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the conditions is that the applicant should have the indorse-
ment of his teacher for the certificate. Aside from this, the
only requirement is that the pupil shall have made satis-
factory progress. The cost is fifty cents to cover expense
of having the certificate filled out.



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Copies 85 to p/.-It is unnecessary to give instructions for each figure. Study the large forms as you have already studied the large
etters Remember that figures are very important and that they should be given even more careful practice than letters. Make them quite
mall, and perfectly legible. Illegible figures cause lots of trouble. After some practice you should be able to write figures at the rate ot from
25 to 150 per minute.






Copy 02



A PRACTICAL SET OF CAPITAL LETTERS — AS PLAIN AS PRINT.




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BUSINESS SIGNATURES— ILLUSTRATING CAPITAL COMBINATIONS



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Copy 96.



RECEIPT IN FULL OF ACCOUNT.



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BUSINESS LETTER.




One is sometimes disposed to question whether modern
methods of training are producing such excellent results in
the development of men as did the old. Of course, there
are always those who think that the present shows a de-
cided deterioration as compared to the past, for with the
lapse of a generation the darker colors are softened and
the brighter ones stand out in still bolder relief, but that
crop which President Roosevelt, in an Iowa speech made
some time ago, said was the best the farmer raised— the
boy crop — seems, like other crops, to have its bad seasons.
When our grandfathers were young one of the first
lessons they were called upon to learn was that of obedience.
The parental judgment might not be at all times erroneous,
but it was infallible so far as the children were concerned,
as there was no appeal to higher courts. There might be
a thousand and one good reasons, such as a sore toe, a
lame finger, and a headache, why young William should not
fill the wood-box, but if he was told to do it there was
one good reason why it should be done, and this one was
more potent than all the rest.

Moral suasion, of course, is a great deal better than
physical coercion, and in these days is is held that boys
ought to be governed entirely on the former rather than
the latter principle. Those sessions in the woodshed with
the stern parent and the equally inexorable leather strap-
let us hope without the buckle attachment— were not scenes
for the painter of still life or harmony, but some there are
who believe that a better crop of men came out of the
woodshed of a previous generation than now emerges from
the up-to-date kindergarten. There is a somewhat excusable
notion that boys in those days arrived later in life to the
period of supreme knowledge which made the modest at-
tainments in learning of their parents look like fogyism.



Of course, such an impression is largely based on false
premises. The best results of the old methods are com-
pared with the worst of the new, and it is not surprising
that the rising generation suffers in consequence. The two
youths of seventeen and fifteen who boarded an express
train on one of its stops in New York State, unlocked the
express car with a skeleton key and were only prevented
from committing robbery by the presence of a well-filled
shotgun, deftly manipulated by a detective, are not typical
of the modern young man. The two Kansas boys who en-
tered a bank and shot two of its officers were not fair
specimens of the type of sunflower youth. The New Albany,
Ind., reader of trashy books, who did much the same thing,
expecting to conceal himself in a specially prepared box
and be shipped to a distant city by freight, but whose plans
were frustrated by early capture, should not be looked
upon as a sample of modern training, for his father ad-
mitted that the son never had bringing up of any kind ex-
cept what he got for himself.

As a matter of fact, the very fact that notwithstanding



the increasing complexity of business, men are able at an
earlier period in life to assume control of great enterprises,
proves that the development of the race is keeping pace with
the times. The first railroad manager had only a few miles
of track and a few cars under his control. His roll of em-
ployees had only a few names upon it. A few weeks ago,
when Edward H. Harriman, a veritable wizard in the matter
of railroad management and railroad development, died, a
comparatively young man took up the work he had laid down
and gives every evidence of possessing the capacity to carry
it on. With a business career of but half that of the man
who preceded him, he is so nearly able to meet all the de-
mands of his position as to continue the work without fric-
tion.

There are, of course, young men who know more at
eighteen or twenty than they will ever know again, but we
think the same isolated instances of premature development
might have been found in the product of the woodshed, in
those who held frequent and close communion with the strap.
There are young men who are unequal to the demands of
our modern life, and are sure to drift along with no definite
port while they are young, becoming public charges in the
advancing years, but the undeserving poor we have always
had with us, and not all the socialistic schemes ever pro-
posed can cause the breed to disappear entirely. The ne'er-
do-well of a century ago could conceal his defects more
surely, for he could become a pioneer and in an unsettled
country indulge his vagrant habits in desultory fishing and
hunting expeditions, while at the present time the eyes of so-
ciety are upon him, but he existed then as he exists to-day.

On the whole, there is every reason to believe that the
young men of to-day are brighter, better, cleaner in every
way than those of former generations. With greater oppor-
tunities for evil a greater number of them choose to do
well. Drunkenness in a young man to-day makes him to
some extent an outcast from respectable society, while if
we are to believe what has been handed down to us from
the past, in those times drinking to excess was practised
by an incredibly large proportion of young men as well
as older ones. The world is getting better, not so rapidly
as we should like, but slowly and surely. And in this bet-
terment of the world the youth now entering upon the
serious part of life may, if he will, have a part. He may
help to set higher standards of business integrity, and by
his personal habits furnish an unanswerable argument against
those who would have us believe that all that is worth while
in the human race is likely to disappear from the earth
when the last surviving members of their own generation
pass away.

"For the conduct of life, habits are worth more than
maxims, because a habit is a living maxim which has become
instinct."




CONVENTION FACTS TO REMEMBER

The annual convention of the National Commercial
Teachers' Association will be held in Louisville, Ky., begin-
ning Monday evening, December 27, and ending Thursday
evening, December 30. Headquarters will be at the Gait
House, and inquiries for accommodations should be ad-
dressed to Enos Spencer, Spencerian Commercial School,
Louisville, to whom special rates have been made. The Jour-
nal party leaves New York on the afternoon of Sunday, De-
cember 26, at 4.55, reaching Louisville Monday evening. At-
tractive programmes have been prepared for every section,
and never before were such plans made for ;he entertainment



of visitors. Kentucky hospitality has never failed to meet the
test, and this year a new mark is sure to be set.



HYMENEAL

A wedding of interest to many school men in the East
was that of Charles H. Larsh, head of the commercial de-
partment cif Miner's Business Academy, Brooklyn, and Miss
Alice Pollok, of Newark, N. J., which occurred on October
19. 1900, at the horne of the bride's parents. About fifty
guests were present. The bride is an educated woman, and
herself a teacher, so she will be in hearty sympathy with her
husband in his work. They are at home at "The Kingsland,"
645 McDonough street, Brooklyn. The Journal wishes them
many years of happiness.



Vho'sWho in





C. Gregersen.
Among those who were born in a foreign country and
came to the United States after reaching manhood, yet who
have become successful in the commercial school field here,
is C. Gregersen, who is a native of Denmark, having been
born there on the 28th day of October, 1884.

The first eighteen years of his life were
spent on the little peninsula, but he thought
he saw larger opportunities on this side of
the Atlantic, and in 1902 cut loose from his
friends and old associates to make for him-
self a career in America.

He had graduated from the public schools
in his native town and taken a short course
in a technical school, so when he reached
tin's country he was well fitted to become a valuable mem-
ber of society. As soon as it was possible to do so he en
tered the business school in St. Paul, graduating at the head
of his class in bookkeeping. He also took a shorthand course
and became interested in penmanship.

Following his graduation from the St. Paul school he
spent some time in business, gaining experience in railroad,
manufacturing and banking work. Determining to fit him-
self for teaching, he went to Valparaiso, Ind., for a teacher's
training course, and there came under the supervision of W.
A. Hoffman, who has charge of the penmanship classes.
Upon completing his course at Valparaiso, Mr. Gregersen
was offered a position in the Rasmussen Practical Business
School, in St. Paul, where he is now employed.

Although he has done, under a heavy handicap, what
many native born Americans might have been proud to
achieve, he is still to reach the heights that lie beyond.



F. B. Adams.
F. B. Adams is a native of the Sunflower State. This
involved being born in Kansas, but like most persons who
were born there, he is proud of the fact. Like many natives
of that State, too, he is successful in more than one way.
Mr. Adams discovered some of the prairies of the West in
1883. He describes the surroundings of his
earlier years as ideal, and early showed in-
clination to make the best of his educational
opportunities. After finishing the course in
grammar school his parents removed to
Greenville, 111., where he took a complete
high school course. This was followed by
work in Greenville College, where he took
both literary and commercial courses. Upon
graduating from the latter in 1904 he was offered a position
as principal of the Commercial Institute, 'Meridian, Miss.
Mr. Adams spent three years in this place and performed his
duties to the satisfaction of pupils, parents and business men.
In the meantime, he completed his collegiate course and re-
ceived the degree of Ph. B. Feeling that a larger field was
open to him in Plainview, he accepted a position in the Cen-
tral Plains College, where he had charge of the commercial
department for one year. The year and a half following were
spent in charge of the bookkeeping and penmanship depart-
ments of the Peoria, 111., Business College, and Heald's
Business College, Reno, Nev. He could not be entirely




&



happy away from Kansas, however, and returned to Anthony,
where he purchased a half interest in the Anthony Business
College. He expects to devote himself in the future to the
betterment of the young people of that section of his State,
The degree LL. B. will come to him some time during the
course of the present year. Mr. Adams is an excellent pen-
man, and has taken correspondence courses under some of

the best in the country.

O. W. Valentine.

Twenty-three years ago O. W. Valentine was born in
Unionville, Mo. We are not advised as to how he spent
his time outside of school hours up to 1904, but it appears
that he graduated from the high school at that time. After
receiving his diploma there he tried a mercantile life and
acted as clerk in a grocery store for some
months. He was more interested in teach-
ing, however, and took up public school
work in his home county in 1905. He fol-
lowed this work for two years, entering
Gem City Business College, at Quincy, III.,
in 1907. After graduating, in the Fall of
1908, he went to Montana, and on Septem
ber 1 commenced work with the Abbott
Business College, at Billings. He is principal of the commer-
cial department and makes a specialty of penmanship. He
enjoys this branch very much and has had excellent results
teaching it. When the school was incorporated last May,
Mr. Valentine took some stock in the company and was
elected secretary. Although young in years, he has made for
himself a certain place among business educators of the
West, and gives promise of rising to still greater heights in

the future.

V. M. Rubert.

Western men have a habit of coming to the East and
rivalling the natives in their success. V. M. Rubert, who
took the place of S. E. Leslie in Eastman College, Pough-
keepsie, promises to fill the position as capably as any of his
predecessors have done. He is still a young man, having
been born on March 3, 1883. He is a native
of South Dakota and his early life was
spent on a ranch. After getting what eJu
cation he could in the country schools, he
taught in them for some time and later en-
tered the college at Mitchell, S. D. Here
he completed the commercial course, took
almost all of the work in the normal course
and specialized along the line of teaching.
The reputation of the Eastman School had reached him there,
and he came to Poughkeepsie in March, 1905, and when he
finished his course he was offered a position as teacher.
Among the branches he handles at Eastman College are
bookkeeping, business arithmetic and law, aside from pen-
manship. He is an excellent disciplinarian and is unusually
successful in arousing and maintaining the enthusiasm of
his pupils. He inherited some of his taste for penmanship
from his father, and this natural bent was encouraged by
W. A. Shurtleff, of the school at Mitchell; T. Courtney and
S. E. Leslie. With such excellent training it is safe to pre-
dict for Mr. Rubert the greatest success in commercial work
and especially in penmanship.




During the coming -year we hope to Imve contributions for this department from all the leading penmen. We vrnnt the
beat that the profession can supply. It is the plan to make this department one of the most Interesting In the magazine.



EDITOR'S SCRAP BOOK

C. A. Robertson, of the MacCormac School, Chicago, 111.,
favors us with some ornamental signatures that take first
rank. Mr. Robertson is making a splendid success of his
work with the MacCormac School.

The envelope containing the renewal of the subscription
of A. M. Grove, of Chicago, 111., is an artistic piece of work.
The name of our magazine is nicely lettered, and Mr. Grove
deserves much credit for his skill. We are going to place
the superscription in our scrap-book for our visitors to
admire.

From Fred Berkman, of the Blair Business College, Spo-
kane, Wash., come some very dainty signatures. Mr. Berk-
man swings a masterful quill.

The ornamental work of W. R. Hill, of the Drake Busi-
ness College, Jersey City, N. J., shows that he, too, thor-
oughly understands this branch of the art.

J. H. Atchley, of Abbott, Tex., sends us a generous packet
of specimens of ornamental and business writing that show
splendid progress.



Nicely written superscriptions continue to reach our
desk. Those received during the past month are from S. C.
Bedinger, St. Paul, Minn. ; J. A. Snyder, Big Rapids, Mich. ;
W. A. Hoffman, Valparaiso, Ind. ; J. H. Janson, Napa, Cal.;
Charles Schovanek, Cleveland, Ohio; W. C. Brownfield,
Bowling Green, Ky. ; H. F. Diehl, Klingerstown, Pa. ; Theo.
Anderson, Minneapolis, Minn. ; R. A. Coverdale, Stillwater,
Okla. ; Geo. L. Voigt, Waverly, la. ; C. F. Sherman, Mt. Ver-
non, N. Y. ; C. W. Jones, Brockton, Mass. ; J. H. Clark,
Providence, R. I.; H. N. Staley, Baltimore, Md.; W. R.
Smith, Phillipsburg, N. J.; V. M. Rubert, Poughkeepsie, N.
Y. ; L. L. Weaver, Alliance, Ohio ; J. N. Fulton, Ft. Wayne,
Ind.; M. J. Walters, Chicago, 111.; R. S. Collins, Philadel-
phia, Pa. ; W. E. Garvey, Atlanta, Ga. ; H. K. Henderson,
Leeds, England ; D. L. Hunt, Eau Claire, Wis. ; M. F. Bel-
lows, Fitchburg, Mass.; W. A. Millman, Alberton, P. E. I.;
M. P. Ropp, Berkeley, Cal.; E. J. Gibb, Evanston, 111.; J. D.
Todd, Salt Lake City, Utah ; A. B. Wraught, Pittsfield, Mass. ;
G. I. Cross, Lowell, Mass.; J. W. Farrell, Baltimore, Md. ;
Great Falls, Mont., Commercial College.




A LESSON IN ORNAMENTAL WRITING FOR ADVANCED STUDENTS BY W. A. HOFFMAN, VALPARAISO, IND.



A very fine specimen of the art of lettering comes to
us from F. B. Adams, Anthony, Kan.

F. E. Persons, the penman of Buffalo, N. Y., contributes
to the Scrap-Book some very neat and artistic specimens of
card writing.

The automatic penwork of S. T. Grier, of Barnesville,
Ohio, is the best specimen of this kind of lettering we have
seen for a long time.

Letters worthy of mention have been received from J.
G. Christ, Lock Haven, Pa. ; H. W. Patten, Philadelphia, Pa. ;
B. F. Overstreet, Connellsville, Pa. ; C. J. Gruenbaum, Lima,
Ohio ; H. F. Diehl, Klingerstown, Pa. ; Charles Schovanek,
Cleveland, Ohio ; C. A. Neiswender, Topeka, Kan. ; H. E.
Adrian, Albany, N. Y.; E. B. Moore, Macon, Ga. ; T. W.
Emblen, Elmira. N. Y.

L. C. Horton's fine artistic hand was well displayed in a
specimen of work brought into the office by him. Every
stroke is just where it ought to be.



A. L. Morrow, New Castle, Pa. ; J. J. Bailey, Toronto,
Ont. ; A. E. Parsons, Keokuk, la.; L. E. Lawley, Decatur, III.;
J. G. Christ, Lock Haven. Pa.; A. C. Sloan, Toledo, Ohio;
Oscar Ellefson, Duluth, Minn.; Clarence Legg, Hico, W. Va. :
A. K. Feroe, Madison, Minn.; E. A. Hall, Pittsburg, Pa.;
R. J. Bennett, Philadelphia, Pa.; M. T. Skinner, Hillsdale,
Mich. ; H. P. Behrensmeyer, Quincy, 111. ; J. W. Washington.
Boston, Mass. ; A. H. White, Chicago, 111. ; Albin Nystrom,
Foreston, Minn. ; R. S. Doyle, Carnegie, Pa. ; P. H. Lattime.
Medford, Mass. ; J. F. Sarley, Chicago, 111. ; T. P. Zum Brun-
nen, Ocilla, Ga.

D. H. Farley, Trenton, N. J. ; D. E. Wiseman, Parkers-
burg, W. Va.; Miss Ruth E. Hubbard, Brooklyn, N. Y.; A. E.
Cole, Redlands, Cal. ; W. A. Abernathy, Williamsport, Pa. ;
H. E. Adrian, Albany, N. Y. ; C. E. Benton, New Bedford,
Mass. ; F. S. Heath, Concord, N. H. ; W. I. Monroe, Water-
bury, Conn. ; G. H. Mohler, Fremont, Neh. ; J. H. Bachten-
kircher, Lafayette, Ind.; O. A. Sanders, Scotts Mills, Ore.;



"<~/enmaAJ QTViC qJcu. iaxlU?



\9




ORNAMENTAL CAPITALS BY H. B. LEHMAN, CLEVELAND, OHIO.



C. A. Wessel, Des Moines, la. ; J. A. Stryker, Kearney, Neb. ;
R. E. Arksey, Newburgh, N. Y. ; D. W. Hoff, Lawrence,
Mass.; Barnes Commercial School, Denver, Colo.; E. A.
Dieterich, Cincinnati, Ohio ; D. G. Westman, San Angelo,
Tex.; A. W. Kimpson, Kansas City, Mo.; P. B. S. Peters,
Kansas City, Mo.; H. W. Patten, Philadelphia, Pa.; L. E.
Stacy, Meadville, Pa. ; J. A. Buchanan, London, Ont. ; A. L.
Peer, Tonkawa, Okla. ; H. E. Congdon, Auburn, Me. ; A. H.
Dixon, Butte, Mont.

R. F. Zeigler, Waycross, Ga. ; T. Courtney, Salt Lake
City, Utah; W. T. Blakely, Waxahachie, Tex.; B. F. Over-
street, Connellsvile, Pa. ; Miss Cornelia Koch, Evansville, Ind. ;
F. T. Weaver, E. Liverpool, Ohio; J. T. Evans, Wilkes-Barre,
Pa.; W. P. Potter, Sparta, 111.; C. D. Scribner, Oklahoma



City, Okla.; F. B. Adams, Anthony, Kans.; W. M. Fuller,
Colorado Springs, Colo; E. J. Goddard, Bridgeport, Conn.;
C. W. Edmondson, Chicago, 111. ; Hastings Hawkes, Passaic,
N. J. ; C. J. Gruenbaum, Lima, Ohio ; Sam Evans, Covington,
Ky. ; E. D. Clark, Marion, Ind.; S. E. Leslie, Rochester, N.
Y. ; M. M. Van Ness, Newark, N. J. ; A. W. Dakin, Syracuse,
N. Y. ; J. F. Caskey, Haverhill, Mass. ; P. W. Costello, Scran-
ton, Pa. ; F. E. Chaffee, Huron, S. D. ; R. A. Spellman, Taun-
ton, Mass. ; M. A. Conner, Medford, Mass. ; W. H. Wherley,
Astoria, 111.; Lester Tjossem, Des Moines, la.; A. S. Osborn,
Rochester, N. Y. ; J. E. Bowman, Canton, Ohio; J. R. Hutchi-
son, Laramie, Wyo. ; C. S. Springer, Spokane, Wash. ; O. O.
Gates, Jamestown, N. Y. ; J. S. Lilly, Mt. Lookout, W. Va.;
E. B. Moore, Macon, Ga.




My Dear Girls: This is the joyous Christmas month,
when your little savings will be spent cautiously but gladly for
those you consider many friends and true.

Give yourself freely to the spirit of the season; do not let
tired head and hands absorb your attention; be merry; if you
cannot forget your worries, assume a gladsome mien, and be-
fore you know it you will feel new life and happiness.



Every year each person should present to himself or her-
self a gift, and it should always be cheerfulness. The Christ-
mas message is "Be of good cheer." There is nothing quite
so magnetic as a smile.

"Smile awhile.

When you smile

Another smiles,

Then there's miles

And miles of smiles.

And life's worth while

If you but smile."



There seems to be certain milestones throughout the year.
Three days will, to the end of time, mark for the United
States occasions of rejoicing — Thanksgiving, Christmas and
New Year's days. These seem to be our guiding days. We
say: "A year ago Christmas such a one was with us, we cel-
ebrated it thus and so ; we had had our position only so long
then," and so on. Of course there are individual or family
traditions or ceremonies whereby certain dates are remem-
bered; but, generalizing, millions of people anticipate, celebrate
and recall Thanksgivings, Christmases and happy New Years,
past, present and future.

If this Christmas day brings sadness to you because of
sorrow-laden memories, let your heart beat to the carolling
of the bells, "Be brave, be brave." If the day brings an
effervescence of happiness, then their chimes should say "I



thank Thee, I thank Thee.' If you have not work or are dis-
heartened because of lack of progress, their message is "Cour-
age."

There are forty spokes in a wheel, and though two, if
broken, would not make the wheel useless, yet they would
weaken it, and there would always be a question as to its
safety. So, out of the many days of a year, if two days which
are given for holidays are spent in a too much relaxing of
morals, in a too generous spending of hard earned and much
needed money, in exaggerated melancholia, in any one of a
thousand ways that Christmas and other holidays are heirs to.
the moral character of girl or boy is weakened and questioned.
Much harm, false steps, forgetfulness of home training ac-
company so many days when people are released from work.

Christmas day being a religious day, is possibly not so
conspicuous as Fourth of July for instances of ribaldry, yet
it has its bold side, which is the interpretation by some of
the desire for good cheer. Make this day one that shall be a
happy memory, and to do so you must be refined. Loud laugh-
ter on the street ill accords with the sweetness of the bells;
boisterous conduct is out of harmony. In your merry-making
do not forget you are, working or playing, well bred.



If you have a day in a week for recreation, have it filled
with coasting, skating, sleighing and general good fun without



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