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GARDENING



FOR



AMATEURS



Edited by
H H.THOMAS




5AACQ-! DORA LEVY





THE LIBRARY

OF

THE UNIVERSITY
OF CALIFORNIA

LOS ANGELES

Gift of
Mrs. I. 0. Levy





An Old-fashioned Border of Modern Flowers



Gardening for Amateurs



A Simple, Complete, and Practical Guide
for Garden Lovers



Edited by

H. H. Thomas

Editor of "The Gardener"
Author of "The Complete Gardener," "The Ideal Garden," etc.



Illustrated by Twenty-four Coloured Plates and
many hundreds of Photographs and Sketches



VOLUME



New York
Funk and Wagnalls Company



First published in 1915.



**-



PREFACE

THE aim of " Gardening for Amateurs " is to provide simple and
complete directions for the planning and planting of a garden, and the
cultivation of all such trees, shrubs, flowers, fruits, and vegetables as
amateurs, or even professionals, are likely to wish to grow, and to bring
to notice modern and improved varieties ; in short, to present, in easily
accessible form, answers to all gardening questions that commonly arise.

Gardening has progressed by leaps and bounds, and only a work of such
pretensions as this can hope to include essential information on all phases of
a subject that has developed so remarkably during the past fifteen or twenty
years.

Headers will find that not only is the method of carrying out garden tasks
described, but, what is perhaps of even greater importance, they are told when
the work ought to be done. " Gardening for Amateurs " is as free as
possible from technical terms, but those that are common and of which
occasional use is permissible are explained in a special chapter.

The series of notes on " What to do in the Garden " show at a glance the
chief work among flowers, fruits and vegetables for each fortnight through-
out the year, and include concise directions for the cultivation of plants to
which fuller reference is made elsewhere.

The volumes are illustrated by a unique collection of photographs and
sketches, which help still further to elucidate the descriptions and advice of
the letterpress. Finally, a thoroughly comprehensive index enables the reader
to find with ease any one of the thousands of items contained in the work.

The preparation of a book so practical and so varied in its information
as " Gardening for Amateurs " could not have been completed without
the assistance of experienced contributors. It is a pleasure, therefore, to
acknowledge the valued co-operation of the following writers, most of whom
have been lifelong gardeners.

Miss S. M. Kingsford has written the notes on Border Carnations, for which



9G5737



iv



Preface



Mr. James Douglas kindly supplied many illustrations. Mr. H. H. Aitken, M.A.,
is responsible for the chapters on Insect Pests and Plant Diseases, and for those
on such other subjects as Manures, Soils, Draining, etc. The task of writing
the Calendar, or " What to do in the Garden," was allotted to Mr. B. Alford,
who has also contributed various other notes. The chapter on Rock Gardening
is by Mr. S. Arnott, while Mr. F. R. Castle has written on Sweet Peas. Summer
Bedding, Perpetual Flowering Carnations, and some other notes are by Mr. J.
Gardner, and Mr. W. E. Leffler has contributed the notes on Roses. The sub-
jects of Streamside Gardening, Formal Gardening, and others, have been dealt
with by Mr. T. Smith. Mr. Owen Thomas has written the notes on Fruits
and Vegetables. The chapters on Greenhouse and Hothouse Flowers are by
Mr. W. Truelove, and those on French Gardening and the Small Holding
by Mr. J. Wright. H R T



CONTENTS

(A full index is published at the end of the work.)

PACK

PLANNING AND PLANTING . 1

LEVELLING GROUND ....... 10

MAKING GARDEN PATHS ...... 13

ALL ABOUT THE LAWN ..... 19

WHAT TO DO EARLY IN MARCH ....... 24

OLD-WORLD FLOWERS ........... 27

SWEET VIOLETS ' 35

DECORATIVE GARDEN STEPS ......... 39

HARDY ORNAMENTAL GRASSES . . . . . . . . . .44

EVERLASTING FLOWERS ........... 47

THE SHADY BORDER 51

INCREASING PLANTS BY PVOOT CUTTINGS 58

How TO WATER PLANTS 02

PERENNIALS THAT FLOWER WITHIN A YEAR FROM SEED . ... 66

FLOWERS TO Sow FOR CUTTING 72

WHAT TO DO LATE IN MARCH 78

LIME IN THE GARDEN 81

VIOLA OR TUFTED PANSY . 84

ALL ABOUT LILIES ...... ..... JK)

SWEET-SCENTED FLOWERS AND LEAVES ...... 105

DRAINAGE .............. 100

BIENNIALS FROM SEEDS ... 115

WHAT TO DO EARLY IN APRIL .......... 122

PROTECTING SEEDS, SEEDLINGS, AND PLANTS . .... 125

THE BEST HARDY PERENNIALS . .131

WHAT TO DO LATE IN APRIL .... 170

HARDY PERENNIAL CLIMBING PLANTS ...... .175

CLIMBING PLANTS FROM SEED .... .... 181

COMMON GARDENING TERMS EXPLAINED ... ... 183

AN EXPLANATION OF DISBUDDING ......... 186

SUMMER BEDDING ........... 191



vi Contents

PAGE

FLAGGED AND PAVED PATHS .... . .209

WHAT TO DO EARLY IN MAY 216

A COMPLETE GUIDE TO ROSE GROWING

WHAT TO DO LATE IN MAY

SIDELIGHTS ON ROSE SUCCESS .269

SELECTIONS OF ROSES FOR VARIOUS PURPOSES .... .289

WHAT TO DO EARLY IN JUNE ... . 325

FLOWERS FOR HANGING BASKETS 328

BORDER CARNATIONS

WHAT TO DO LATE IN JUNE 360

THE FRAGRANT PINK 363

MANURES AND MANURING ... 367

HARDY PERENNIALS FOR CUTTING ... ..... 372

THE PANSY .377

FLOWERS FOR THE MIXED BORDEII ... .381

THE HOTBED .403

WHAT TO DO EARLY IN JULY . . . . . . . . . . 400

COMPOSTS, SEEDLINGS, AND CUTTINGS ......... 409

AURICULAS FOR AMATEURS . . . . . . . . . . .418

HARDY AND HALF-HARDY ANNUALS 425

WHAT TO DO LATE IN JULY ... 456

CHRYSANTHEMUMS FOR GARDEN AND SHOW ........ 459

FLOWER GROWING IN TUBS ... 477

DAHLIAS FOR THE GARDEN 480

PERPETUAL FLOWERING CARNATIONS .... .... 489

THE PENTSTEMON ............ 497

FLOWERS OF UNUSUAL INTEREST ......... 500

WHAT TO DO EARLY IN AUGUST . 504

THE LITTLE FORMAL GARDEN 507

SPECIAL PLANTS FOR SPECIAL SOILS . . .513

THE SOIL AND ITS CULTIVATION . . . . . . . . .516

STERILISATION OF THE SOIL . . . . . . . . . . .521

CANNA, OR INDIAN SHOT 526

BEDDING BEGONIAS , 528

SWEET PEAS 531

WHAT TO DO LATE IN AUGUST 555

FLOWER GROWING IN WALLS . . . . . . . . 559

STREAM GARDENS, POOLS, AND PONDS 567

THINNING FLOWERS, FRUITS, AND VEGETABLES 575



LIST OF COLOURED PLATES

AN OLD-FASHIONED BORDER Frontispiece

FACING PA(5*

PERENNIAL LARKSPUR OR DELPHINIUM 49

IN THE ROSE GARDEN AT OVERSTRAND 97

THREE BEAUTIFUL VIOLAS .145

A GARDEN OF ROSES AND HARDY FLOWERS 193

NEW BORDER CARNATIONS 241

ROSE NAMED ROSE DU BARRI 289

BEAUTIFUL NEW LARKSPURS ... ...... 337

SOME OF THE BEST GLADIOLI ... . 385

LUPINS AND ORIENTAL POPPIES ..... .433

PERPETUAL FLOWERING CARNATIONS . .481
NEW VARIETIES OF PENTSTEMON 529




GARDENING FOR AMATEURS



MAKING THE MOST OF A GARDEN



Some Hints on Planning and Planting



THE owner of a small garden or one of
moderate size would do well to decide
first upon its main feature. If roses
are chief favourites the site of the rose garden
should be first chosen ; if the mixed border
of hardy flowers and the rock garden give
greatest pleasure, the best position ought
to be theirs ; should moisture-loving plants
be preferred, then the pool or pond or
streamlet will have pride of place. It is
wise to arrange for some predominant
feature, otherwise the same kinds of plants
are apt to be scattered, a few roses hen-, a
1



few more farther on. and the finished garden
proves to lie sadly lacking in restfulness,
which is. or should he. its greatest charm.
One of the chief \\ays to ensure an attractive
garden is to keep the same kinds of flowers
together : so. if you grow roses, put them in
separate be<l>. and make a ne garden,
and keep the herbaceous plant- and bedding
plants and other things also in beds or
borders devoted solely to them.

It goes without saying that the favourite
flowers should have the best place, and that,
so far a- concerns the majority of plants, is



Gardening for Amateurs



in the sunshine. Give them that which you
yourself are striving for " a place in the
sun." Both the gardener and the flowers
will then be happy, the flowers because they
like it and need it, the gardener because he
delights to see
them lusty and
abounding in
blossom. Hav-
ing decided the
position of the
chief feature,
whether rock
garden, rose
garden, mixed
flower border,
or perhaps all
of them if
there is room,
the next thing
is to consider
the outlook.

Veiling the
Outlook. If
the garden
looks upon a
meadow, with
trees and undu-
lating country
in the distance,
it is obvious
that no sane
person would
wish to shut
out such a
perfect view.
Rather, by
skilful plant-
ing, should he
endeavour to
bring it into
the scheme ; so
blend the gar-
den with its
surroundings

that the visitor cannot, without searching,
say where one ends and the other begins.
If r however, the garden is unlucky enough
to have bricks and mortar for its near
environment, matters assume a different
complexion. Yet, curiously enough, in such
directly opposed circumstances, similar
treatment is needed. Probably the first




A small garden designed to comprise Rosery, Hardy
Flower Border, Rock Garden, Lawn and Shrubbery.



thought of the unskilled amateur, in the
one case, would be to shut out the bricks
and mortar with a dense planting of shrubs,
and, in the other, to expose the whole of
his garden, including the boundary wall,
for the sake
of the country
view, His
methods would
be fundament-
ally wrong, for
the result
would be to
define in un-
mistak able
fashion the
limits of his
plot. His aim
should be just
the reverse:
to try to con-
ceal its extent,
and this is not
accomplished
by shutting in
the garden by
means of a
dense belt of
shrubs. It is
done by plant-
ing in such a
way that the
surroundings,
Avhether at-
tractive or
otherwise, are
veiled.

It is sur-
prising how
well, to take
an extreme in-
stance, even a
prosaic chim-
ney looks when
you get merely

a glimpse of it through the gracefully
stirring branches of some leafy or blossom-
laden tree, and if the tree is chosen
carefully, how the screen varies as the
seasons pass ! In winter the chimney
may show, perhaps too plainly, through
the naked shoots ; in early spring be
dimmed by the bloom - clustered growths




' I

Flowers of June : Mossy Saxifrage, Cerastium (Snow in Summer) and Roses.



Gardening for Amateurs





How ugly corners are improved (a) by rounding off the verges and the use of a sundial,
(b) by the careful placing of a vase of flowering plants.



of almond ; flowering plum, or cherry ; in
summer almost lost to view ; in autumn
again show casually through a patchwork of
gold and red and brown. Or, perhaps, most
pleasing of all, one sees it through a vista
formed by a little avenue of trees, that seem,



by the narrow space enclosed, to have placed
it yards away. Such aids as these, while
screening and giving privacy to the garden,
make use of objects outside its boundaries,
and render them of actual value in the
creation of illusive distance.



*Q&^%s&toamZAUrf~i~t - ii*^ ^^5St^'*m38&.~ /,w/.. ->U sl




Another method of improving a bad corner, by curving the grass margin and the use
of a weeping standard rose.



Gardening for Amateurs




A design that might be greatly improved by veiling the boundaries and
planting at the corners of the walks.



It is certain that you
the house walls of your
shut them out
you also shut in
the garden, at
once defining its
limits and lessen-
ing its apparent
size. If, how-
ever, the outlook
is veiled with
attractive small
trees or big
shrubs, with giant
roses such as
Conrad Meyer,
with almond and
flowering Peach,
Laburnum, and
Barberry, or
purple -leaved
Plum (Prunus
Pissardi), with
Clematis or
climbing rose,
why, the outside
world becomes a
wonderland of
mystery to your
visitors, and in
lesser degree to
yourself, seen, as
it is, in glimpses
only through a
fairy forest of
leaf and flower.
My own garden
looks out on
commonplace



cannot get rid of brick walls and staring
neighbour ; if you the tree branches bud




The busy man's garden. Easy to manage,
and of restful appearance.



chimneys, but after
in spring, and until
the leaves fade
and die in
autumn, I see
little of them,
and then only
through the green
leaves and glow-
ing blossoms of
shrubs and climb-
ing plants.

Problem of
the Paths. The
arrangement of
the paths is of
the first import-
ance ; they may
so easily mar the
charm of the
whole garden.
Most fearful of
all are those that
wriggle through-
out their full
length and lie
like some gigan-
tic snake on the
irn 'mid. A grace-
fully curving
walk adds im-
mensely to the
attractiveness of
a garden, while
curves that are
without grace in-
troduce an ele-
ment of unrest
(juite foreign to



Gardening for Amateurs



the purpose in view, and constantly and
irritatingly force themselves upon one's
notice. Another chapter describes how
walks are made, so details need not be
given now, but we may emphasise the
necessity of making them properly. Walks
badly formed are a perpetual nuisance.
In a small garden, winding walks are, I
think, to be preferred to straight ones,
which are always most satisfying when
of fair length. Every turn of a winding
walk offers an opportunity of placing a
group of flowering or evergreen shrubs, a
wide arch or short pergola of roses, that act
as a screen to the scenes beyond, and so
keep alive the joy of anticipation, and the
delight born of expectations still unfulfilled.
Unless space is very .restricted the chief
paths should be at least 4 feet wide, so that
two persons may walk side by side ; other
and smaller walks may show the way to
the rose garden, rock garden, and other
special features.

How often would big shrubberies and
mixed flower borders be improved if little
walks passed through them, enabling the



visitor to make close acquaintance with the
plants and flowers, instead of, perforce,
admiring them from a distance. It is easy
to spoil a garden by cutting it up with
paltry walks : they produce a sense of irri-
tation which one should endeavour to avoid ;
for unless a garden soothes and solaces, and
inspires one with the feeling that here is
rest and peace, it fails to fulfil its purpose.
Let the chief walks be few, and lead un-
mistakably to their destination ; then the
little paths may meander just where there is
something of interest, in and out and round
about the flowers, by which they will be
largely hidden.

Spacious Effect. Even in a small garden
one may preserve spacious effect by planning
on bold lines ; let the lawn remain a lawn ;
if it is planted at all keep the trees or shrubs
near the margin or at one end ; to scatter
them all over the grass is at once to ruin the
prospect. If the lawn comes fairly close to
the house, conifers or other graceful shrubs
may be thinly grouped towards the far end
of the grass so as to mask in some degree that
which lies beyond. Do not plant them in one




How the end of a garden path may be improved by the use of wall shrubs
and a seat.




The mystery of the winding walk. To
where does it lead ?



The edges of a straight walk softened by
planting flowers close to the margin




A corner that might be improved by treating
as shewn on page 6.



A garden seat raised on paving, thus enabling
one to overlook the garden.



Gardening for Amateurs




A vigorous shrub such as Rhododendron may
good effect at the junction of garden



be planted with
walks.



unbroken mass or the lawn will at once lose
whatever spaciousness it possessed. The
secret of planning a small garden or one of
moderate size is to avoid defining its limits
and always to arrange for glimpses beyond
and between its shrubs and plants.

Banks and Dells. A garden may often
be made additionally attractive by varying
the levels ; where there are little hills there
are also little hollows, and by planting the
latter with low plants and the former with
those of more vigorous growth variety of
effect is obtained, and the aspect of the
garden is at least saved from monotony.
The creation of a dell with its attendant
banks or a terrace supported by a low wall
and reached by a few steps may involve
some extra labour, but such innovations im-
prove a flat garden out of all knowledge.
One might arrange for a sunk rose garden,
planting the high ground immediately around
it with a hedge of Barberry or China Roses ;
throw up a mound, planting it with flowering
shrubs, smothering the ground beneath with
Daffodils ; raise the soil here and there near
the boundary fence before planting small
trees and climbers, or arrange for a low rock
wall ; these are some of the ways in which,



without very much
trouble, the charm of a
garden may be greatly
increased.

Some Final Hints.
Once the reader has
decided on what style
he will develop the
garden there are some
points which he must
recognise in making up
the design. First of
all let him study origin-
ality ; originality is the
very essence of art, and
no man can shine as a
gardening artist if his
garden is copied from
those which already
exist. The garden is
his interpretation, and
even small areas are
amenable to fine plan-
ning. Gaiety of tone
may be apparent

throughout the place or quietness show
in every aspect ; each border must be
a dainty unit of an elegant whole, and
every walk should lead to an appropriate
termination. Xo walk should face the
bare wall ; blind the end with a nice
shrub, hide the wall under a pretty climber
or mask it with an arch. Let the path curve
gently to expose new vistas at every turn,
and to assist the charm of the unexpected,
plant here and there to hide the new aspect
until it suddenly shows in fresh beauty.
A semicircular end to a square walk relieves
the eye, a seat hidden in a shady nook or
verdant arbour at the terminus has the
same soothing effect. Sharp corners, not
always avoidable, are toned down by a centre
piece a sundial, fountain, shrub, or weeping
rose, while even the confluence of two walks
is improved by the same thing.

Simplicity and intricacy must both be in
evidence to obtain the most effective planning.
Intricacy must not go too far, however, and
lead to contorted forms and unnatural lines.
Vases are useful for decorative effect, but
they must never be lavishly distributed,
while objects of sculpture must be sub-
servient to nature in the garden.



Gardening for Amateurs



Whatever is the aim, let the design be
such that it includes one or two retired
nooks, an arbour if possible, or at least a
few places for retirement and rest. If
different styles are embodied in the work let
them blend gradually one with the other.



When to Clip Box Edgings. Most
amateurs clip Box edgings early in the
spring ; this causes an early growth, which
is just in the condition to be nipped by a
sharp late May frost. The safeguard is to
defer the cutting until the end of April, which



Let dwarf bedding designs, for example, be just enables it to tide over the critical period.



made near the tall house and high shrubs
stand well back towards the boundary, so
as not to give too harsh a contrast. As the
garden is to be used, too, let all parts be
convenient and easily accessible.

The average amateur has a garden of very
limited area, and it is only by careful study
and planning that he can give apparent
extent to the limited space. Intricacy
within limits heightens this effect ; an ex-



The new growth is not then formed until
early summer. Then comes a free, unchecked,
healthy growth, which renders Box-lined
garden paths cheerful and pleasant to the
eye through times of heat and drought.
But clipping must not be too long deferred,
or evil will show in another form the young
growths will come away so tardily when hot,
dry weather suddenly arises after clipping,
that the appearance of the Box is not good



sometimes fails to recover before autumn.



pansive lawn is a perennial pleasure, and, for a couple of months or more ; indeed, it
as explained, concealment of the actual
boundary walls gives the effect of
spaciousness not actually in existence.
This is heightened by turfing up close
to the stems of shrubs, by evergreen
bushes hiding what is really the end
of any space, and by gentle curves
which add length to the walk and
expansiveness to the borders. A few
large bushes or beds of a single colour
heighten the effect. Avoid glaring arti-
ficiality in the form of gaudy garden
furniture. Symmetry is so far desirable
that beds may be duplicated in places.
Nothing shocks the natural artistic sense
of beauty more than the custom of
placing small plants in front and
large ones behind to obtain tiers
of vegetation ; such an arrangement
is justified in certain cases, as,
for instance, in a hot-house, but
it should have no place in the
outdoor garden. Rather ensure that
every plant is seen without allowing
signs of artificial selection to become
apparent. The house is the hub of
the garden, the centre of vision, and
the best views should be obtained
from it. Shrubberies and plants should
be arranged so as to preserve open vistas ;
these have the effect of increasing the
apparent depth of the garden, and
give spaciousness, whereas close plant-
ing would have exactly the opposite
result.




Shrub groups on the curves of a winding
walk conceal that which lies beyond and
give increased interest to the garden.



10



Gardening for Amateurs



Simple Ways of Levelling Ground



WHILE the average amateur does not
need to have a technical knowledge
of the principles of levelling, yet he
may sometimes wish to know how to bring
certain raised or low portions of ground
to a uniform level. The work is not at
all difficult, but some idea of the methods
whereby it may be carried out satisfac-
torily is necessary. When it is a case
merely of bringing roughly dug ground to
an even surface, the worker will find that
the garden rake is the best and handiest



readily obtained ; the base of the house is
often taken as the starting point, or, if any
building be near, the level is generally taken
from it. Another peg is now hammered into
the ground 6 feet distant from the first and
across the top is laid a long plank of wood
(a piece of straight fencing material will
do) on edge, and a spirit level on top of this
will soon determine whether the two tops
are on a dead level or not ; if not, it is a
simple matter so to hammer the pegs that
the desired level is obtained. Another peg




Pegs are inserted in the ground about 6 feet apart. A "straight-edge"
is placed on top and tested by means of a spirit level.



instrument to use, but this is a hazardous
method to employ when the area is at all
large or where the ground is very uneven
to begin with.

The Use of Pegs. Pegs offer a handy
means of obtaining a uniform surface
throughout areas which are not too extensive
and such as are likely to be met with in
gardening. A peg about 1 foot or 15 inches
in length is hammered into the soil for three-
quarters of its length at some place where
the required position of the surface can be



is now driven into the ground some 6 feet
from No. 2, and the process is again re-
peated with numbers 2 and 3. In this
way a series of pegs is driven into the
border at regular intervals, and at such a
depth that their tops are on a dead level ;
the soil, previously dug up to a suitable
depth, is then raked until the pegs have
uniform parts exposed above the ground.
Say, for instance, that the first is found to
be 4 inches above the soil, then a mark
will ensure that the others are in a like




A method of levelling a border, by using pegs and crossbars. A l and A 2 are fixed
gauges, B is a movable gauge.




A low wall planted with Bellflowers. Pinks. Rockfoils, etc.



i i



12



Gardening for Amateurs



position. No better spirit level can be
obtained than the water which lies on the
ground on a rainy day, and if the border
can be left until such a time the uneven
parts will be beautifully mapped out, and
the work can be finished off with satisfactory
completeness as soon as it gets dry again.

Pegging on Inclined Surfaces. The
method of pegging is just as easily practised
on an inclined surface, but in this case more
pegs are generally required and the spirit
level is dispensed with. Two pegs are
driven in at 3-foot intervals, with their
tops on the level to which the ground will
be reduced. The long piece of wood (a
" straight edge ") is now laid on top of
these two, and a third peg is driven into



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