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ERICH F. SCHMlor



ARMENIA

TRAVELS AND STUDIES



VOL. I



^t^




^..».,-ii5 ,,•* - "



^



3



ARMENIA

Travels and Studies



BY

H. F. B. LYNCH



Nature's vast frame, the web of human things.

SnKLLE^', Alastor.

Who can foretell our future ? Spare nie the attempt.

We are like a harvest reaped by bad husbandmen

amidst encircling gloom and cloud.

John Katholikos

Aniicniaii historian of the Xth century
Ch. CLXxxvii.



IN TWO VOLUMES

WITH 197 ILLUSTRATIONS, REPRODUCED FROM PHOTOGRAPHS AND SKETCHES
BY THE AUTHOR, NUMEROUS MAPS AND PLANS, A BIBLIOGRAPHY

And a Map of
Armenia and Adjacent Countries



VOL. I
THE RUSSLAN PROVINCES



LONGMANS, GREEN, AND CO.

LONDON: 39 PATERNOSTKR ROW
NEW YORK AND BO.MP.AY

I9OI

All -rights reserved



THK LinUARY

UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA

SANTA BARBARA



PREFACE

This book contains the account of two separate journeys
in Armenia, the first extending from August 1893 to
March 1894, and the second from May to September 1898.
Before embarking upon them, I was already famihar with
the contiguous countries, having spent a considerable por-
tion of the years 1889 and 1890 in Mesopotamia and
Persia. The routes shown in my map from Aleppo to
Diarbekr and down the Tigris, and from Datum across
Georgia and the Caspian to Resht, were taken during the
course of these earlier wanderings, and they contribute no
part of the ensuing narrative.

What attracted me to Armenia ? I had no interests
public or private in a country which has long been regarded
even by Asiatic travellers as a land of passage along pre-
scribed routes. One inducement was curiosity : what lay
beyond those mountains, drawn in a wide half-circle along
the margin of the Mesopotamian plains ? The sources of
the great rivers which carried me southwards, a lake with
the dimensions of an inland sea, the mountain of the Ark,
the fabled seat of Paradise.

With each step forward in my knowledge of the
countries west of India came a corresponding increase of
my original emotion. Sentimental were reinforced by
purely practical considerations ; and I seemed to see that
the knot of politics tightening year by year around these



vi Armenia

countries was likely to be resolved in Armenia. I became
impatient to set foot upon Armenian soil.

When my wish was realised, my first experiences of
the country and of the Armenians in the Russian provinces
exceeded my expectations — fringed with doubt as these
were by disappointment with much I had seen in the East.
So I passed over the Russian frontier, struck across to the
lake of Van, and spent the winter in Erzerum.

When I came to setting down on the map my routes in
Turkish Armenia, the scantiness of existing knowledge
was painfully plain. I soon realised that it would be neces-
sary to undertake a second journey for the purpose of
acquiring the necessary framework upon which to hang the
routes. Meanwhile the events occurred with which we
are all familiar — the Armenian massacres, and the comedy
of the concert of Europe.

It was with difficulty that I was at length enabled to
return to the country. These later travels were almost
exclusively occupied with the natural features, our tents
spread upon the great mountain masses, whence plain and
lake and winding river were unfolded before us like a map.

Primitive methods were rendered necessary for trans-
ferring these features to paper. One is not allowed in
Turkey the use of elaborate or obvious instruments, and
miles of ground had to be crossed in full view of Turkish
officials before reaching the field of our work. But I was
able to transport to Erzerum a standard mercurial barometer,
which was duly set up in that centre and read several times
a day during our absence. We carried two aneroids, a
boiling-point apparatus, a four-inch prismatic compass, used
upon a tripod and carefully tested at Kew ; lastly, a rather
troublesome but very satisfactory little instrument called a
telemeter, and made by Steward. The measurements were
checked by cross-readings with the compass, and we found
that they could be relied upon. Once we were upon the



Preface vii

mountains our operations were not impeded, and, indeed,
were assisted by the authorities,

I was accompanied on this second journey by my friend,
Mr. F. Oswald, who had been helping me disentangle the
voluminous works of the great Abich upon the geology of
the Caucasus and Russian Armenia. The varied talents
of Oswald were of the greatest service to the work in hand,
while his society was a constant source of pleasure and
repose. He is now engaged with the geological results of
this journey, and with a well-considered study of the geology
of Armenia as a whole. These he hopes to publish before
very long.

The illustrations are for the most part reproductions of
my photographs, being a selection from a collection which
fills several cases. On my first Armenian journey I was
accompanied as far as Erzerum by Mr. E. Wesson of the
Polytechnic in London, who not only developed the films
and plates upon the spot, but rendered the most valuable
assistance in the photographic work. He also displayed
the qualities of a veteran campaigner before the journey
was done. And I was always missing him after his return
home and during the second journey, when the work de-
volved entirely upon myself.

My cousin. Major H. B. Lynch, now serving in South
Africa, travelled with us as far as Ararat and took charge
of the camp. It is, I think, a legitimate cause for satisfac-
tion that, except for momentary lapses on the part of the
cook, not one of the party during either of the two long
journeys fell ill or became incapable of hard work. And
on both occasions the horses were sold at a small profit
when the coast was at length reached.

Why does one write a book? I find it difficult to
answer the question, which, indeed, demands a knowledge
of human nature greater than any I possess. There are
societies and individuals who, I feel sure, would offer a price



viii Arfnenia

if the potential author would agree to keep his material to
himself. The sum might probably be augmented by the
contributions of weary students ; and a revenue could be
collected from these various sources far exceeding any
royalties received from publishers. Moreover the author
would escape the foreboding of condign punishment, which
he is made to feel suspended over his head. On the other
hand, there is the fascination of feeling possessed by a
subject, stronger than yourself and elemental. And there
is the joy and the impersonality of the work reacting upon
the personality of the writer.

The country and the people which form the theme of
the ensuing pages are deserving, the one of enthusiasm and
the other of the highest interest. It is very strange that
such a fine country should have lain in shadow for so many
centuries, and that even the standard works of Greek and
Roman writers should display so little knowledge of its
features and character. Much has been done to dispel the
darkness during the progress of the expired century ; and
I have been at some pains to collect and co-ordinate the
work of my predecessors. In this task I have been assisted
by my friend, the Hon. Mrs. Arthur Pelham, to whom the
credit of the bibliography accompanying my second volume
is due.

In taking leave of the book — and it has been a long
connection — the mind rests with pleasure and gratitude
upon the help given without stint by fellow-workers in the
same or in different fields. To my friend, Mr. R. W.
Graves, now Consul-General in Crete, I am indebted for
a lengthy spell of hospitality and delightful companionship
in distant Erzerum. I have borrowed freely from his
intimate knowledge of extensive regions in Turkish
Armenia, as well as from that acquired by my friend.
Major Maunsell, now our Consul at Van, the principal
contemporary authority on Kurdistan. Geheimrath Dr.



Preface ix

G. Radde of Tiflis has rendered me valuable assistance on
more than one occasion ; and it is also a pleasure to feel
conscious in many ways of my obligations to my friend,
Mr. L. de Klupffell, formerly of Datum. At home I have
received much kindness from Mr. Fortescue of the British
Museum library, and from Dr. Mill, who has so long pre-
sided over the library of the Royal Geographical Society,
and whose recent retirement from that office in order to
devote himself to his scientific work is keenly regretted by
those whom he encouraged by his assistance and advice.
The book has brought me several new friends, among
them Mr. F. C. Conybeare of Oxford, the extent of my
debt to whom, in various directions, it would be difficult to
estimate. Professor Sayce has kindly looked over the
sheets dealing with the Vannic empire, and contributed
several valuable suggestions. Prof E. Denison Ross has
helped me with the Mussulman inscriptions, besides inform-
ing me upon a number of obscure points.

A portion of the narrative of the ascent of Ararat has
already appeared in Messrs. Scribner's Magazine, reprinted
in Mo2intaiii Climbing, a book published by this firm.
Parts of the concluding chapters of each volume, entitled
"Statistical and Political," have seen the light in the shape
of a series of articles in the Contemporary Review.

H. F. B. LYNCH.

The map which accompanies my first volume will be on
sale separately at Messrs. Stanford's in Longacre.



CONTENTS

CHAPTER I

PAGE

The Coast and the Port ..... i

CHAPTER H

Ascent to Armenia ...... T,y

CHAPTER HI

To Akhaltsykh . . . . . . -53

CHAPTER IV
To Akhalkalaki ....... 72

CHAPTER V
At Akhalkalaki ....... 86

CHAPTER VI
Prospect from Abul ...... 92

CHAPTER VII
Gorelovka and Queen Lukeria .... 96

CHAPTER VIII

To Alexandropol . . . . . .118

CHAPTER IX

At Alexandropol . . . . . .124

CHAPTER X
To Erivan . . , . , . • ^3Z



xii Armenia

CHAPTER XI
To Ararat ....



PAGE



CHAPTER Xn
Ascent of Ararat . . . . . .156

CHAPTER Xni

The Heart of Ararat . . . . . .179

CHAPTER XIV
Return to Erivan ...... 200

CHAPTER XV
At Erivan ....... 206

CHAPTER XVI

Edgmiatsin and the Armenian Church . . . 228

CHAPTER XVII
To Ani and to Kars . . . . . .316

CHAPTER XVIII

Am, and the Armenian Kingdom of the Middle Ages . 334

CHAPTER XIX
Kars . . . . . . . -393

CHAPTER XX
Across the Spine of Armenia ..... 409

CHAPTER XXI
Geographicai. . . . . . . .421

CHAPTER XXII

Statistical and Political ..... 446



LIST OF PLATES



Ararat from Aralykh .....
Trebizond from above the Head of the Western Ravine
Trebizond : Hagia Sophia ....
Trebizond : Facade of Hagia Sophia on the South
Plain of the Rion from the Southern Slopes of Caucasus

Kutais in the Foreground .
View North from the Zikar Pass
View South from the Zikar Pass
Safar : St. Saba from the West .
Safar : Porch of St. Saba .
Akhaltsykh from the Road to Akhalkalaki
Castle of Khertvis ....
Vardzia, the Troglodyte City
Mount Abul from Akhalkalaki .
Summer Pavilion at Gorelovka .
Alagoz from the Plain of Alexandropol
Alexandropol from the Armenian Cemetery
Ararat from near Aramzalu
Great Ararat from above Sardar Bulakh
Our Kurd Porters on Ararat
Akhury : The Great Chasm from Aralykh
Akhury : Inside the Great Chasm
Erivan and Ararat from the North
Erivan : Interior of the Kiosque of the Sirdars
Edgmiatsin : The Great Court and the Cathedral
Edgmiatsin : Ceremony of the Consecration of the Katho

likos — Anointing with Oil from the Beak of a Golden

Dove .....
Edgmiatsin : Interior of the Cathedral
Edgmiatsin : Exterior of St. Ripsime
Edgmiatsin : Exterior of St. Gaiane
Edgmiatsin : Exterior of Shoghakath .
Talin : Mouldings on South Side of Ruinous Church
Walls and Gateway of the City of Ani from Outside,

looking East .......



Frontispiece

7^ face page 12

24

25

46

Back to page 52

53

62

63

To face page 6 5

„ ^ 76

80

92

,, 109

,, 122

125

153

165

>) 167

179

194

,, 208

,, 216

243



254
267
269
270
271
322



369



XIV



Armenia



ORY



ADEI.



Ani : The Cathedral from South-East .

Ani : Niche in Eastern Wall of Cathedral

Ani : Apse of the Cathedral

Ani : Church of St. Gregory from the West

Ani : North Wall of the Church of St. Grei

Ani : Detail of the Porch of St. Gregory

Ani : Mosque and Minaret

Am : Detail of Doorway of Chapel near Cm

Ani : Chapel of St. Gregory, East Side

Ani : Chapel of St. Gregory, Entrance

Ani : Interior of the Chapel of St. Gregory

Ani : Chapel of the Redeemer .

xVni : Doorway of the Castle

Ani : Portal of the Church of the Apostles f

Ani : East Front of the Church of the Arcs

KiiosHA Vank : Pronaos

Khosha Vank: Exterior of Pronaos and Church from

South-West ....
Khosha Vank : Hall of the Synod
Looking down ihe Valley of Kagyznlan
A Rib or Buttress of Agiiri Dagh
Pass over Aghri Dagh



ROM the Wes
ii.es



To face page 370
371
372
373
374
375
376
379
380

381
382

383
384
385
386

387



389
417
419
420



ILLUSTRATIONS IN THE TEXT



Entrance to the Black Sea from the Bosphorus

Interior of Hagia Sophia .

Banks of the Rion above Kutais

Road in the Forest

Georgians ....

Portrait of Ivan

Group of Villagers at Khektvis

Archimandrite and Deacon at Vardzia

Head Waters of the Arpa Chai .

Byzantine Picture in Greek Church

Weddinc; Party at Alexandropol

Church of Marmashen from S.W.

Alagoz fro.m the Head Waters of the Ai!Akan

Ararat : Aralvkh in the foreground .

Our Cavalcade on Ararai

Our Encampment ai Sardar Bulakh

Little Ararat from near Sardar Bulakh

SUMMII OF .\RARA1' from THE SOUTH-EaST, TAKEN AT A HEIGHT Ol'
AP.Orr 13,000 FEE I ....



3

27
46
50
51

59
77
82
121
128
130
131
136
155
159
163
164

180



Illustrations

BOULPERS NEAR AkHTRY

Ararat from a house-top in Erivan

Alagoz from a house-top in Erivan

Entrance to Gok Jami, Erivan

Court wiih basin of Gok Jami, Erivan .

The Temple, Gok Jami

Pilgrims' Court, Eogmiajsin

The Katholikos Mekertich Khrimean .

The Lake at Edgmiatsin .

Ararat from the Lake at Edgmiatsin .

Armenian Nun ....

Lnterior of the Portal of the Cathedral
Episcopal Staves ....

Sculptured Stone ....

Village of Talin, with Mount Bugutu .

Mouldings on North Side of Ruinous Church at Talin

Tartar Khan at Talin ^

Pristav of Talin ) '

Priest of Talin

Tartar of Akhja Kala

Alagoz from the Plains on i he West

Greek Girl of Subotan

Ani : Bas-relief on the Lxner Wall of the Gateway

Ani : Sculptured Stone Moulding

Ani : Walled Enclosure and Chapel

Ani : Building on the Citadel .

Ani : Pilaster in the Building on the Citadel

Ani : Landscape from the southern extremities of

Ani : The Castle . . . ...

The Monastery of Khosha Vank : east side .

Khosha Vank : Chapels in the Ravine of the Arpa Chai

The Citadel of Kars

Molokan Elder at Vladikars

House at Novo-Michaelovka

Aghri Dagh from the Araxes Canon

Cliffs composing Northern Wall of Araxes Canon

The Araxes near Kagyzman

Kara Vank on Aghri Dagh

Map of the Armenian Plateau .



XV

lAGK
191
207
20S

214
215
230

246
247
252
266
268
271
322
323

325
326

327
331
369

373
376
378
379
380

383
386

387
406
411
412
414

415
416
419
452



LIST OF MAPS AND PLANS

Plan of the Ancient P'ou iiitcaitons of Tkeiuzonp . . To face page 13

Trkiuzond and Sitrroundings ..... >, 30

Plan of the Monastery and Churches of Edgmiatsin Retwceu pages za^d, aud 20,^
Plan of the Deserted City of Ani .... To face page 390

Kars and Sui<roundin(;s ...... ,, 395

The .Structural Features of Asia . . Betiveen pages \22 and /\2-i,

.Map ok .\k.meni.\ and Adjacent Countries .... Co~Mr



CHAPTER I

THE COAST AND THE PORT

On four different occasions, both in summer and in winter, I have
sailed along the southern shore of the Black Sea almost from one
extremity to the other ; yet I do not remember having seen the
sky free from heavy clouds during two consecutive days. As the
ship speeds eastwards along the mountains of Bithynia, a thin
veil of haze will blend the land outlines together ; while, as the
range grows in height with every mile of progress, the vapour
will collect about its upper slopes in long, horizontal, black banks.
Even when the sun of this southern climate has swept the sky of
every lingering film, when the zenith and the water recall the
hues of the Mediterranean — the whole scale of brilliant blues —
somewhere upon the wide circle of the horizon will be lurking
the scattered forces of the mist. But the stronghold of the cloud
is in the mountains of Akhaltsykh, at the foot of Caucasus, in
the extreme eastern angle of the sea. Can there exist a more
gloomy coast ? There the sky is always lowering above the inky
water, and the forests of fir which clothe the range from foot to
summit wave darkly, like feathers over a pall. Such, I think, are
the impressions which the mind most closely associates with the
aspect of this sea and shore. What a contrast to the smiling
landscape of the Bosphorus, the strait through which we enter
this sad sea or leave it on our return home ! The cold draught
follows the home-coming ship up the narrow channel between the
wooded cliffs, and frets the running tide into crisp little waves
which sparkle in the brilliant light. The dolphins leap from the
blue water and dart shining through the air. To the traveller
who is returning from a long journey in Asia and a tedious toss-
ing on this grey sea, the Bosphorus, always bright and gay and
VOL. I B



2 Armenia

beautiful, may appear as the promised gate of paradise beyond
the :\orld of shades.

The character of the coast cannot fail to be affected by this
climate, by this atmosphere. Just as the vapours gather thickest
where the mountains are most lofty, at the south-eastern angle of
the sea, so the vegetation increases in luxuriance and variety the
further eastwards we proceed on our course. The cliffs or rolling
hills about the entrance of the Bosphorus — the closing cliffs of the
Greek legend, which caught the tail-feathers of the dove — soon
give place to the belt of wooded mountains which rise from the
immediate margin of the water, and stretch from west to east
along the entire seaboard to the Phasis and Batum. Tier upon
tier they rise from the narrow strip of sand and pebbles, and
grow both in height and in boldness of outline as they stretch
towards the east. The winds of the open sea, the cold winds of
Scythia, fly over the barrier of the range ; and the ship may often
anchor in smooth water at a point where least protection would
appear to be offered by the configuration of the shore. But the
moisture of the air is arrested at the coast-line, and hangs about
the upper tiers of the mountains or clings to the fir-clad slopes.
These natural conditions are extremely favourable to vegetation,
and the larger grows the scale upon which they are operating, the
more abundant becomes the growth of trees and shrubs. When
at last we have reached the neighbourhood of the Phasis, where
the wall of this range towers highest above us on the one side,
and the line of Caucasus closes the horizon on the other, the
shore becomes clothed with dense forests, plants and creepers
flourish with tropical exuberance ; the traveller, threading the
maze of evergreen woodland, might be walking along the banks
of the Amazon or through the glades of Mazanderan.

August 13, 14. — Our ship is outward bound for the banks
of the Phasis, " the furthest point to which vessels sail." It was
evening when we hove anchor from Constantinople, and night
had already closed as we passed the cliffs of l^uyukdere and
opened the mouth of the strait (Fig. i). This morning we are skirt-
ing the ])ithynian mountains, our head well up towards Amasra,
behind us the bluff of Cape Baba, a promontory of twin hills.
That cape hides the site of Heraklea, one of the most important
of the old Greek cities, now patched with the relics of its former
splendour, and shorn of the glory of its statue of Herakles, with
lion-skin, club, quiver, bow and arrows all wrought of solid gold.



The Coast and the Port 3

The same lofty coast and bold headlands accompany our course ;
in a {q\\ hours we double Cape Karembe, and the sun has not yet
set as we cast anchor off Ineboli, the outlet of the rich districts
about Kastamuni, and perhaps at present the most prosperous of
these western Pontic ports.

Herakli, Ineboli, Sinope, Samsun — the ships often stop at
one or two of these places ; yet how little now remains of the old
Greek cities of the Argonautic shore ! Step on land, and there are
the high-prowed galleys drawn up, quite in the ancient fashion, upon
the narrow strip of sand. But the hill to which we look for the
ancient akropolis appears bare of any building now, and it is only




Fig. 1. Entrance to the Black Sea from the Bosphorus.

by careful searching and diligent enquiry that you will find some
faced stone with a Greek inscription of the Roman period built
into the buttress of a modern bridge, or mocking the ruder
masonry of a Turkish wall. Here at Ineboli, indeed, half-bedded
in the soil a few paces from the shore, lies a shining fragment of
white marble wnth sculptures in relief A line of white -faced
houses with roofs of red tiles nestles beneath the mountain wall.
The Greeks live on one side, the Turks on the other ; and the
intelligent man to whom }'OU naturally address }'ourself is an
Armenian in European dress. Our ship does not call at Sinope
this voyage — Sinope of the open site and spacious roadstead,
whose walls seem to have resisted the general crumbling, and rise
from the water a still perfect model of a fortified medieval town.
During the night we round the hump of Anatolia, and before



4 Armenia

mid-day we are lying in the bay of Samsun, towards the centre of
the long curve lined with white -faced, red -tiled houses, beyond
which the ruined walls of ancient Amisus still emerge from the
briars on the summit of the hillside which closes the landscape
on the north-west. But at Samsun also destruction has been
busy ; I look in vain for the massive tower of old acquaintance
at the south-eastern extremity of the shore. I recognise the spot
where it stood at the end of the long sea-wall, some parts of
which still remain ; but the foundations alone have escaped
demolition, and the few large blocks of stone which still lie
scattered on the ground testify rather to the carelessness of the
Turkish building-contractor than to any respect on the part of
his employers for the beauty and interest of their town.

The sites of these coast towns have been determined by
the characteristics of the range of wooded limestone ridges which
rise along the shore. Sometimes it will be a cleft in this
latitudinal belt of mountains, a transverse fissure in the grain of
the range, which, with its rustling river giving access to the
interior, has attracted a settlement. The eye rests with pleasure
on the deep green of these narrow valleys ; the limestone towers
high above them and protects the rich growth of trees and shrubs.
Or the range recedes from the margin of the water, sweeping
inland in the shape of a vast amphitheatre, and curving outwards
again to form a distant promontory of the bold and sinuous
coast. The first description will apply to the position of Ineboli;
the second may be illustrated in a typical manner by the site
of Samsun. There the open stage of the wide hemicycle is
filled with rolling hills and level expanses which yield abundant
crops of cereals. It is true that the estuaries of the two larger
rivers, Halys and Iris, present exceptions to the normal con-
figuration of the seaboard. These considerable streams form
extensive deltas which project far out into the sea. For awhile,
as you pass them, you almost lose sight of the mountains, and
the view ranges across low, marshy tracts, studded with trees.
As we skirted the delta of the Halys, we looked down upon
such a wooded plain across a narrow bank of sandy shore. It
appeared as if inside that slender barrier the solid land had
sunk beneath the level of the waters upon which we sailed.
The delta of the Halys is as celebrated for its tobacco as that
of the Iris for its Indian corn, and Bafra and Charshembeh are
becoming serious rivals to the old Greek cities of the coast.



The Coast and the Port 5

Indeed, even along this remote seaboard the flowing tide of
Western civilisation is surely setting eastwards again. How the



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