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- It is not exactly symmetrical, the measurement from west to east being nearly
31 feet.



382 • . Arvicnia

death in battle against the Beni - Cheddad of Dvin in a.d. 1047.
Embodying as he did the poHcy of resistance a outratice both to Mussul-
mans and Greeks, he has been the idol of Armenian patriotism. The
name of this hero figures in the inscription over the door, which, although
without a date, is probably assignable to him. He bestows the revenue
of certain shops upon the church of St. Gregory to defray the cost of
masses for the soul of his son Apughamir. In the same place have been
found inscriptions of the mother of Vahram, the lady Shushan, making
over certain revenues to the same church and recording the number of
the masses obtained in return. She is styled the wife of the prince
Grigor. But a date is happily forthcoming to elucidate the identity of
these personages. It is furnished by a long inscription of no less than
fourteen lines upon the north wall. Record is made that in the year
of the Armenian era 489 (a.d. 1040) Aplgharib, prince of Armenia,
erected a sepulchre in this place ^ for his father Grigor, of whom he
describes himself as the youngest son, for his brother Hamzeh, and for
his maternal uncle Seda. Masses are to be said for his mother
Shushan, for his father Grigor, for his maternal uncle Seda, and for his
brother Hamzeh. I cannot help thinking that the sepulchre referred to is
represented by the remains which I observed upon the north side of this
building. And the vaulted chambers in the east wall may be the tombs
of Grigor and his wife Shushan, an inscription over the highly decorated
window on that side being a prayer to Christ for mercy upon Grigor.-

A question of great interest with reference to this building is whether
it may be regarded as the same church which is mentioned by the historians
as a work of King Gagik I. We are informed by Samuel of Ani that in
the year 447 (a.d. 998) a church of St. Gregory was completed by this
monarch in the Tsaghkotzadzor. The same event is recorded in the
pages of Kirakos, who gives the same date, and describes the situation
as overlooking the Valley of the Tsaghkotz.^ Asoghik tells us that it
was built on the model of a large church at Vagharshapat, dedicated to
the same saint, which had fallen into ruin. He adds that the edifice of
King Gagik was built on a high platform on the side of the Tsaghkotz,
and in possession of an admirable view. He speaks of three doorways
and of the marvellous dome, reproducing the appearance of the sky.'*
I did not observe more than one door to this edifice, and perhaps the
church which is referred to by these authorities was some larger building
in the immediate neighbourhood which has disappeared.

' Brosset translates, "J'ai construil ce lieu de repos." But it surely cannot refer to
the chapel itself, which, as we have seen, has inscriptions of the mother of Aplgharib,
and must therefore have been in existence before 1040. Brosset therefore supposes that
the restoration of the church is alluded to {Kuines d'' Ani, pp. 37 and 106). For a more
probable version of the inscription see Alishan, Shirak, p. 53.

- For the inscriptions see Brosset ( Voyage Arch. loc. cit. p. 91, and Rtiines d'.lni, pp.
36 set/.). Aplgharib was brother to Vahram. I could find no trace of the curious
figure found upon one of the windows which Brosset refers to (pp. 38 sec/.). On the
other hand, I was able to identify the two inscriptions last mentioned.

•* Kirakos ap. Dulaurier, Recherches sitr la Chron. Arm. p. 280.

* Asoghik ap. Brosset, Ruines li'Ani, p. 106.




Fig. 87. Ani: Interior of the Chapel of St. Gregory.




'"liill'^iiii^



Fig. 88. Ani; Chapel of the Redeemer.



Am, and the Amncnian Kingdom of the Middle Ages







Fig. 89. Ani: The Castle.



The chapel of St. Cxregory
invites comparison with an-
other monument of tlie
same order in the opposite
quarter of the town (No. 6,
Fig. 88). 1 ;My illustration
was taken from the north. The design is less elaborate and the
dimensions are rather larger, the dome especially having a much greater
span. But the effect produced by the interior lacks the magic of
the companion building, while the symmetry is marred by the recess for
the altar on the east side. This building will not endure for many years
longer', unless steps be taken to save it from falling in. The lower portions
are in a state of advanced decay. The ornament on the exterior closely
resembles that employed upon the cathedral. Inscriptions bristle upon
the panels of the false arcades. One records that in the year 483 (a.d.
1034) the prince Aplgharib, having journeyed to Constantinople by order
of Sembat Shahanshah, obtained with great difficulty and at considerable
expense a piece of the Holy Cross. Upon his return he built this church,
and directed that nightly services should be held within it until the coming
of Christ. The name of Surb-Phrkich, or church of the Redeemer, is
given in this and the following inscription, and may be applied either to this
chapel or to some neighbouring church with which it was in connection.
A second inscription belongs to the Armenian year 490 (a.d. 1041), and
mentions the contemporary reign of Sembat, son of Gagik Shahanshah.-
The chapel of the Redeemer is therefore the work of the same Pahlavid,
Aplgharib, who built the sepulchres to the chapel of St. Gregory, and it
belongs to the period of the kings.^

^ Abich confuses the sites of these two monuments in his Reisebriefe {op. cit.).

2 Such is the translation of this inscription given by the editor of Aristal^es of
Lastivert. Brosset appears to have made a palpable error {R nines cTAni, p. 21, inscrip-
tion of Christaphor).

3 Probably the inscription of this same Aplgharib given by Brcwset {Raines d Ani.



384 Armenia

Continuing our walk along the cliff above the valley of the Alaja, we
pass a lofty mound, surmounted by the ruin of a wall (No. 31). The old
priest was of opinion that it denotes the site of the priestly synod house,
where endowments were received and other business of the Church
transacted. A little further, and west of this mound we stay to examine a
small chapel which has been hollowed out of a solid mass of rock. But
our attention is distracted from this fantastic object by the walls and
yawning apartments of the castle (No. 12, Fig. 89). It is situated in the
extreme north-western angle of the town, where the ravine of the Alaja is
joined by the side-ravine already mentioned in the description of the site.
My photograph displays the southern side of this extensive edifice and the
junction of the valleys. The entrance is on the east and faces the town
(Fig. 90). You admire the exquisite masonry of the walls and the
elaborate decoration of the doorway. That doorway is one of the most
conspicuous objects in Ani ; and inasmuch as this building has been
sought to be identified with the royal palace, it has been despoiled of
many of its mosaics by patriotic Armenians, who strip them off and carry
them away as souvenirs. My reader will observe the recurrence of the
form of a Greek cross in the ornament on the face of the gate. This
ornament consists of inlays or, as one might say, mosaics composed of a
light red and of a black stone. The effect is original and pleasant to the
eye. In the absence of any inscriptions — we searched in vain for any
trace of writing both on the outside of the edifice and within its walls —
I am inclined to consider that this so-called palace was nothing more than
a magazine and barrack, in close connection with the outer defences of the
city on the vulnerable side, the side of the plain. The only ornament in
the interior was found over a doorway, and consisted of a chain moulding
and inlays of red and black stone. On the other hand, the uses of the
place appear to be denoted by the vaulted passages and by the spacious
underground chambers. Two of these chambers, smaller in size, have
evidently served as dungeons.^

Two edifices of considerable interest remain to be mentioned. Both
are situated in quarters of the town which must have been densely built
over, and both are in an advanced state of decay. The more westerly is
perhaps the most curious of all the monuments of Ani, and I do not
pretend to have quite unravelled the complexities of its compound plan
(No. 2). The eye is engrossed by the ruin of a spacious portal, longest
from west to east. The western and southern walls have fallen away ;
but the east front and the whole of the vaulting of the most easterly

p. 28) belongs to this chapel. It runs thus : — " Under the pontificate of Ter Petros and
the reign of Sembat son of Gagik Shahanshah in the year 485 (a.d. 1036) I, the Marzpan
Aplgharib, son of the prince Grigor, grandsonof Apughamir and brother of Vahram and
Vasak, constructed at great expense this Surb-Phrkich in the metropolis of Ani." This
inscription would establish as a fact that the chapel itself was dedicated to the Redeemer.
^ A jierfect labyrinth of confusion has been brought into existence by the attribution
of the east front of the portal of the church of the Apostles to this castle or palace (see
plate xix. of Brosset's Atlas). Hajjpily I am able to correct the error. It has been in-
strumental in leading Brosset to assign all the inscriptions found in that church to this
castle. The name " palace of the Pahlavids" is purely imaginary.




Fig. 90. Ani: Doorway of the Castle.




Fig. 91. Ani; Portal of the Church of the Apostles from the West.



A7tiy and the Armenian Kingdom of the Middle Ages 385

portion have been spared by the ravages of time. Entering this portal
from the west (Fig. 91), we are able to reconstruct in fancy the features of
the design. There appear to have been three distinct domes to the roof,
supported by arches resting on pillars. Of the three divisions which were
thus introduced into the interior, the largest was that in the centre. That
on the east alone remains ; and we may gauge the dimensions of the whole
figure when we consider that this division measures within the pillars a
square of 19 feet. The architecture is pure Arab or Saracenic, recalling
that of the mosque. It is certainly later than the period of the kings.
As in the mosque, the effect is heightened by the mixture of black with
reddish blocks of stone. A large stone, sculptured with a cross, is inlaid
in the south-east wall, and may be the same as the one which has been
described by my predecessors as containing the figure of a double-headed
eagle.i The walls are covered with inscriptions. The outer face of this
portal or east front is extremely elaborate (Fig. 92). The doorway on that
side forms the centre of a Saracenic facade in which honeycomb vaultings,
false niches, and a mosaic of black and pink stones have all been made to
play a part. Four inscriptions in Armenian are observed upon this front.

This portal must have served as an entrance to two or more chapels.
Of these one alone remains. It is entered by a doorway with rich
mouldings in the north wall of the most easterly division. The interior
is of grey stone, and it is disposed in four semicircles.^ But the dimen-
sions are small as compared to those of the portal, and the portal is much
longer than the chapel. The ruinous masonry upon the west of the latter
building indicates the site of a second and contiguous chamber or chapel.
That of a third is denoted by similar evidence upon the east wall. This
structure projected beyond the east front of the portal, to which it was
placed at right angles. Traces of it may be seen in my illustration. It
bears an Armenian inscription.

The inscriptions, which unhappily I had not leisure to identify, have
been already published and translated.^ The earliest in date appears to
have been found upon the doorway of the chapel, and identifies it as a
work of the period of the kings. It records that in the year 4S0 (a.d.
103 1) Apughamir, son of Vahram, prince of princes, bestowed an endow-
ment upon this church of the Apostles for the health and long life of
his brother Grigor. My reader is already familiar with these names of
members of the Pahlavid family. The inscriptions upon the portal are
of much later dates, ranging over the period of Georgian occupation when
the city was governed by the Mkhargrdzels. Some are in the name of
the Mongol overlord. Most are of the nature of public proclamations ;
and from the one latest in date we learn that in a.d. 1348 members

1 Brosset, Ruiiics d'Aiii, p. 51, and plate xxxvi. No. 3 of the Atlas. It has been
wrongly attributed to the castle.

2 Abich describes this chapel as " a magnificent church in the form of a Greek cross
with a central rotunda and four large semicircular niches at the sides " {op. cit. vol. i.
p. 190).

•' See Brosset {Voyage Arch. livr. I, rapp. 3, pp. 86, loo, loi, 106, 109; and
Riiines d\4iii, pp. 48-52).

VOL. I 2 C



;86



Armenia




Fig. 93. The Monastery of
Khosha Vank: east side.



of this Georgian family were still per-
sonages at Ani, and that the city had
not yet been abandoned by her in-
habitants.

The second of the monuments is
also the last which I need mention ;
it is situated between the cathedral
and the chapel of the Redeemer
(No. 3). It is of small dimensions and, as usual, of great elegance ;
but the roof and the whole of the upper portion have unhappily fallen
away. In fact, the only portions which are still erect are the north wall,
the apse, and part of the south wall. A vaulted chamber extends around
the edifice. Two bas-reliefs are seen in two of the panels of the arcade
upon the north wall. The one on the left evidently represents the sub-
ject of the Annunciation ; while that on the right probably portrays the
figures of two saints. I could not discover any trace of an inscription.
But the old priest bases his opinion that the ruin is that of a church
dedicated to St. Stephen upon an inscription which has disappeared.^

My illustration of the castle (Fig. 89) will have revealed a character-
istic of the ancient city which is of historical interest. The ravine of the
Alaja, as well as both the side valleys, which open respectively to this
ravine and to that of the Arpa, present the appearance of having been
riddled into quite a network of cavities ; such is the number of the
troglodyte dwellings which they contain. Legend peoples this underground
city with the souls of those citizens of Ani who, sooner than emigrate into
distant lands, preferred to die in her defence. A stir and hum, as of a
teeming and busy populace, may be heard by night above the rustling of
the Arpa Chai.- The tuff composing the cliffs must at all times have
invited such burrowings ; and we know that, when Ani was surprised

' This is the chapel which Abich names " Kirche der Maria Verkiindigung" (pp. cit.
vol. i. p. 193). " Abich, op. cit. vol. i. p. 199.




UJ




Fig. 95. Khosha Yank: Pronaos.



Am, and the Armenian Kingdom of the Middle Ages 2!^']

during the reign of Thamar by tlie emir of Ardabil, the inhabitants, who
were still numerous, took refuge in these caves. ^

Our conception of the city of the kings would be wanting in an
essential feature were we to pass over the neighbouring convent of
Khosha Vank (Fig. 93). It was there, we can scarcely doubt, that the
monarch was often wont to deliberate ; and it was under the shadow of
those walls that his bones were laid to rest by the side of his ancestors.
The triumphal archway through which he would pass on his way from
the capital may still be seen on the summit of the cliff on the right bank
of the Arpa Chai (Fig. 94). The cloister is situated, as we have seen.

Triumphal Arclfway.




Fig. 94. Khosha Yank: Chapels in the Ravine of the Arpa Chai.

upon the opposite or left bank,- and is bordered on two sides by a loop
of the river. The bridge has disappeared. A small village has grouped
itself between the monastery and the bed of the stream, where repose
beneath the gloom of lofty cliffs of lava the two chapels and the tomb
of King Ashot.

The monastic buildings occupy a considerable area upon the high
ground within the bend of the river. They are surrounded by a lofty
wall. Entering from the west, we cross a court to an opposite doorway
which opens into a vast and gloomy chamber (Fig. 95). On the further
or eastern side of this chamber we perceive the door of the church. The
architecture of this outer hall or pronaos is quite remarkable. In some
respects it resembles that of the mosque at Ani. The ceilings are vaulted,
and there are no less than four rows of pillars. The space is divided into
the form of a nave and two aisles. The circumference of the pillars is

^ See the Georgian annalist translated by Brosset {Hist, dc la Gc'orgie).
2 I should be sorry to have to swear to this statement.



388 Armenia

gi- feet. The central vaulting of the nave is surmounted by a dome,
different in shape from any of the domes which have been described.
Viewed from the outside, it becomes merged in a tall belfry, which is seen
on the left of my illustration (Fig. 96), taken from the south-west. To
the interior it displays a drum of eight panels ; and the only light which
it transmits comes from above. The panels are of stone and covered
with sculpture in low relief. Here it is an architectural figure, there a
beautiful vine pattern which is the subject of the ornament. One space
displays the form of the Virgin Mary, set in a rich frame. The two
extremities of the frame are supported by the shapes of animals, a bull
and a lion. On the back of the lion is seated an eagle, and a child on
that of the bull. Two angels keep watch, one on either side of the
Mother of Christ. The gloom of the building is due to the design of
this dome, as well as to the smallness of the round windows, resembling
the port-holes of a ship, of which there are three in the north and two
in the south wall.

The interior of this edifice is covered with inscriptions in Armenian,
which none of my party were able to read. Perhaps they include some
of those which were brought by Abich from this cloister and which have
been translated by Brosset.-"- One of these inscriptions records a donation
in the Armenian year 650 (a.d. 1201) under the government of Zakarea.
Another is to the effect that the monastery was restored in 1102 (a.d.
1652) by one Daniel, a monk from Tigranocerta. We are told that the
buildings had previously fallen into ruin, and had become polluted by
accumulations of dust and filth. The cloister is styled Horomosi Vank,
and is described as having been constructed by the kings. I will not
venture to express an opinion upon the age of the pronaos ; but I would
suggest that the belfry is perhaps of later date. The sculptures in the
dome appear to belong to a hoary antiquity. The edifice may have served
as a model for a rock chamber which is described by a modern traveller
as belonging to the cloister of Surb Geghard.-

You enter the church through the door in the east wall of the pronaos,
passing a slab engraved with a pastoral staff, which marks the place of
burial of some spiritual dignitary. A spacious dome rests upon four piers,
and there is a single apse with the usual dais. The walls are covered
with a coating of whitewash. The interior measures roughly 53 feet by
33 feet, the former dimension including the apse. The attendant priest
showed us an old but undated manuscript, which proved to be an
illustrated New Testament. It would appear from an inscription that
the church was dedicated to St. Gregory,^ and it may perhaps be ascribed
to the period of the kings.

The monastic buildings are placed upon the south of the church and

' Voyage Arch. livr. i, rapp. 3, pp. 96, 107, 109-10.

^ Telfer, Crimea and Transcaucasia, vol. i. p. 216. The chamber at Geghard is
known as the Rusukna sanctuary, and was completed in a.d. 1288 (Arm. era 737)
{ibid. ).

•'' An inscription of a.d. 1215, much mutilated, seems to infer this (Brosset, ]'oyage
Arch. loc. cit. p. 97).




tx.




Fig. 97. Khosha Vank; Hall of the Synod.



Ani, and the Armenian Kingdom of the Middle Ages 389

pronaos, and are approached from the southern side of the entrance court.
They are just outside the area embraced by my illustration of the south
walls of the edifices just named. Two large apartments, communicating
with one another, serve as antechambers to a great hall with pillars and
vaulted ceilings, which is entered from the second of the two chambers,
and in plan extends along the most easterly of its walls. The whole suite
are impressive examples of the art of the mason and stone-sculptor, effect
being gained by the regularity and perfect fitting of the blocks, while the
stone takes an admirable surface. Friezes with stalactite patterns are
employed in one room as a cornice for the ceiling. In the second and
smaller room there is a square aperture in the centre of the roof with a
stalactite ornament. The same feature belongs to the hall of the synod
(Fig. 97), and is clearly seen in my photograph. At the further end of
the two rows of pillars may be discerned a niche with a dais, the recess
being richly sculptured. It was there that was placed the throne. But I
think these buildings are all later than the time of the kings, although they
may have been used by the Georgian princes who governed Ani. We
learn from an inscription, which was probably copied in the larger of the
antechambers, that at least one of these apartments was constructed in a.d.
X229 to serve as a receptacle for the holy relics.^

On the north side of the church buildings there is nothing but a
narrow and vacant space separating them from the wall of the cloister.
But at the east end of this part of the enclosure, and in line with the east
front of the church, are situated the roofless remains of a little'chapel,
crowning a ruinous substructure which is overgrown by rank weeds, and of
which the sculptured stones litter the ground. The pendant of this
building on the south side of the church is seen in my illustration (Fig.
96). It is much better preserved than the companion edifice, and the
chamber in the loMjer storey is still intact. This chamber is oblong in
shape, with a vaulted ceiling and an altar with sculptured stones. The
chapel is of triple design, with three apses, the whole surmounted by a
dome. It is possible that both these buildings, which so closely correspond,
were designed to receive the remains of some high personages.

But the actual tomb of one of the kings has been spared by a happy
chance, and may be found quite close to the second and larger of the
chapels which repose in the bed of the Arpa Chai (Fig. 94). It is
placed near the south-eastern angle of the building. With what a thrill of
delight did we discover this eloquent relic — a rounded slab resting on two
stone steps ! In spite of the lichen and the wear of the stone, the words
" Ashot Thagavor " (Ashot, the king) were distinctly legible. The chapels
are placed in a line from west to east, and were originally three in number.
Of these the most westerly is falling into ruin, a state which has already
overtaken that on the east. The central member of the group is at once

1 Brosset, Voyage Arch. loc. cit. p. 98. The dimensions of these various apartments
are: — No. i, length, 29 feet 4 inches; breadth, 29 feet; No. 2, 27 feet by 27 feet
2 inches; No. 3, hall of the synod, 18^^ paces by 18 paces. The reader will note
that the architects avoided exact squares. In this they were governed by a right
instinct.



390 A I'm cilia

the largest and the best preserved. It contains an inscription over the
south door to the effect that it was built in 460 (a.d. ioii) by one
George, son of the patriarch Martiros. But I have not been able to
identify this patriarch ; and it is possible there may be some error in the
translation made by my dragoman, who, although well educated, was not a
scholar in old Armenian. The king whose name appears on the tomb is
probably Ashot the Third.

The inscriptions establish the fact that the monastery was known by
the name of Horomosi Vank, which probably signifies the convent of the
Greek. ^ History supplements and explains this information. We learn
from Asoghik that it was founded in the tenth century under the reign of
Abas by Armenian priests who had emigrated from Greek territory. It
was burnt by the Mussulmans in a.d. 982.^ An inscription of King John
Sembat, dated 487 (a.d. 1038), appears to have been found within its
walls ; and it has been inferred that the cloister was restored by that
prince.^ We know that he was buried by the side of his predecessors who



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