time, to learn to " drink " or
" take " tobacco was a necessary part of a gentleman's education.
Lodge, in 159fi, speaks of the foolish fellow who will lug you
in his arms, kiss you on the cheek, and cry with an oath: "I
love you, you know, my poor heart. Come to my chamber for
a pipe of tobacco ; there lives not a man in this world that I
more honour." In 1698 Chamberlain 1 noted that certain
mad knaves took tobacco on the way to be hanged at Tyburn.
Raleigh, too, in the next reign, took a pipe of tobacco before

1 Letters, Camden Society, p. 25.

sut AV. RALEIGH'S rri>ES.

Collection, lln-tfnrtl

ISO 3 i




(Jf'i/7/i/ir i 'nlli'i iinn, Hertford House.)

he went to the scaffold, " which some formal persons were
scandalised at " ; but, says his biographer Aubrey, " I think

it was well and properly done to
settle his spirits."

The story that certain as-
tonished observers of Raleigh


smoking thought he was on fire,
and threw a pot of ale over him
to quench him, seems to be
apocryphal. In 1598 Hentzner,
a foreiq-ner on a visit to England.

O o

records that at the bear-baitings
and everywhere else the English
are constantly smoking " the
Nicotian weed," " and generally
in this manner : they have pipes
on purpose made of clay, into
the farther end of which they
put the dry herb, so dry that-

it may be rubbed into powder, and, lighting it, they draw

the smoke into their mouths, which they puff out again

through their nostrils like funnels, along with it plenty of

phlegm and defluxion from the head." 1 Soon after its intro-
duction, tobacco sold for

3s. an ounce at least 18s.

of our money. Every

fashionable smoker

carried much elaborate

apparatus in the form of

tongs, priming-irons, and

the like. Aubrey says

that pipes were at first

made of silver, and that

the poor were content

with a walnut- shell and

a straw. One pipe often

had to suffice for several,

and was handed round the table. Some landladies hired out

pipes at 3d. the pipeful. By the beginning of the seventeenth

1 Rye. p. 216.

EARLY PIPES. (Guildhall Museum).

(By permission of the Library Cniinnitti-i- to the
Corporation of the City of London.)



century smoking began to be bitterly opposed, especially by
the Puritans, and in 1(>02 " Work for Chimney-sweepers, or
a Warning for Tobacconists " was written and ' answered. ' It
was the smokers who were called " tobacconists." l

Besides smoking and going to plays, a man of fashion had

many other means, innocent or the reverse, of making time pass

quickly. The order of the day for an idler, Sir John Harrington

3 us, was chess m the morning ; after dinner, cards ; then to

exercise the arms, dice ; to exercise the body, tennis ; Avarmed'by

this, he will cool himself at the " tables," backgammon, shovel-

board, or billiards ; and, tired out with them, go to a play or an

interlude probably an evening performance at a private theatre.

In one of Davies' "Epigrams" an idler's life is sketched

thus :

"First, he doth lise at ten; and at eleven

He goes to ' Gyls,' where he doth eat till one ;

Then sees a play till six, and sups at si- veil ;

Aud after supper straight to bed is gone :

And there till" next day he doth remain,

And then he dines, and sees a Comedy,

And then he sups, and goes to bed again :

Thus round lie runs without variety."

u-as the restaurant or "ordinary," probably near St.

Giles, ^Cripplegate. In choosing his "ordinary," Dekker, in

Gull's Horn-book," written early in the next reign, recom-

mends the gallant to seek that of the largest reckoning. A

shilling dinner was a good one ; the lawyer's was threepence.

Much time could be spent at the barber's especially when
long hair and love-locks came in fashion at the end ' of the
reign. The cuts of beards were various, and the barber would
ask: 'Will you be trimmed to look fierce or pleasant?"
Moustachios we re curled up like two horns, if possible, to reach
the forehead, the countenance was washed with sweetballs, and
then to Stubbes' regret the barber refused to say what his
charge was.- J n dress, no change in general character dis-
tinguishes the end of the reign from the beginning : but
the changes in detail were unceasing.

Sports and games were not in vogue among Londoners
as they were in the country; bowling,' gambling, and dicing

1 Fairholt, " Tobacco : Its History and Associations." 2 Stubbes. Part ii. :.l.




had in great measure supplanted them. Riding was the chief sports
exercise, and archery was still practised in London for exercise
and amusement. As all men carried daggers and every fashion-
able man a rapier, fencing and sword-exercise were much taught.
In 1565 the Queen issued a proclamation to limit and control
the "schools of fence," in which "the multitude and the com-
mon people " were being taught " to play at all kinds of
weapons," and the size of the rapier and dagger was regulated.
To the end of the reism the

streets were thronged with

serving- men



their lord's badge, and read}
to tight their lord's street-
battles. A " good fellow," a
" merry Greek," was always
" a sinful, brawling, quarrel-
some tighter."

The Regent Street of
Elizabethan London was
Cheapside - - a tine, broad,
paved street, containing, on
its south side, the tine set
of houses called Goldsmiths'
Row. Holborn was the
Elizabethan Kensington,
boasting of gardens and fresh
air. A " church parade " was
held every day in " Paul's
Walk," the nave of St. Paul's
Cathedral, a sanctuary for
debtors. Here the fashionable tailor took his order, and jotted
down the measurements behind a convenient pillar. Hither The
men went to display their clothes : and here the well-dressed
man must have a care to the slide of his cloak from the
shoulder, and, if its lining were rich, must mind he clutch it
behind his back as if in a great rage. Another sanctuary for
fraudulent debtors was Whitefriars or Alsatia, and here the
outcasts of society congregated. There were many fashionable
houses in the neighbourhood of Mark or Mart Lane (Fenchurch
Street) for instance. Sir Francis Walsingham's and one of

THE CUCKIXG STOOL. (Ipsirirh Museum.)
(From a photograph lj F. Woolnough, Es^.;

7Si> niK EX l'.\. \HION OF ENGLAND.


Essex's houses in Seething Lane. Burghley's house was in
the Strand, and there also was Leicester's afterwards occupied
by Essex.

Shops. Each trade occupied its own quarter of the town, and every

shop had its own signboard. The haberdashers and mercers
were in the tine houses on London Bridge the only bridge.
The grocers were in Bucklersbury ; the butchers, tavern-keepers
and cooks in Eastcheap (where Falstaffs inn, the Boar's Head,
stood). The actors' tavern, the Mermaid, was in Cheapside.
The booksellers were in St. Paul's Churchyard. A number <t
good shops were placed in the upper storeys of the new Royal
Exchange ; but those on the ground floor proved a failure, as it
was too dark. Most shops, except the goldsmiths', were still
without glass windows ; and, accordingly, little display was
possible. The noise and dirt of the London streets were much
complained of; the Thames, too, was dirty, and the smell ac-
quired by clothes which had been washed in it was notorious
Familiar sights in London streets were the conduits of water
flowing at the junction of thoroughfares, the water-carriers or
" cobs " with their casks of water, selling to those who preferred
not to go to the conduit for it, and in certain well-known
places the apparatus for the punishment of criminals adorned
the streets ; on Cornhill were the stocks, pillory, and cage : by
Thames-side the cucking-stools for scolds ; and on London
Bridge, in 1598, thirty traitors' heads were still fixed on one
of the towers.

Riding and rowing were the ordinary means of transit.
The fashionable gentleman never walked anywhere, lest his
brilliant shoes should suffer. The riverside was lined with
landing-places, and, according to Harrison, 2,000 wherries were
kept upon it, and 3,000 poor men maintained themselves by

The sights The sights in and around London which were most attractive
of London. to visitors were the monuments of Westminster and St. Paul's,
which were explained by showmen, the view of London from
the top of St. Paul's damaged steeple, on payment of one penny
(and here Dekker recommends his " Gull " to carve his name
in the leads), and also the armour and animals in the Tower.
The primitive Zoological Gardens at the Tower contained, in
1598, three lionesses, one lion, a tiger, a lynx, a wolf, a





porcupine, and an eagle, all kept in a remote place, " fitted up
for the purpose with wooden lattices at the Queen's expense." '
Hampton Court and Windsor Castle were much visited. Those
who cared for music went to evening prayer at St. Paul's, where
a delightful organ was played and accompanied with other
instruments. English choral singing was famous.

In the chapel of Windsor Castle the Duke of Wiirtemheig
listened " for more than an hour to the beautiful music, the
usual ceremonies, and the English sermon. The music
especially the organ, was exquisitively played, for at times you
could hear the sound of cornets, flutes, then fifes and other
instruments; and there was likewise a little boy who sang so
sweetly amongst it all, and threw such a charm over the
music with his little tongue, that it was really wonderful to
listen to him." Fiddling in taverns, bands in theatres, and
ballad-singing in the streets, provided music for the poor.
The ballad-singer's auditory, "which hath at Temple Bar his
standing chose, and to the vulgar sings an alehouse story," is
described at length by Sir John Davies:

" First stands a porter, then an oyster-wife
Doth stint her cry and stays her stops to hear him ;
Thou comes a cut-purse, ready with a knife "

to detach the tempting hanging-pocket everybody wore : and
by him stands the constable, never thinking of the arrest he
should be making. The English were reported by Hentzner
in 151)8 to be "vastly fond of great noises that fill the ear,
such as the firing of cannon, drums, and the ringing of bells :
so that in London it is common for a number of them, that
have got a glass in their heads, to go into some belfry and ring
the bells for hours together for the sake of exercise." At the
tavern-suppers of the wealthy the favourite music was that of
the cornet and sackbut.

The great duties of country women were good housewifery
and hospitality, but in London hospitality was neglected. Men
of all ranks dined at the ordinary and supped at the tavern,
and in London, "where every man is for himself and no
man for all," Harrison complains that men excuse their
niggardliness on the ground of little room. " Tn reward of a

1 Rye, p. 207. 2 Cro\vley, "Select Works." p. 11.




fat capon, or plenty of beef and mutton largely bestowed upon
them in the country," in London " a cup of wine or beer,
with a napkin to wipe the lips, and an ' You are heartily
welcome,' are thought to be a great entertainment." The

(The Victoria and Albert Museum.)

marketing was left freely in the hands of the married women.
Of them a Dutchman writes:

" They are well dressed, fond of taking it easy, and commonly leave the
3are of household matters and drudgery to their servants. They sit before
iheir doors, decked out in fine clothes, in order to see and be seen of the
passer-by. In all banquets and feasts they are shown the greatest honour.
They employ their time in walking and riding, in playing at cards, visiting
their friends, making merry with them at child-births, christenings,



churchings, and funerals ; and all this with the permission and k
of their husbands, as such is the custom. This is why England is called the
paradise of married women. The girls who are not yet married are kept
much more rigorously and strictly than in the Low Countries " (Rye, p. I :!).

England was called the purgatory of servants and the hell
of horses, because servants were treated with arrogance and
horses were hard-worked. The paradise of married women
was, perhaps, not entirely free from the note of monotony, and
to vary the employments paradise provided, card-playing was
much in vogue. Harrington l argues that men and women
should be allowed to play cards, since men cannot be always
conversing nor women always " pricking in clouts." The Queen
had in her own life set an example of diligent application to
study, which at the beginning of her reign was followed, but
in 15IS7 Harrison distinguishes the "ancient" ladies of the
Court " who shun idleness, who work or read the Scriptures,
our own or foreign histories, write volumes of their own, or
make translations into English or Latin," from the youn^r " who

o i/

apply their time to lutes, citherns, pricksong, and all kind of
music for recreation's sake."

According to Stubbes, young unmarried women loved " to
show coyness in gestures, mincedness in words and speeches,
gingerliness in tripping on toes like young goats, demure
nicety and babyishness," when they went out with their silk
scarves " cast about their faces fluttering in the wind, or riding
in their velvet visors, with two holes cut for the eyes/' 2
Much immorality resulted from the child-marriages common
Hi fashionable life. The use of masks in public places, which
became general at the close of the reign, did not tend to
improve, the moral tone of the upper classes.

The element of sham in Elizabethan society was large,
but perhaps it was little more than superficial. Like the
Queen's false hair and painted face, and like her lies and equivo-
cations, they were shams that deluded no one. Harrington, the
Queen's favourite godson, thus lashes the weaknesses of him-
self and his fellows " We go brave in apparel that we may
be taken for better men than we be, we use much bombastings
and quiltings to seem better framed, better shouldered, smaller
waisted, and fuller thighed than we are, we barb and shave oft

1 " Xug-ae Antiquae," I., p. 200. 2 Cf. Hamlrt, Act III., Sc. 1.




to seein younger than we are, we use perfumes both inward
and outward to seem sweeter, wear corked shoes to seem
taller, use courteous salutations to seem kinder, lowly obeis-
ance to seem humbler, and grave and godly communication to
seem wiser and devouter than we be." l

It was a worldly age, an age that was, before all, practical

4. L -V

f liijjiji^! I '.' * ' ' J ' - ' - -T^ I -

(From, a, woodcut of 1603.)

practical and worldly even in its views of religion. " I care
not what you talk to me of God, so as I may have the prince
and the laws of the realm on my side," said an Englishman
who had lately returned from Italy. Perhaps his view was
exceptional, for the proverb runs "An Englishman Italian ate
is a devil incarnate." Though crowds went to hear sermons

1 "Nugae Antiquae," I., p. 209.

788 /'///; h'XI'ANSION OF ENGLAND.

because to do so was fashionable, there were some who
lamented that godlessness also was the fashion. There was
plenty ol spiritual allusion in conversation, even in Parlia-
mentary debate, but on the whole, Elizabethan spirituality
confined itself to words. It remained for the Puritan revo-
lution to sweep away the outward signs of worldliness, the
bombastings, quiltings, perfumes, and corked shoes, and to do
what was possible to bring genuine religious feeling home to
the heart of man.

AUTHORITIES, 1584-1603.


The principal authorities are the same as those given in Chap. XI., with the sub-
stituti iii for the Calendar of MSS. at Hatfield House of Motley's History of the
United X< tlicrlnnds. For Queen Elizabeth's last years, and most of the period
between the end of Froude's History and the beginning of Gardiner's, see M. A. Sharp
Hume, TrcitKon and Plot, 1901. On the defeat of the Spanish Armada, consult the
volumes issued by the Navy Records Society.


Religion. Beside the authorities named in the text, the edit' rial prolegomena
of Keble to bis edition of Hooker, and of Arber to his of the Marprelate Tracts, will
be found useful. See also Perry, History of the Church of England ; Heylin,
History i if tlte Presbyter//; Maskell, Martin Mar prelate. With regard, in especial,
to th-f controversy as to Church government, the following may be added : State
Papers, Domestic; Hatfield House MSS.; Prothero's Selection of <',,,islitutii,iial
Documents, 1 559- 1603 ; Strype's Memorials, 6 vols. ; do. Aimals, 7 vols. ; do. Lirrx
of Cranmer, Parker, Whitgift, and other ecclesiastical dignitaries (reprinted at Oxford
1812-1828); Ziirieh Letters -Parker Soc.), 4 vols.; Neal, History of the Puritans;
Marsden, Early Puritans; Gilbert W. Child, Church and Statr mn/i r tin Tailors.

JJ'nrfare. Grose, Military Antiquities; Longman, Archery; Fortescue, Hisfor//
of tin 1 Urilisk Army, I., among modern books; for original sources Sir J. Smythe,
Discourses, 1590 ; H. Barwick, Brief Discourse, 1594 ; Sir Roger Williams, Jir'uJ
Discourse of It'nt; 1590.

The .Vary. See list appended to Chap. IX. ; also Corbett, Life of Drake ; Edwards,
Life of Raleigh ; Oppeuheim, History of the Nary and Merchant S/nj>jiin// ; and
Laird Clowes, History of the Royal Xury.

liiscorcry and Exploration, 1558-1603. Hakluyt, Voyages; Purch;:s, Pifyrims ;
Harrisse, 1'oyages ; Original works of Elizabethan travellers not in Hakluyt.
e.g. Fletdi T, /{nss foinnmnicraltli ; Works of Jerome Horsey; Parry, Tracel* of Sir
Anthony Klur/ey m /'crsift, etc.: early r< cords of East India Company; Bancroft,
Histnrii at' .1 iiii'rica, Vol. I.; Brown, Genesis of the United Xf,/frs .- Elphiustoue,
Jirifis/i I'mi-ir in India ; Fox Bonnie, English Kraium under the Tudnrs.

EeniKin/ii' History, Sanitary Seifm-i . and Sm-iaf Lift; As ill Chap. XI. For theahical
matters, (iiidertx. Zur Kenntniss der alt-englischen liiilnte, 1888.

Inland. Set- list appended to Chap. XI. ; Paeata Hihirnia, ed. 1810 : Bagwell,
Ireland under the Tudors ; and Kilkenny, Archaeological Journal, 1856-57, p. -"><>.


Abel, Thomas, 150

Actors, earnings of 776; licences to, 771;
rendezvous t>f, at " The Mermaid," 782

Act of Royal Supremacy, 427

Act of Uniformity, 430

Acts against Witchcraft, 447

Acts conferring Church property on
Crown, 430

Admiral, badge of, 109

Admiral, Lord High, powers of, 108; pay of,
in 1575, 642

Admiralty, origin of, 108; Board of, begins,

" Advertisements " of 1566, 432, 587

Africa, trade with, 309, 310, 326; voyages to
Guinea, 655, 656; Cape of Good Hope,
English voyage round, 662; minor
voyages to (15911593), 696, note

African Company, 741

Agricultural Counter-Revolution, the, 728

Agriculture (15091547), 150156; (1547
1558), 346348; (1558 1584), 478^489;
(15841603), 728736; enclosures, 346
348, 355 seq. ; decay of, after dissolution
of monasteries, 485; recovery, 486; en-
couragement of, under Elizabeth, 730;
improvements in, 730, 731, 735; writers
on, in 16th cent., 486

Ague, 369 seq.

Alchemy, 448-^52

Aldersey, Lawrence, explorer, 658

Alencon, Duke of, 525

Algebra, 455

Alien Immigration, 498501

Aliens (see Foreigners)

Allen, Rose, martyr, 282

Alsatia (debtors' refuge), 781

America, effect of discovery of, on com-
merce, 174; on English towns, 175 seq. ;
voyages to (15271553), 311; (Virginia).
voyages to, 684, 691 seq. ; (Guinea) 695
seq. ; minor voyages to (15911597), 696,
note ; colonisation of, 683, 684, 691 seq.

Amicable loan of 1525, 16, 17 seq.

Amiens. Treaty of (1527), 19

Amusements of Tudor period, 204 seq., 208,
234; of 16th and early 17th centuries,
516; of Elizabethan reign, 535539;
Elizabethan London, 781; Scottish, in
15th cent., 396

Andre, Bernard, 134

Anglicanism, growth of (c. 1600). 606

Annals, Irish, 400

Annates, 61, 62; under Mary, 256

Anne Boleyn, Queen, 44; Coronation of,

Anne of Cleves, 51, 52; marriage annulled,
78; portrait of, and Henry VIII., 341

Antwerp, English trade with, 298, 502;
effect of sacking of, 740

Apprentices, attack of, on aliens (1517). 158,
210; dress of, 534; Statute oi, 495 seq.,
741, 756, 757

Archery in war, 96; as pastime, 781; de-
cline of, 624, 630; in Scotland, 556

Architecture and Art (15091558), 330345;
under Elizabeth, 435 439

Arians burnt under Edward VI., 264

Ark Royal, the warship, 636

Armada, the Spanish, conflict with, 570
575; relative strength of contending
fleets, 633 seq. features of the contest,
635, 636; sanitary state of, 768

Armour, under Henry VIII., 96; under
Elizabeth, 623, 624

Army under Henry VIII., 90 seq.

Army, the Elizabethan, 620, 621

Art. See Architecture and Art

Articles: Eleven (1509), 432; Cranmer'S
Forty-two, 260; Whitgift's Fifteen (1583),
598; Whitgift's Twenty-four "of en-
quiry," 598; Thirty -nine (1563), 419, 432,

Artillery under Henry VIII., 98; at Pinkie,
290; in rebellions (15471558), 294;
naval, 632

Ascham, Roger, on education, 126, 136;
quoted, 528, 533; his "Schoolmaster,"
456 seq.

Aske, Robert, 48, 50

Askew, Anne, 56

Astrology, 453

Authorities (15091547), 248250; (1547
1558), 415; (15581584), 565; (15841603),

Ayala, his description of Scotland quoted,
392, 394

Ayr, 551

Rablngton Plot, 252, 569

Babylon, Eldred's journey to, 658

Backstaff, the, 642

Bacon. Francis, view of English prose, 724

Baker, Robert, voyage to Guinea, 655

Bancroft, Archbishop, defence of Epis-
copacy, 606, 609, 615

Banking, growth of, 744

Bankruptcy, Henry VIII. 's Statute of, 172

Barber Surgeons, Guild of, 198

Barbers, in Elizabethan London, 780

Barclay, Alexander, 133 sea

Bards, Irish, 406

Barker, Andrew, 652

Barlings Abbey, 70

Barnes, Robert, 115

Barrowe, Henry, 592

Barter, prevalence of, under Henry VIII.,

BATESON, M. : Social Life (15091558), 201
248; Manners and Costume (15581584).
523547; Social Life i!584 1603), 771768

" Battle of the Spurs " (1513), 2

Bear and bull baiting, 536, 537



Beards, 212

BEAZLEY C. I: \YMOND: Coming, the, of the
Krtcirmation, 22 43; Severance, the,

t'r Kome, 5862; Severance, the, and

the Krartion. 7782; Catholic Keaction,
the (15471558), 271282; Travel and Kx-
ploration (15121558), 301326; State,
the, and the Church (15581584), 421
435); Religious Strum:!. . the (1584
1603), 593610; Exploration under Eliza-
beth, 654698

Becon, attack on the clergy, 265

Beds, 546, 554

Beer, home-brewed, 540

Beggars, treatment of, 153, 158, 185, 269, 357.
See Vagabondage

Benefit of clergy limited (1532), 61; exten-
sion to illiterate peers, 246

Benevolences. 9, 10, 11

Benin, expedition to (1553), 326

Berkeley, Maurice, Earl of, and enclosures,

Berwick-on-T\veed, 377, 551

Bible, the English, 30, 31, 78, 81, 282287;
the Great, 78, 284; earliest English
Bibles specified, 283287

Bilson, Bishop, 618

Birmingham, 159, 176

Bishoprics, new, under Henry VIII., 73, 77

Bishops oppose Elizabeth, 430

Bocher, Joan, burnt for Arianism, 264

Bodenham, Roger, his voyage to the
Levant (1550). 309

Boleyn. See Anne Boleyn

Bonner, Edmund, Bishop of London. 78;
imprisoned under Edward VI., 260, 262:
restored, 276; and the persecutions, 275

Book of Common Prayer. See Prayer-book

Online LibraryH. D. (Henry Duff) TraillSocial England; a record of the progress of the people in religion, laws, learning, arts, industry, commerce, science, literature and manners, from the earliest times to the present day (Volume 3) → online text (page 65 of 68)