H. F. (Harry F.) O'Beirne.

Leaders and leading men of the Indian Territory : with interesting biographical sketches ... profusely illustrated with over two hundred portraits and full-page engravings (Volume 2) online

. (page 1 of 32)
Online LibraryH. F. (Harry F.) O'BeirneLeaders and leading men of the Indian Territory : with interesting biographical sketches ... profusely illustrated with over two hundred portraits and full-page engravings (Volume 2) → online text (page 1 of 32)
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V. 2




3 1833 01793 9932

Digitized by the Internet Archive

in 2010 with funding from

Allen County Public Library Genealogy Center








H. F. & E. S. O'BEIRNE.



1 so 2.

Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1892, by

H. F. & E. S. O'BEIRNE,

In the oftice of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington.




The Muskogees 17 I The Chickasaws oo

The Choctaws 4o I The Cherokees US

Minerals, Game, Fish, etc 481


Vinita 97

Tahlequah 98

Claremore 99

Fort GiV)Son 100

P^ufaula 100

IMuskogee 101

Okmulgee 102

Wagoner 102


Adair, Arthur F 371

Adair, Hugh M 435

Adair, Jolin Lynch 463

Adair, .Jolm L., Jr 130

Adair, John T 332

Adair, Mrs. Roland K 374

Adair, Penelope 316

Adair, Roland Kirk 372

Adair, W. T 326

Adams, H. W. 181

Adams, .John 268

Adams, Thomas J 242

Alberty, Ellis C 377

Alberty, Ellis M 339

Alexander, George Abner 245

Allen, David M 455

Archer, Thomas Jefferson 218

Austin, William L 317

Bacone, AlmonC - 135

Bailey, Ward Howard 366

Baldwin, John W 445

Baldwin, William 447

Balentine, William H 138

Barritt, Henry Clay 353

Baugh, Joel L 443

Belcher, Christopher C 264

Bell, George W 471

Bell, John A 452

Bell, Lucien B. (Hooley) 314

Belt, John C 158

Belt, Mrs. Artelle 160

Benge, George W 349

Bennett, Leo E 122

Berry, Virgil 309

Bertiiolf, Isaac W 458

P>oling, .lames M 39(>


Boudinot , Elias C ] 1 .">

Boudinot. Elias P 4t>L*

Boudinot. William P 2()(>

Brewer, .Tames Richardson 89o

Brown. ^lartin R 4'^^i

Breiwn . Robert Sherman oSO

Brown. Samuel W 1S7

Buflington. J. D 410

Buthngton, Thomas M 4()8

Bullette, John L 443

Burdett, Joshua 174

lUirdett. ^Irs. Sudie 175

Bushyhead. Dennis AV 117

Bynum. Robert Newton 292

Byrd. AVilliamL 321

Callaghan. James 139

Campbell. William Ross 317

Canard, Thomas 3oH

Canup, W. T_-_ .. 430

Carr. David 335

Carter. John R 351

Chandler, ThomasA _. 470

Childers, Ellis Buffentan 20(i

Chouteau, Benjamin C 345

Clinkscales, A. M 308

Coachman, Ward 341

Cobb, John O 225

Cnbb, Joseph Benson 431

Cobb, Samuels 270

Cobb, Samuels 180

Connell, Tamaya 204

Connor, F. M - 40H

Couch, Marion W ,337

Covel, John Henry [ ,343

CraVjtree, William B 258

Crabtree, AVilliam F 413

Crittenden, Henry Clay 4«1

Crutchfield, Leroy L 339

Daniels, Robert Buffington 259

Daugherty, Mathew 3()()

Davis, Charles A 223

Davis, AVilliam H 232

Dick, John Henry . 3()4

Dick.son, Thomas Benton 424

Drew, John T -_-. 290

Duncan. James AV 355

Dunzv, Henrv 168

Ellis, .Tackson AV 217

Evans, AValter N 1(59

Ewing. Peter R 209

Fisher, Henry Clay 177

Fisher, Mrs. H. C 179

Fisher, AVilliam 214

Flournoy, D. H ]H4

Foreman, Austin AV 304

Foreman, Stephen 21()

Fortner, Benjamin F 305

Frazee, Morris 148

French, Robert AI 350

Fuller, J. S 425

Gentry, W. E 152

Gibbs, Joseph L 208

Gibson, Charles 29()

Gordon, AAllliam F 190

Grayson, Colbert I5(i

Grayson, George AV 131

Grayson, Pilot 2(il

Grayson, Sam 250

Gray, A^alentine 311

Gregory, Airs. Noah G 313

Gregory, Noah G 312

Gunter, John T ■_ 428

Guy, AVilliam Alalcolm 125

Halsell, AVilliam Electra 193

Hardridge, Eli E 219

Harris, Johnson 375

Harris, AVilliam L 303

Hastings, AVilliam AA^irt 441

Hawkins, Pink 171

Haynes, Samuel Jonathan 1(>5

Heinrichs, Joseph 244

Henry, Hugh 298

Hendricks, AV. H 361

Hicks, Richard W 405

Hildebrand, Joseph M 281

Hill, Davis 145

Hinds, Sampson O 239

Hitchcock, Isaac B 331

Howie, Thomas 433

Hutchings, AVilliam T 418

Ingram, John F 3H2

Ivev, James AV 440


Jackson, Clirtoi-a L 1!»()

.Jackson, Waynian C lo4

Jacobs, Isaac 37()

Johnston, Douglas H Ho

Jones, Wilson X 8!i'. i

Julian, RoT)ort AV Hl'l'

Keys, James M 83S

Kinney, John 4i'>

Kinney, John V 247

Knight, Robert!) ;iS8

Knitrht, Thomas R 3oO

Koinegay, Wade H , 4'y2

Lane, Cap L 407

Lawrence, J. A 432

Lerl>lance, Elijah H 182

Lindsey, Riley Wise 284

Lipe, C. C 310

Lipe, De Witt Clinton 241

Lipe, Oliver W 211

Loughridge, .Robert 3IcGill 47.)

Madden, William Ai-thur 43()

Marrs. David M 287

Martha, Hotulke E 221

Mason, Charles H 4.)()

Mayes, Joel B 103

McClellan, William Peter 408

MeCombs, Mrs. William li)8

McC'ombs, William U)7

McCoy, John L 300

Mcintosh, I). X 307

-Alclntosh, William F 104

McKellopp, Albert Pike 2.30

McSpadden, James W 324

McSpadden, John Thomas 147

McQuarie, John Harold 20.'i

Merrell, Joseph B 4.i0

Merrill, AVilliam M 2.>2

Milford, M. E 2<i3

Miller, William AV 334

Mills. AVilliam Richard-. 201

Mitchell, James F 394

Moore, Charles (rates 398

Moore, Mrs. August R - 3-'J8

Moore, Napoleon B 4-^3

Moore, AA^illiam P 204

Morrow, .Tames Afarion 28.)

^lorgan, Gideon 42*

-AldLinis. David Albert 200

Alurpliy. 1). C .381

Nash, AV. S 130

Navin. AVilliam 200

Needles, Thomas B lOO

Xeilsoii, Francis A 382

Palmer, AV. A 1.3()

Parkinson, Terry A 282

Parks, George AV 260

Parris, E. P . 2.34

Paschal, Ridge 420

Pasco, Gilbert AV 17.)

Patterson & Foley 172

Patterson, J. A 414

Patton, AA'illiam C 141

Ferryman, George B 410

Ferryman, .Joseph M 120

Ferryman, L. C 10.)

Ferryman, Thomas AA'ard 422

Poole, Charles AV 328

Porter, .John S 417

Porter, Pleasant 101

Quinton, Eliza Jane 470

Ratcliffe, Edgar X .388

Robb, A. AV 384

Robinson, .Jefferson 293

Rol)ison, AVilliam 2.5.5

Ross, Charles ^I 1-54

Ross, Joshua 199

Ross, Mrs. Joshua 201

Ross, AVilliam F 234

Rucker, George R 408

Scott, James A 412

Scott, .John S 273

Seaver, AV. F - 3()0

Secondyne, Simon 302

Sepulpa, AVilliam A 239

Severs, I^'ederick B 108

Shackelford, James M 149

Shepard, Harrison O 413

Simpson, John F 372

Skinner, Nathaniel 271

Small, James 390

Small wood, 1",. I-"" \ 140


Smith, Charles Scott 252

Smith, John A 4(j0

Smitli. John M 4S6

Smith. Wiley 471

.*<pringston, John L 392

Standifonl. J. F 202

Starr, Caleb W 2S9

Starr. Ellis 4U5

Starr, John Caleb 2)3

Starr, Walter A 431

Sticiham, George W 18o

Stidhani, Geoi-ge \V., Jr 459

Strange. William J 280

Tarvin. George W 38(5

Taylor. John" 347

Taylor, John :\I 283

Taylor, ^Irs. Susan 324

Taylor, Thomas Fox 460

Teague, William AV 279

The Indian Arrow 474

The India n Ch iefta in 289

Thompson, Johnson 378

Thompson, Jofeeph M 403

Thompson, Thomas Fox 473

Thompson, William Presley 227

Tibbils. William II " 448

Triplett, Thomas W ' 320

Trott, William L ' 277

Tucker, John M 287

Turner, Clarence W 212

Ward, Darius E - - 128

Whitmire, Eli H 276

Willistms, Mason Fitch 191

Willison, James Dandridge 223

Wilson, John Franklin 248

Wisdom, Dew Moore 363

Wolfe, J. Edward ^- 368

Wolfe, Richard M - 400

Wolfe, Thomas Leroj' — 356

Wright, William C 359

Wyly, Robert F 347

•.-.•. PREFACE .-.•.•

To tilt ludian Trvitory — Its CJtiiffs, L<(iisJatorsaiK] Lefnlhig M(ii :

In placiuof this work I)efore the public, we do so, not only with
a view of satisfying the universal demand for a more thorough
and accurate knowledge of the live civilized tribes, but to perpet-
uate for years to come the memories of many of the most illus-
trious of the Indian legislators.

It would reflect upon the philantrophy of the present generation
— in this era of literary enterprise — to have permitted the aborig-
ines of our great Kepublic to pass into oblivion ; nu)re especiallv
now that the tribal governments are threatened with approaching

]Much that is mischievously false concerning the social condition
of the five tribes has appeared from time to time in the press of
the United States, and in manv instances thev have been grrosslv
misrepresented. Let us hope that this work, setting forth, as it
does, the self-reliance and legislative independence of each dis-
tinctive government, as well as the rapid progress in education
and agriculture, will serve as a strong protest against any undue
action on the part of the United States to deprive these people of
a country which they purchased and paid for, and which is theirs
by treaty " as long as grass grows and water runs."

Preceding the biographies of leading men will be found historic
sketches of the ^Nluskogees, or Creeks, Cherokees, Choctaws and
CMiickasaws, including the ancient customs, rites and superstitions
of those tribes. The compilers of the Indian Territory are under
obligations to several of the oldest citizens of each nation for
valuable contributions to this work.

H. F. & E. S. O'BEIRNE.


/ ^ '^////////////////M/


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it • ' ''^ ''^ (' . ' 'V''&i'T*^

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Their EarK' Historx-.— Orio;in of the Creek Confederation.

F tlu' ahoi-igiiu's I hat dwelt east of the Mississippi the Mus-
koo'ces were the most powerful and the most aiii>ressive.
Duriiiii' the striiiioie between ("ortez and Montezuma, this
people foi'med a separate repuldic on the north-west of Mexic(^,
and lent their aid to the Mexican monarch in the defense of liis
country au'ainst the S|)anish in\ader. Hut Cortez heinu' tinalh'
successfnl, and the Muskoget's l)eino- unwillino-to submit to Spanish
t3'ranny. they determined to move eastward and form a new gov-

Accordiiiii'ly the whole tribe took up the line of nuirch in the
year 1520, aiul. after a joui'ney of six months, came to Ketl River
where they settled for a tinu' — i>ame and tisli lieing very })lentiful.
Here they first met with the Alabamas. also supposed to l)e a
wanderino- tribe from the West. A large body of the latter
attacked and killed several of a Muskogee hunting party, and this
incident led to the pursuit and final conquest of the Alabamas hy
the warlike emigrants. Some months later while traveling north-
west tlu'y struck the trail of the Alabamas in a grove on the Mis-
souri Ki\er. Pickett, in his jiistory of Alabanui, states that the
great sti'eam was crossed by the Muskogees in the order of thcii'
standing or grade — the more aristocratic moving first. The ^^'ind
family, therefore, took the precedence, followed b\ the l>car.
Tiger, and thus down to the hund)lest of the clans. The army
was led I»y the Tustennuggee, or war chief. The Alabanuis were
overtaken and, being totally defeated, tied with precipitation to




the Mississippi, w lu-ii.' llu'V wwv naaiii nthu'ked l)y.the N'ictorious
jNIuskogees niul (lii\on to the Ohio, and tiii:ill\' to the Yazoo Kiver,
whi'iT in 1S41 their fortress was besieged and destroyed by De
kSoto. the Spanish invatk^r.

From the time tlie Muskogees had left Mexieo to their set-
tling on the Oliio Ki\er. fifteen years had ehi})sed. The new
oountrv suited them in every respect, while their numl)ers and
prowess enaliled them to subjugate the other and less powerful
tribes. Still })ursuing the Alabamas, they drove them from the
Coosa and Talla})oosa rivers, while they also subjugated the tribes
on the Okmulgee, Oeonee and Ogeche rivers.

Pickett is accountable for the statement that the Uchee, a
powerful and warlike tribe living on the Savannah, were con-
(juered and carried into slavery by the Muskogees in the year 1620.
The Tuckabatches, a tribe almost depleted in their wars with the
Hurons and Iroquois of the North, treated with the Muskogees in
17()o and became a part of their nation, as did also the Alabamas,
who realized the fact that they could no longer carry on the strug-
gle ; and thus originated the Muskogee or Creek Confederacy.
The Tuckabatches were an enterprising people, and soon built a
town, which before many years assumed great importance and was
made the capital of the entire nation. The Tuckabatches, says
Pickett, brought with them to Tallapoosa in 1759, some curious
brass plates, the origin and ol)ject of which have long puzzled the
scientific men of the past and present. These plates are seven in
number, five of them are of copper, one a foot and a half long by
seven in width; the other four a little shorter and narrower. The
two of brass are eighteen inches in diameter, about the thickness
of a dollar, and stamped with a dim A E, connected. Their tradi-
tion is that these plates were given to them by their ancestors,
who instructed them that they were only to be handled by par-
ticular men, and that no unclean women Avere to be suffered to
come near them or the place where they were deposited. These
orders were sacredly observed, the plates being kept buried under
the Micco (or king's) cabin in Tuckabatche until the annual
Green Corn Dance, when on the fourth day they were brought to
light by one of the high prophets and cleaned, after which was
enacted the ceremony of the Brass Plate Dance.


When the Tuckabatches, iu 1836, took up' the line of march
for the Indian Territory, these phites were carried by six chosen
warriors, led by Spoke-oak Micco, their chief. They were strap-
ped behind their backs, and the bearers were not permitted to
speak or otherwise communicate with a member of the emigration
party, they being obliged to walk one mile in advance of the

To the present day the old customs are adhered to, and the
brass plates are sacredly hidden until the fourth day of the Tucka-
batche busk or corn dance, when they are used as above de-
scribed .

The full-bloods believe that great danger, and even fatality, is
in store for him who touches, or even looks intently at, these
plates, sp that there is little fear of their ever falling into wrong-

About the year 1720, the Muskogees having acquired a great
reputation for their wisdom in council and their many conquests,
were called upon to receive into their confederation an additional
number of weaker tribes, amono' whom were the Tuskeo'ees,
Ozeills and a small band of Natchez, survivors of a disastrous war
with the French. The Muskogees, who appear to have been a
hospitable race, readily consented to adopt these and a host of
smaller bands, till in the year 1798, says Col. Hawkins in his
"Sketches of the Creek Countr\^," there were seventy-seven
towns. Forty- nine of these were classified as the Upper towns,
and twenty-eight as the Lower. The Tuckabatche, which was
situated on the left bank of the Tallapoosa River, was in point of
importance the leading of the Upper towns, being the seat of their
capital. Among other prominent Upper towns were Talise or
Tulsie, Tuskegie, Okfuskie, Hillubie, Autossee and Eufaula, while
those of Coweta, Cussetah, Hitchetee, Wetumka and Okmulgee
were prominent among the Lower tqwns. Apart, and without
any direct connection with these towns, are the eight original
clans of Muskogees, viz. : the Wind, Bear, Tiger, Deer, Bird,
Raccoon, Snake and Fox. The first mentioned, and the two fol-
lowing, were esteemed by historians as the most aristocratic. The
Creek Confederacy was under the government of one great chief,
prince or king, chosen from the original or mother tribe in earl}^


days, but since 1800 the Hickoiy Ground and Tuckabatches have
both supplied chief ndcrs. Subordinate to the chief ruler were
two inferior I'hiefs of the I'pper and l^owrr towns. The former
chose their chiefs from the Tuckabatches, and the latter from the
Cowetas. Every town had its own kini>-, or magistrate, who rep-
resented his people at the oeneral council. This individual held
otKce for life, and was succeeded bv his nephew. He l)ore the
name of his town with the word "Micco," or king, attached — as
Cusseta Micco, When war was about to be declared, the Tusten-
nuggee,or war chief, scut to each subordinate chief a club, part of
which was painted red, and with it a nund)er of pieces of wood to
indicate the number of days in wdiich he should present himself
at the rendezvous, where further plans were entered into. The
subordinate chief, on his part, caused a drum to ])e beaten in front
of his cabin, and the warriors were soon assembled. The chief,
by this time, had cut a numlier of chips of w^ood ecjual to the num-
l)er of volunteers needed, and, as they stepped one bv one into the
circle, a chip was dropped until they were all exhausted. This
custom was invariably adopted in calling together a war party.
Then commenced the distribution of their medicine, a course of
which continued three days ; after wdiich the subordinate chiefs
supplied themselves with their talisnum, a small bag containing
some pebbles, and pieces of cloth taken from the garments of the
grand chief on his return from a former war.

Being punctual at the appointed rendezvous, the grand chief
placed himself at the head of his army, and the march commenced.
The Muskogees were brave to a reckless and desperate degree, so
that defeat did not discourage them — as was ^vell proven in their
wars with the United States, when it recjuired the utmost efforts
of General Jacl>son and his armies to subjugate them.

One of the ancient laws among the Muskogees, one wdiich w^as
adhered to ver}^ strictly, was that no member of the tribe should
marry within his own clan. Ever}- child belonged to its mother's
clan. It was therefore customary for the young warrior to apply
to the uncle or maternal relatives of the girl for the necessary con-
sent. This being granted, the lover usually killed a deer and laid
it outside the door of the young woman's Avigwam. If the present
was accepted it was a good indication, but if it was suffered to re-


main untouched, the wooer might then consider that his suit was a
faihire. Instead of grieving intensely, or destroying himself in a
fit of despair, the rejected lover usually sought a mate elsewhere,
and in this philosophy, at least, the Indian shows a wisdom super-
ior to many of his pale-faced brethren.

The only religious ceremony of any great importance among
the Creeks, was the Busk or Green Corn Dance, an annual festival
similar in purpose to our national Thanksgiving. "Wherever
Indian corn was grown, the ripening of that grain constituted an
important era in the year. The whole band usually assembled to
celebrate this festival. It was the custom at this time to produce
fire by rubbing two sticks together, and the fire thus produced
was sent from band to band as a token of friendship. At the
place of assembly a large fire was kept up, and around it gathered
the warriors and the women, dancing and singing songs expressive
of their gratitude to the Great Spirit for sparing them and their
friends throughout the year. But should famine or pestilence
have overtaken them, or many of their people have fallen in battle,
then these joyous songs were intermingled with wailing and mourn-
ful sounds. Such national calamities were attributed to the crimes
of the people, and pardon was thereupon invoked. Before the
feast commenced the "Black Drink" was handed round. This
drink was composed of the leaves of a small bush known by them
as arsee. It was drunk in large quantities, and being a powerful
emetic, had the effect of cleansing their stomachs so thoroughly,
that they were in a fair way of being able to do justice to the feast
of boiled corn, which frequentlv lasted for days at a time. Dur-
ing their festival, should a crimiual or culprit escape from his
bonds and make his way into the charmed circle, or into the square,
during the dance, he was considered as under the protection of the
Great Spirit, and his pardon was secured.

One of the proofs which might be used to favor the argument
that the American a))origines are of Asiatic descent, was the Creek
custom of purification among the women, who, at regular periods,
retired into solitude, using only eating and drinking vessels which
were retained for the occasion. Their retirement during child-
birth was also observed with religious strictness.

The Creeks did not look upon polygamy with any prejudice ; on
the contrary, it was adopted to a great extent by the leading


chiefs and warriors: many of the more iiulepeiulent possessing
three ov four wives. Their choice in the matter was usually
regulated according to their finances, and it was considered a
grave breach of mt)rals for a warrior to nuirry more wives than he
had the means to support in a comfortable manner. Many of the
warriors in those days had an abundance, while not a few of the
chiefs were comparatively wealthy, possessing as nianv as from
twenty to fifty or sixty slaves, and large stocks of horses and

The male t-liildren of the tribe Avere at an early age taught the
art of hunting. The blow-gun, a hollow reed of eight or ten feet
in leno:th. from which a small arrow is forced by the breath, beinff
the favorite weapon among the youths. With this they were
enabled, by crawling close to small birds, and even ral)bits, to
secure a great number. These guns are called, in the Creek lan-
guage, Cohamoteker. The boys were also very accurate with the
bow and arrow, their success in the killing of tish by this method
was wonderful, it being nothing imcommouto see a little warrior of
eight or nine years old raise from the water, transfixed by his arrow,
a buffalo or cat-fish almost his own size. When a bo}^ accom-
plished an extraordinary feat or jjerformed an exploit beyond his
years, he was marked as having a superior spirit, which would
distinguish him in after life. From this exploit he frequently
derived the name by which he was known among his people.


Among the American Indian Tribes that have lost their individ-
uality and become merged in the more powerful aboriginal nations,
the Euchee is the most distinctive in its language and customs.
Before the War of the Kebellion, this tribe was known to have ex-
isted in the South-eastern States, and to have been both numerous
and powerful, till conquered by the Creeks upwards of a century
ago. It is avowed by McKinney and Hall, in their history of the
Indian tribes, that the Euchees were made slaves by the victorious
Creeks, and were at length emancipated, owing to the fact that
that nation had little or no agricultural work for them to perform.


But the Eucliees of the present day indignantly refute this asser-
tion, and go so far as to deny their conquest by the Creeks, at-
tributing their incorporation with that tribe to the fact of their
liaving diminished in numbers, many of them having sought a
country further to the West, and that this immigration had so
depleted them that they considered it wise to form an alliance with
their more numerous neighbors. However this may be, the
Euchees now form a very considerable body politic in the Creek Na-
tion, sending tiye representatives to the general council. That the
Euchees were essentially a distinct tribe from any and all others is
proven, not only by their language (which has no resemblance
whatsoever to any tongue spoken on the Western Continent),
but by their customs and personal appearance. Differing from
other aboriginal tribes many of these people have grey eyes, while
the complexion is several shades lighter than the full-blood of other
nations. The shape of the face also appears to differ slightly
and the women are in many instances very beautiful.

Several customs among the Euchees were evidently derived from
Scriptural rites and ceremonies. For example, that of purification
among the full-blood women is almost identical with the written law
as described in the Bible. The Indian woman during the monthly
period is obliged to retire from the household and sleep and eat
alone, having yessels, plates, spoons, etc., which are only used by
herself, and then only during her period of uncleanness. Until
recently she was supposed to camp alone in the open air, and
wash in the stream or river; but the hardship of this custom is
now modified.

After giving birth, the woman is obliged, if couveuiently pcjssible,
to remain out of the house until after the seventh day, when her
purification is looked upon as complete. The above customs are
to some extent observed by the Creek women, but they do not

Online LibraryH. F. (Harry F.) O'BeirneLeaders and leading men of the Indian Territory : with interesting biographical sketches ... profusely illustrated with over two hundred portraits and full-page engravings (Volume 2) → online text (page 1 of 32)