from the time he was fed. On September 21st pig No. 9 died,
eighteen days after the feeding. Blood from his ear was exam-
ined and five slides put up in the forenoon of September 21st, in
all of which there was an abundance of the cells. The same con-
dition in the lungs and abdomen was found as in the other pigs.
EXPERIMENT No. 9
On December 18th at 10 A. M., fed a good sized pig No. 10,
the parasites of an earthworm of the species Allolobophora
foetida, procured from upper jNIain Street, Buffalo, during the
month of November. The worm was prepared as before. This
pig commenced to be sick five days after the feeding. His
symptoms were like many of the other pigs, namely, a well-
marked chill, the animal is seen to shiver, loss of appetite and
frequently opening his mouth as though tasting something.
December 31st, put up a drop of blood from his ear, in which I
found plenty of the organisms. Pig died January 3rd, 1902.
at 10 A. M., sixteen days from the feeding. Same lesions found
as in the other,s.
EXPERIMENT No. 10
On December 18th. fed a small pig. No. 11. during the
day a handful of grass procured on December 10th from a sandy
spot of ground in which earthworms were very plentiful. There
were only a few scattered tufts of grass growing here, and these
I found to contain w^hat I believed to be the organisms from
the earthworm. This test was made to determine if such M^as
the case, and if so, if they were in sufficient quantity to kill the
By H. D. TALKER M. D.> BUFFALO, N- Y, 13
pig. This grass was well dried, hay, in fact, when fed, eight
days after being picked. Pig became sick the fifth day after
the feeding. On the sixth day he had a severe chill. He shook so
that his teeth could be plainly heard to chatter. He died on the
morning of December 25th, seven days from the feeding. Ex-
amination showed the same organisms in his blood and lungs as
were found in the others, and in the hay which he was fed.
EXPERIMENT No. JI
On December 20th, at 2 P. M., fed a medium sized pig
Noy^l2, the organisms from a small sized earthworm, soecies
AlloLophora foetida, from upper Main Street, Buffalo. This pig
had ihe first symptoms of infection on the night of December
25th, five days from the feeding, and died on the morninsr of
the 31st, 10 A. M., living eleven days less four hours from the
time he was fed. Same lesions found as in the others.
EXPERIMENT No. 12
On December 20th. fed a Belgian hare. No. 1, two months
old, the organisms from a medium sized earthworm, soer'ies
AUolobophora foetida, from Buffalo, the same way as before,
January 10th, 1902, hare shows first signs of infection, by loss
of appetite and remaining curled up in a corner of his cage.
January 11th, refuses to eat or drink. After a dav or two
commenced to get better, and continued about in his normal
condition until he was killed January 29th, forty days from the
time he was fed. The same organisms were found, especially in
the lungs, as in the pigs.
During February, March and April I examined several
species of earthworms in the Southern States, and found thpv
all contained the organisms, but they seemed to differ from each
other slightly, in each species of worm. This difference was in
regard to their size, shape and mode of grouping themselves
together. It seemed to me quite probable that each species might
produce a different variety of malignant disease.
I therefore determined in my future experiments, in all
cases to note the species of earthworm from which the organisms
were derived, and see if the results were different. In the
summer of 1902, I renewed my experiments.
EXPERIMENT No. B
On I\Iay 18th, at 12 M., fed a good sized pig, No. 13,
the organisms from an earthworm of the species A. foetida from
U CANCER AND SARCOMA
Newburgh, in the same manner as before. June 9th, examined
the blood from his ear and found the organisms. Pig died the
same day at 2 P. M., twenty-two days after being fed. Sections
were made and the parasites found in tliem as before.
EXPERIMENT No. 14
On May 18th, fed a medium sized pig, No. 14, the
organisms from an earthworm, species A. foetida, from New-
burgh. This pig had the same symptoms as the others and died
June 2nd, fifteen days after being fed. Examination both before
and after death showed the usual organisms.
EXPERIMENT No. 15
On May 18th, at 12 :30 P. M., I injected under the skin of
the back of pig No. 15, a solution the same as fed the others,
from an earthworm of the species A. foetida. This pig died on
the night of June 3rd, sixteen and one-half days after the injec-
tion of the organisms. On examination I did not find the abdom-
inal viscera congested as in the previous eases, which were fed
by the mouth. The lungs, however, were full of the parasites.
EXPERIMENT No. 16
On May 19th I fed pig No. 16 the organisms from a
small earthworm, species A. fcetida, from "Washington, D. C.
Same symptoms as before, and pig died June 3rd, fifteen days
from the feeding, and the same parasites found on examination.
EXPERIMENT No. 17
On October 16th, 1902, I fed a small dog which had the
appearance of being several years old, a medium sized Lumbricus
hereuleus, cutting it up in very small pieces in a little water and
mixing it thoroughly with his food. On December 10 I fed this
dog another worm of the same species in the same way. December
15th dog's abdomen very tender on pressure, and he has little
appetite. Has the appearance of being infected. I fed him
another worm as before on December 20th, 25th and 30th. I
repeated the feeding on January 4th and January 30th, 1903.
On February 12th, fed dog an earthw^orm of the same species
which had been dried and wrapped in paper over one year. This
worm was broken in small pieces, well soaked in water and then
the pieces mashed so that the parasites might become active. I
By H, D, VALKER M. P., BUFFALO, N. Y. 15
would here state that these organisms are not killed by drying or
freezing, for Avhen a piece of worm which has been dried several
months, or has been frozen, is well broken up in water, the
organisms resume their activity the same as in a fresh worm.
]\Iarch 2nd, gave dog a hypodermic injection under the skin of
the back, of the same species prepared by cutting it up in water.
On May 8th I killed this dog, 204 days from the beginning of the
experiment. There was no tumor where the hypodermic was
given, nor could I discover any on examination cf the body.
Many of the parasites were found in different orgars.
EXPERIMENT No- 18
On October 16th, 1902, I fed a medium sized young dog an
earthworm of the species Allolobophora profuga, in the same
manner as the first dog was fed. On December 10th and 15th
fed two earthworms at each feeding. Decembfi^ 30th, fed eight
earthworms. January 4th, 1903, dog's abdomen quite tender
on pressure. Fed eight earthworms and repeated the feeding
on January 30th. March 2nd, gave dog an hypodermic injection
of the organisms in water under the skin of the back. On May
9th I killed this dog, 205 days from the time of the first feeding.
There was no tumor found where the injection was made, nor in
the internal organs. Many of the parasites were found through-
out the animal.
EXPERIMENT No. 19
On October 16th, 1902, I fed as before a small youuf? dnf?,
two worms of the species A, foetida. On December 10th and 15th,
I fed tM^o worms at each feeding. December 30th and January
4th, 1903, fed eight worms at each feeding. On December 30th,
I found dog's abdomen very tender on pressure. On March
2nd I injected under the skin of the back, one-half dram of a
mixture of the parasites made by cutting up two worms A.
fcetida, in a little water. On May 6th I killed this dog, 202 days
from the time he was first fed. The internal organs contained no
tumors. There was a nodule under the skin where the injection
was made, sixty-five days before. When sections were made
from the nodule, well marked Plimmer's bodies were found.
The lungs and spleen also contained them.
EXPERIMENT No. 20
On October 19th, 1902, I fed a Belgian hare. No. 2, about
four months old, the organisms from a fair sized L. herculeus, by
16 CANCER AND SARCOMA
injecting them dowTi his throat with a glass syringe and rubber
tube as in previous cases. November 6th, hare has symptoms
of infection, bloating and tenderness of abdomen. December
11th, fed hare the parasites from another worm of the same
species. December 17th hare shows well-marked signs of second
infection. December 23rd, hare died today, sixty-six days from
the first feeding and twelve days from the last. Sections of the
liver showed well marked Sarcoma.
EXPERIMENT No. 2 J
On October 19th, 1902, I fed a Belgian hare, No. 3, the
organisms from a fair-sized earthworm, of the species Allolobo-
phora profuga, in the usual way. November 6th, hare has
symptoms of infection. December 11th, fed organisms from two
worms of the same species. December 17th hare has symptoms
of second infection. January 10th, 1903, abdomen bloated and
liver plainly enlarged. Fed organisms from two worms of the
same species. January 31st, fed hare four worms (A. profuga.)
by cutting them up in a little water and mixing them with oats
in a dish. The mixture was well stirred and the hare ate them
all. February 14th, the hare died today, 119 days from the first
feeding and fourteen after the last. A well marked tumor in the
stomach, which is believed to be Sarcoma, was found. The
parasites were also seen in sections of the lungs, liver and spleen.
EXPERIMENT No. 22
On October 18th, 1902, I fed a Belgian hare, No. 4, the
organisms in the usual way, from two earthworms of the species
A. foetida. November 6th hare is infested. December 11th re-
peated the feeding of two worms, also on January 10th, 1903.
March 3rd killed the hare. No tumors discovered, but the para-
sites were found in sections of various organs.
EXPERIMENT No. 23
On March 28th, 1903, I fed a guinea pig. No. 17, the
parasites from an earthworm, L. herculeus. On April 13th, six-
teen days from the feeding, this pig died, and the parasites were
found throughout the lungs, liver and spleen.
EXPERIMENT No. 24
On March 28th, at 4 P. M., I injected the parasites from an
earthworm, species A. foetida, under the skin of the back of pig
By H. D. VALKER M. D., BUFFALO, N- Y. 17
No. 18. April 5th, pig died last night, about seven and one-
half days after the time of the injection. Found the parasites
through the organs as usual.
EXPERIMENT No. 25
On March 28th, I injected the parasites from an earthworm,
A. foetida, under the skin of the back of pig No. 19. This
pig died April 19th, twenty-two days from the injection. No
tumors were found, but an abundance of the parasites through
the different organs.
On September 11th, 1903, I procured six guinea pigs, and
believing that the previous ones had died too soon for the
production of well marked tumors, I thought if I could prolong
their life, I might be able to succeed in producing them. I
therefore determined to feed them fresh grass once daily, at noon,
and hay and oats morning and night, and note the effect.
EXPERIMENT No. 26
On September 11th, I fed two pigs, Nos. 20 and 21,
in the usual way. No. 20 was fed the parasites from
a large L. herculeus, and No. 21 those from two medium
sized worms of the same species. Every day at noon each one
was fed a good handful of green grass in place of hay. After five
or six days they had slight symptoms of infection, but these soon
passed off and they seemed to be entirely well during the re-
mainder of the time the grass was fed, and six weeks from the
beginning of the experiment. On October 23rd, I fed these pigs
in the usual way, each the parasites from a large L. herculeus ;
I also discontinued feeding the grass, giving them hay instead.
On December 6th, forty-four days from the last feeding, I killed
pig No. 21. On December 7th, forty-five days from the last
feeding, I killed pig No. 20. On careful examination I could
find no tumors in either of them.
EXPERIMENT No. 27
On September 11th, I fed two pigs, Nos. 22 and
23, each the parasites from two earthworms, species A.
profuga, as before, giving them a handful of grass at noon. After
five or six days they showed a slight infection, but soon recovered,
and after six weeks seemed quite well. On October 23rd, I fed
each of the pigs, the parasites from two A. profuga, and the feed-
ing of grass was omitted. November 27th, pig No. 23
18 CANCER AND SARCOMA
died, twentj'-four days from the last feeding. December 7th,
killed pig No. 22, forty-five days from the last feeding.
No tumors in either of these pigs were found.
EXPERIMENT No. 2S
On September 11th, I fed two pigs, Nos. 24 and
25. each the parasites in the usual way from four A.
fcEtidce. These pigs, like the previous four, besides their hay and
oats, were fed a handful of grass once daily. After a few days
like the others they manifested slight symptoms of infection,
which soon passed off, and they remained well six weeks after.
On October 23rd. they were each fed the parasites from eight A.
fcetida, hay and oats being fed as usual without the grass. On
December 6th. forty-four days from the last feeding I killed these
pigs. No tumors were found. In all six pigs the parasites were
found in their blood, both in the ameboid and round forms.
They were also found in sections of the different organs. On
November 18th I put up a slide of blood from pig No. 25,
which contained plenty of the parasites. These three experi-
ments seems to me of much importance, from the fact demon-
strated, that when pigs are fed green grass once daily, the para-
sites failed to kill them, and they only manifested slight symp-
toms of infection, which soon passed off. Not only this but
they were rendered nearly immune to the further action of the
parasites for several weeks, by this means of feeding them.
Compare this with Experiment No. 10, in which a pig fed
dried grass containing these parasites died in seven days.
Further experiment along this line should be made to determine
the reason for this protection and immunity. At first I thought
the parasites entered into the green vegetable matter and passed
outfrom the animals, but the well marked production of immunity
shows something beyond that. Have we in green vegetable
matter a preventive or remedy for malignant disease? Perhaps
persons eating green vegetables containing the parasites are
protected to a considerable extent in the same way. During the
summer of 1904 I experimented with several other guinea pigs,
but as nothing further was developed it is unnecessary to give
EXPERIMENT No. 29
On August 14th. 1905, I injected into the peritoneal cavity
of a Belgian hare, No. five, three months old. an hypodermic
syringe full of the parasites from an earthworm, L. herculeus, cut
By H. D. WALKER M. D.> BUFFALO, N. Y. 19
up in water. September 8th, hare quite sick. Eats and drinks
very little, and coughs considerably for the last few days. Abdo-
men bloated. September 15th, hare died last night, thirty-one
\days after the injection. I removed the lungs, liver, stomach,
spleen and kidneys. I found the pylorus contracted and the
stomach greatly enlarged, and its walls thickened. The spleen
was enlarged and filled with white nodules, a number of w^hich
were foimd in the liver. Sections from the lungs, liver, spleen
and pylorus contained round and spindle cells of Sarcoma. Sec-
tions of the liver were pronounced by two pathologists adeno-
EXPERIMENT No. 30
On August 15th, 1905. I injected into the abdominal cavity
of hare No. 6, three months old, the parasites from two small
earthworms (species not identified). November 25th, repeated
the injection, using six worms of the same species. No symptoms
of infection noted. February 25th, 1906, I injected under the
skin of the back, two syringes full of organisms from four A.
foetida?. May 6th, repeated the injection of parasites from A.
foetida. as before. July 1st, injected organisms from five A.
foetidae, down hare's throat. July 15th, repeated feeding as
above. August 12th injected into the abdominal cavity, one
syringe full of organisms from several A. foetida^, cut up in
water. No infection followed. This hare seems to be immune,
either naturally, or he has been rendered so by the continued
use])l^of the parasites., On September 9th, I injected two syringes
full, made from several A. foetidae cut up in water, into the
abdominal cavity. The second day after this injection, hare
commenced to be sick. Abdomen distended and verj' tender, and
for eight or nine days ate nothing. Became very poor and looked
as if he would die from peritonitis. After about nine days he
commenced to eat and get better. About a week after this, I
discovered a small nodular tumor on the peritoneum, which grew
until it was an inch in diameter. Then an opening formed
through the peritoneum, in the middle of the tumor, which
opening gradually increased in size as the tumor disappeared.
The edge of the opening was composed of many small nodules
and had the feeling of a malignant tumor. These nodules gradu-
ally disappeared leaving a smooth edge, through which the intes-
tines protruded and the hare seemed in a normal condition, except
The opening in the peritoneum gradually grew less and in
a few weeks the hernia disappeared. December 16th, fed hare
20 CANCER AND SARCOMA
the organisms from several A. foetid^ cut up in water and
mixed with his oats. No effect noted. On March 10th, 1907,
injected two syringes full of material from A. foetidse into
abdomen. No sj'mptoms of infection discovered. October 13th,
hare died today. Found no tumors, but extensive adhesions of
the abdominal organs. The liver and spleen were both atrophied.
Sections of different organs showed many Plimmer's bodies and
EXPERIMENT No. 3J
On August 16th, 1905, I injected into the peritoneal cavity
of hare No. 7, the parasites from two earthworms, of the species
A. profuga. November 25th, injected in the same manner, the
parasites from six A. profugte. The animal had symptoms of
infection each time, but soon recovered. Thinking the hare could
not be killed with these parasites. I resolved to try those from
A. foetidse. Therefore on February 23rd, 1906, I injected under
the skin of the back, the parasites from four A. foetidae. This
not having the desired effect, on ^May 6th, I injected into the
peritoneal cavity the parasites from four A. foetidae. May 8th,
hare died today, forty-eight hours after last injection. Had
peritonitis. Sections from the lungs, spleen and stomach,
showed plenty of parasites. Both species were present. Great
number of Plimmer's bodies were found.
EXPERIMENT No. 32
On August 17th, I injected into the peritoneum of hare No. 8.
the parasites from two A. foetidie. November 25th, injected in
the same manner the parasites from six A. foetidse. November
30th, hare died last night, four and one-half days after the last
injection and 104 days from the first. On examination find well
marked peritonitis. Sections of the organs showed the parasites
of Carcinoma. The spleen especially had them in great numbers.
EXPERIMENT No. 33
On June 5th, 1905, I prepared a culture of the organisms
from L. herculeus by cutting up a worm of this species in a little
water and smearing this over the under side of a cabbage leaf
growing in the garden. This method was adopted to closely
imitate nature, for we know it is a habit of earthworms when
feeding on plants to attack the under surface of the leaf where
the stomata of the plant open. In the beginning of this paper
By H. D. WALKER M. D., BUFFALO, N. Y. 21
I proved that these parasites of the earthworm passed through
the orifices of their skiu when they crawled over the surface of
any object. New I wished to see if I could produce a culture in
the plant sufficient to infect an animal. The leaf was left on the
plant until July 10th, when it was removed, carefully washed
and cut up finely in distilled water, when the parasites in large
numbers came out as shown by placing a drop of the liquid under
the microscope. They were kept in a test tube plugged with
cotton until used. They were in the plant thirty-five days
and in water in a test tube thirty-eight days. On August 17th,
seventy-three days from the time they were removed from the
worm an hypodermic syringe full of this culture Avas injected
into the peritoneal cavity of hare No. 9, four weeks old.
September 7th, hare not well, seems to be growing poor.
October 1st, very poor and weak, looks as though he would
die very soon. Infection has certainly taken place. November
1st, hare much better now. November 25th, hart now seems to
have completely recovered from the infection, and I injested
through the peritoneum, the parasites from a fair sized L. hercu-
leus. January 31st. 1906, hare died last niaht. 166 davs from the
first injection, and sixty-seven days from the last. On examina-
tion I found necrosis of the intestine, commencing about eight
inches below the stomach, and extending dowward five or six
iclfes. The intestine was very dark colored and sections showed
The parasites in its structure. The stomach Avas greatly dilated.
The parasites were also found in sections of the lungs, liver and
EXPERIMENT No. 34
On October 1st, I injected into the peritoneal cavity of hare
No. 10, four and one-half months old. the parasites from two A.
foeticide. October 5th, abdomen bloated and very tender on press-
ure. After a few days this passed off. November 25th, injected
the parasites from six A. foetidge into the peritoneal cavity. De-
cember 7th, hare died last night, twelve days after th last injec-
tion, and sixty-seven days after the first. On examination I find
no tumor, but plenty of the parasites of carcinoma in sections of
the liver, spleen, stomach and intestines. There were many Plim-
mer's bodies in various stages of development.
EXPERIMENT No. 35
On October 1st, 1905, I injected into the abdominal cavity
of hare No. 11, four and one-half months old, the parasites
22 CANCER AND SARCOMA
from two A. foetidre. October 5th, hare's abdomen bloated and
very tender on pressure. November 25th, mjected organisms
from three A. foetid^e, into the abdomen. December 7th, I dis-
covered a bi-lobed tumor, under the skin of the abdomen, below
the left foreleg. December 22nd, tumor growing quite fast. It is
now about one and one-fourth inches long and three-fourths of an
Mnch wide, distinctly bi-lobed and adherent to peritoneum. De-
cember 25th hare has quite a cough tonight. Perhaps parasites
are invading lungs. January 8th, 1906, killed hare this morning,
and find the tumor situated on the left side of the abdomen, about
half-way between the fore and hind legs. It is a tumor of the
peritoneum, starting from its internal surface, its has grown
through and projects on the external surface next the skin which
is not involved in the growth. The original two lobes have
coalesced. The tumor is solid and white and measures one and
one-fourth inches in length by three-fourths of an inch in width,
and the same in thickness. I removed the lungs liver, spleen, kid-
neys and several nodules in the abdomen. There is metastasis
to the liver, several small white nodules being found on its sur-
face which on section proved to be Cancer. Sections from the
tumor were sent to a well-known pathologist, who pronounced it
Carcinoma. The lungs, liver and spleen, contained the para-
sites in abundance. Plenty of Plimmer's bodies in different
stages of growth were found.
EXPERIMENT No. 36
On December 24th, 1905, I injected into the peritoneal cavity
of hare No. 12, four weeks old, the parasites from one A.
fcetida. March 4th, 1906, injected under the skin the parasites
from two A. foetidas. July 1st, fed hare the parasites from four
A. foetidffi. July 15th, repeated the feeding of four A. foetidse.
July 24th, hare getting very poor and weak, and I killed him.
Found no tumors, but sections of the lungs, liver and spleen
plainly showed the parasites of Carcinoma.
EXPERIMENT No. 37
On December 2^h, 1905, I injected into the peritoneal cavity
of hare No. 13, four weeks old, the parasites from one A. fcetida.
February 16th, 1906, hare died this morning. He was very poor
and weak before he died fifty-four days after the injection. No
tumors found, but sections of different organs showed the para-
sites of Carcinoma.
By H. D. WALKER M. D.> BUFFALO, N. Y, 23
EXPERIMENT No. 38