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A gallant of Lorraine; Francois, seigneur de Bassompierre, marquis d'Harouel, marechal de France (1579-1646) (Volume 2) online

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A GALLANT OF LORRAINE
VOL. II.




QUEEN HENRIETTA MARIA.
From the picture by Van Dyck at Dresden.



[Frontispiece




FRANQOIS, SEIGNEUR DE BASSOMPIERRE,
MARQUIS D'HAROUEL, MARECHAL
:: :: DE FRANCE (1579-1646) :: ::



BY

H. NOEL WILLIAMS

AUTHOR OK " FIVB FAIR SISTERS," "A PRINCESS OF INTRIG0E,
"THE BROOD OF FALSE LORRAINE," ETC.



IN TWO VOLUMES
With 16 lUustratitns



VOL. II



NEW TORK: E. P. DUTTON y COMPANT >
681, FIFTH APENUE



CONTENTS

VOL. II
CHAPTER XXV

Offer of Schomberg, Saint-Geran and Marillac to take Montauban within
twelve days Advice of Pere Arnoux Diplomacy of Bassom-
pierre A humiliating fiasco A second attempt meets with no
better success Bassompierre counsels the King to raise the siege,
and it is decided to follow his advice General exasperation against
Luynes Louis XIII begins to grow weary of his favourite
Conversation of the King with Bassompierre The latter warns
Luynes that he " does not sufficiently cultivate the good graces of
the King " Reply of the Constable Louis XIII twits Luynes
with the love of the Due de Chevreuse for his wife Puisieux,
Minister for Foreign Affairs, and Pere Arnoux, the King's Jesuit
confessor, conspire against the Constable Disgrace of the latter
Bassompierre, at the head of the bulk of the Royal forces, lays
siege to Monheurt A perilous situation Bassompierre falls ill
of fever He leaves the army and sets out for La Reole He is
taken seriously ill at Marmande His three doctors Approach of
the enemy Refusal of the townsfolk to admit him and his suite
into the town A terrible night He recovers and proceeds to
Bordeaux Death of the Constable before Monheurt pp. 321-339



CHAPTER XXVI

Who will govern the King and France ? The pretenders to the royal
favour Position of Bassompierre The Cardinal de Retz and
Schomberg join forces and secure for their ally De Vic the office of
Keeper of the Seals They propose to remove Bassompierre from
the path of their ambition by separating him from the King
Bassompierre is offered the lieutenancy-general of Guienne and
subsequently the government of Beam, but declines both offices
He inflicts a sharp reverse upon Retz and Schomberg Conde
joins the Court His designs The rival parties : the party of the
Ministers and the party of the marshals Monsieur le Prince
decides to ally himself with that of the Ministers Mortifying
rebuff administered by the King to the Ministers at the instance of
Bassompierre Failure of an attempt of the Ministers to injure
Bassompierre and Crequy with Louis XIII Arrival of the King
in Paris Affectionate meeting between him and his mother
Accident to the Queen . . , . . . pp. 340-352

vii



viii CONTENTS

CHAPTER XXVII

Question of the Huguenot War the principal subject of contention
between the two parties Conde and the Ministers demand its
continuance Marie de' Medici, prompted by Richelieu, advocates
peace Secret negotiations of Louis XIII with the Huguenot
leaders Soubise's offensive in the West obliges the King to con-
tinue the war Louis XIII advances against the Huguenot chief,
who has established himself in the lie de Rie Conde accuses
Bassompierre of " desiring to prevent him from acquiring glory "
Courage of the King Passage of the Royal army from the tie
du Perrier to the tie de Rie Total defeat of Soubise Siege of
Royan The King in the trenches His remarkable coolness and
intrepidity under fire Capitulation of Royan The Marquis de la
Force created a marshal of France Conversation between Louis
XIII and Bassompierre Diplomatic speech of the latter

PP- 353-362



CHAPTER XXVIII

Conde and his allies offer to secure for Bassompierre the position of
favourite, if he will join forces with them to .bring about the fall of
Puisieux Refusal of Bassompierre Conde complains to Louis
XIII of Bassompierre 's hostility to him Bassompierre informs the
King of the proposal which has been made him Louis XIII orders
Monsieur le Prince to be reconciled with Bassompierre Siege of
Negrepelisse The town is taken by storm Terrible fate of the
garrison and the inhabitants Fresh differences between Conde
and Bassompierre Discomfiture of Monsieur le Prince Bassom-
pierre, placed temporarily in command of the Royal army, captures
the towns of Carmain and Cuq-Toulza Offer of Bassompierre to
resign his claim to the marshal's baton in favour of Schomberg
Surrender of Lunel Massacre of the garrison by disbanded soldiers
of the Royal army Bassompierre causes eight of the latter to be
hanged Lunel in danger of being destroyed by fire with all
within its walls Bassompierre, by his presence of mind, saves the
situation Schomberg and Bassompierre The latter is promised
the marshal's baton . pp. 363-376



CHAPTER XXIX

Conditions of peace with the Huguenots decided upon Refusal of the-
citizens of Montpellier to open their gates to the King until his
army has been disbanded Bullion advises Louis XIII to accede
to their wishes, and is supported by the majority of the Council
Bassompierre is of the contrary opinion and urges the King to
reduce Montpellier to " entire submission and repentance "
Louis XIII decides to follow the advice of Bassompierre, and the
siege of the town is begun A disastrous day for the Royal army
Death of Zamet and the Italian engineer Gamorini Political
intrigues Bassompierre succeeds in securing the post of Keeper
of the Seals for Caumartin, although the King has already promised
it to d'Aligre, the nominee of Conde Heavy losses sustained by
the besiegers in an attack upon one of the advanced works
Conde' quits the army and sets out for Italy Bassompierre is-



CONTENTS ix

created marshal of France amidst general acclamations Peace is
signed Death of the Abbe Rouceliai" Bassompierre accompanies
the King to Avignon, where he again falls of petechial fever, but
recovers He assists at the entry of the King and Queen into-
Lyons He is offered the government of the Maine, but declines it.

PP- 377-393



CHAPTER XXX

Fall of Schomberg La Vieuville becomes Surintendent des Finances
His bitter jealousy of Bassompierre He informs Louis XIII that
the marshal " deserves the Bastille or worse " Semi-disgrace of
Bassompierre, who, however, succeeds in making his peace with
the King Mismanagement of public affairs by Puisieux and his
father, the Chancellor Brulart de Sillery La Vieuville and
Richelieu intrigue against them and procure their dismissal from
office The Earl of Holland arrives in Paris to sound the French
Court on the question of a marriage between the Prince of Wales
and Henrietta Maria Bassompierre takes part in a grand ballet at
the Louvre La Vieuville accuses the marshal of drawing more
money for the Swiss than he is entitled to Foreign policy of La
Vieuville Richelieu re-enters the Council Bassompierre accused
by La Vieuville of being a pensioner of Spain Serious situation of
the marshal The Connetable Lesdiguieres advises Bassompierre
to leave France, but the latter decides to remain Differences
between La Vieuville and Richelieu over the negotiations for the
English marriage Arrogance and presumption of La Vieuville
Intrigues of Richelieu against him The King informs Bassom-
pierre that he has decided to disgrace La Vieuville Indiscretion
of the marshal Duplicity of Louis XIII towards his Minister
Fall of La Vieuville Richlieu becomes the virtual head of the
Council .......'.. pp. 394-410



CHAPTER XXXI

Vigorous foreign policy of Richelieu The recovery of the Valtellina
His projected blow at the Spanish power in Northern Italy
frustrated by a fresh Huguenot insurrection Bassompierre sent
to Brittany Marriage of Charles I and Henrietta Maria Bas-
sompierre offered the command of a new army which is to be
despatched to Italy He demands 7,000 men from the Army of
Champagne The Due d'Angouleme and Louis de Marillac, the
generals commanding that army, have recourse to the bogey of a
German invasion in order to retain these troops Bassompierre
declines the appointment Conversation between Bassompierre
and the Spanish Ambassador Mirabello on the subject of peace
between France and Spain The marshal is empowered to treat
for peace with Mirabello Singular conduct of the Ambassador
News arrives from Madrid that Philip IV has revoked the powers
given to Mirabello Bassompierre is sent as Ambassador Extra-
ordinary to the Swiss Cantons to counteract the intrigues of the
house of Austria and the Papacy His reception in Switzerland
Lavish hospitality which he dispenses Complete success of hi*
negotiations pp. 411-425



x CONTENTS

CHAPTER XXXII

Bassompierre goes on a mission to Charles IV of Lorraine He returns
to France The Venetian Ambassador Contarini informs the
marshal that it is rumoured that a secret treaty has been signed
between France and Spain Richelieu authorises Bassompierre to
deny that such a treaty exists, but the same day the marshal learns
from the King that the French Ambassador at Madrid has signed
a treaty, though unauthorised to do so Indignation of Bassom-
pierre, who, however, refrains from denouncing the treaty, which
it is decided not to disavow Explanation of this diplomatic
imbroglio Growing strength of the aristocratic opposition to
Richelieu The marriage of Monsieur The " Conspiration des
Dames " Intrigues of the Duchesse de Chevreuse Madame de
Chevreuse and Chalais Objects of the conspirators Arrest of
the Marechal d'Ornano Indignation of Monsieur Conversation
of Bassompierre with the prince Plot against the life or liberty of
Richelieu Chalais is forced by the Commander de Valencay to
reveal it to the Cardinal " The quarry is no longer at home ! "
Alarm of Monsieur His abject submission to the King and
Richelieu He resumes his intrigues Chalais is again involved in
the conspiracy by Madame de Chevreuse Arrest of the Due de
Vendome and his half-brother the Grand Prior . pp. 426-445

CHAPTER XXXIII

Alarm of the conspirators at the arrest of the Vendomes Chalais, at
the instigation of Madame de Chevreuse, urges Monsieur to take
flight and throw himself into a fortress Monsieur and Chalais
join the Court at Blois The Comte de Louvigny betrays the latter
to the Cardinal Chalais is arrested at Nantes Despicable con-
duct of Monsieur Chalais, persuaded by Richelieu that Madame
de Chevreuse is unfaithful to him, makes the gravest accusa-
tion against her, in the hope of saving his life He is, nevertheless,
condemned to death He withdraws his accusations against
Madame de Chevreuse His barbarous execution Death of the
Marechal d'Ornano Marriage of Monsieur Bassompierre de-
clines the post of Sunntendant of Monsieur's Household In-
dignation of Louis XIII against Anne of Austria Public humilia-
tion inflicted upon the Queen Banishment of Madame de Chev-
reuse Bassompierre nominated Ambassador Extraordinary to
England Differences between Charles I and Henrietta over the
question of the young Queen's French attendants The Tyburn
pilgrimage Expulsion of the French attendants from England
Resentment of the Court of France . . . pp. 446-466



CHAPTER XXXIV

Bassompierre arrives in England His journey to London He is visited
secretly by the Duke of Buckingham He visits the duke in the
same manner at York House Charles I commands him to send
Pere de Sancy back to France Singular history of this ecclesiastic
Refusal of Bassompierre His first audience of Charles I and
Henrietta Maria at Hampton Court Firmness of Bassompierre on
the question of Pere de Sancy He visits the Queen at Somerset
House His private audience of the King He reproves the



CONTENTS xi

presumption of Buckingham Admirable qualities displayed by
Bassompierre in the difficult situation in which he is placed He
succeeds in effecting a reconciliation between the King and Queen
His able and eloquent speech before the Council An agreement
on the question of the Queen's French attendants is finally arrived
at Lord Mayor's Day three centuries ago Bassompierre recon-
ciles the Queen with Buckingham Stormy scene between Charles I
and Henrietta Maria at Whitehall Bassompierre speaks his mind
to the Queen Intrigues of Pere de Sancy Peace is re-established
Magnificent fete at York House Departure of Bassompierre
from London He is detained at Dover by bad weather England
and France on the verge of war Buckingham decides to proceed
to France on a special mission and proposes to accompany Bas-
sompierre Embarrassment of the latter He visits the duke at
Canterbury and persuades him to defer his visit A disastrous
Channel passage Return of Bassompierre to Paris Refusal of
the Court of France to receive Buckingham An English historian's
appreciation of Bassompierre pp. 467-501



CHAPTER XXXV

The Assembly of the Notables Bassompierre nominated one of the
four presidents The " sorry Chateau of Versailles " The ballet
of Is Serieux et le Grotesque Execution of Montmorency-Boutte-
ville and Des Chapelles for duelling Death of Madame Pre-
parations for war with England Louis XIII resolves to take
command of the army assembled in Poitou The King falls ill at
the Chateau of Villeroy Bassompierre is prevented by Richelieu
from visiting him Intrigue by which the Due d'Angouleme is
appointed to the command of the army which ought to have
devolved upon Bassompierre Descent of Buckingham upon the
lie de Re Blockade of the fortress of Saint -Martin Investment
of La Rochelle by the Royal army Bassompierre, the King, and
Richelieu at the Chateau of Saumery The Cardinal assumes the
practical direction of the military operations Provisions and
reinforcements are thrown into Saint-Martin Refusal of the
Marechaux de Bassompierre and Schomberg to allow Angouleme
to be associated with them in the command of the Royal army
Schomberg is persuaded to accept the duke as a colleague
Bassompierre persists in his refusal and requests permission of the
King to leave the army He is offered and accepts the command
of a separate army, which is to blockade La Rochelle from the
north-western side He declines the government of Brittany
Dangerous situation of Buckingham's army in the He de Re
Unsuccessful attempt to take Saint -Martin by assault Disastrous
retreat of the English . . . . . pp. 502-528



CHAPTER XXXVI

Siege of La Rochelle begins Immense difficulties of the undertaking
Unwillingness of the great nobles to see the Huguenot party
entirely crushed Remark of Bassompierre Courage and energy
of Richelieu His measures to provide for the welfare and efficiency
ot the besieging army The lines of circumvallation Erection of



xii CONTENTS

the Fort of La Fons by Bassompierre The construction of tke
mole is begun and proceeded with in the face of great difficulties
Responsibilities of Bassompierre The Due d'AngoulSme
accuses the marshal of a gross piece of negligence, but the latter
succeeds in turning the tables upon his accuser Louis XIII
returns to Paris, leaving Richelieu with the title of " Lieutenant-
General of the Army " Critical state of affairs in Italy Un-
successful attempts to take La Rochelle by surprise Intrigues of
Marie de' Medici and the High Catholic party against Richelieu
The King rejoins the army Guiton elected Mayor of La
Rochelle pp. 529-541

CHAPTER XXXVII

Arrival of the English fleet under the Earl of Denbigh Its composition
Daring feat of an English pinnace Retirement of the fleet
Probable explanation of this fiasco Indignation of Charles I,
who orders Denbigh to return to La Rochelle, but this is found to
be impossible The Rochellois approach Bassompierre with a
request for a conference to arrange terms of surrender The
arrival of a letter from Charles I promising to send another fleet
to their succour causes the negotiations to be broken off La
Rochelle in the grip of famine Refusal of Louis XIII to allow the
old men, women and children to pass through the Royal lines :
their miserable fate Movements in favour of surrender among the
citizens suppressed by the Mayor Guiton Terrible sufferings of
La Rochelle Bassompierre spares the life of a Huguenot soldier
who had intended to kill him Difficulties experienced by Charles I
and Buckingham in fitting out a new expedition Assassination
of Buckingham The vanguard of the English fleet, under the
command of the Earl of Lindsey, appears off La Rochelle
Narrow escape of Richelieu and Bassompierre The King takes
up his quarters with Bassompierre at Laleu Arrival of the rest
of the English fleet Feeble efforts of the English to force their
way into the harbour The Rochellois, reduced to the last ex-
tremity, sue for peace Bassompierre conducts deputies from the
town to Richelieu Surrender of La Rochelle Bassompierre
returns with the King to Paris ; ; : . pp: 542-562

CHAPTER XXXVIII

The Due de Rohan and the Huguenots of the South continue thoir
resistance Opposition of Marie de' Medici and the High Catholic
party to Richelieu's Italian policy The Cardinal's memorial to
Louis XIII Monsieur appointed to the command of the army
which is to enter Italy The King, jealous of his brother, decides
to command in person Twelve thousand crowns for a dozen of
cider Combat of the Pass of Susa Treaty signed with Charles
Emmanuel of Savoy Problem of the reception of the Genoese
Ambassadors Anger of Louis XIII at a jest of Bassompierre
Peace with England Campaign against the Huguenots of Langue-
doc Massacre of the garrison of Privas " La Paix de Grdce "
Surrender of Montauban Richelieu and d'fipernon Bassom-
pierre returns to Paris with the Cardinal Their frigid reception
by the Queen-Mother Richelieu proposes to retire from affairs
and the Court, but an accommodation is effected pp. 563-582



CONTENTS xiii

CHAPTER XXXIX

Serious situation of affairs in Italy Trouble with Monsieur Richelieu
entrusted with the command of the Army in Italy It is decided
to send Bassompierre on a special embassy to Switzerland The
marshal buys the Chateau of Chaillot His departure for Switzer-
land Mazarin at Lyons Bassompierre 's reception at Fribourg
He arrives at Soleure and convenes a meeting of the Diet His
discomfiture of the Chancellor of Alsace Success of his mission
He receives orders from Richelieu to mobilise 6,000 Swiss The
Cardinal as generalissimo Pinerolo surrenders Bassompierre
joins the King at Lyons Louis XIII and Mile, de Hautefort
Successful campaign of Bassompierre in Savoy His mortification
at having to resign his command to the Marechal de Chatillon
Increasing rancour of the Queen-Mother against Richelieu Visit
of Bassompierre to Paris An unfortunate coincidence Louis XIII
falls dangerously ill at Lyons Intrigues around his sick-bed
Perilous situation of Richelieu Recovery of the King Arrival
of Bassompierre at Lyons Suspicions of Richelieu concerning the
marshal The latter endeavours to disarm them Question of
Bassompierre's connection with the anti-Richelieu cabal con-
sidered His secret marriage to the Princesse de Conti pp. 583-596



CHAPTER XL

Peace is signed vrith the Emperor at Ratisbon The Queen-Mother
deprives Richelieu's niece Madame de Combalet of her post of
dame d'atours and demands of Louis XIII the instant dismissal
oi the Cardinal The Luxembourg interview " The Day of
Dupes " Triumph of Richelieu Bassompierre's explanation of
his own part in this affair His visit to Versailles " He has
arrived after the battle ! " He gives offence to Richelieu by
refusing an invitation to dinner He finds himself in semi-disgrace
Monsieur quarrels with the Cardinal and leaves the Court The
King again treats Bassompierre with cordiality Departure of the
Court for Compiegne Bassompierre learns that the Queen-
Mother has been placed under arrest and the Princesse de Conti
exiled, and that he himself is to be arrested The marshal is
advised by the Due d'Epernon to leave France He declines and
announces his intention of going to the Court to meet his fate
He burns " more than six thousand love-letters " His arrival at
the Court Singular conduct of the King towards him The
marshal is arrested by the Sieur de Launay, lieutenant of the
Gardes du Corps, and conducted to the Bastille . pp; 597-613



CHAPTER XLI

Bassompierre in the Bastille He is informed that he has been im-
prisoned " from fear lest he might be induced to do wrong "
Monsieur retires to Lorraine The marshal's nephew the Marquis
de Bassompierre is ordered to leave France After a few weeks of
captivity, Bassompierre solicits his liberty, which is refused He
falls seriously ill, but recovers Death of his wife the Princesse
de Conti Flight of the Queen-Mother to Brussels Death of
Bassompierre's brother the Marquis de Removille Execution of



xiv CONTENTS

the Marechal de Marillac Montmorency's revolt Trial and
execution of the duke Hopes of liberty, which, however, do not
materialise Arrest of Chateauneuf Arrival of the Chevalier de
Jars in the Bastille A grim experience Bassompierre disposes
of his post of Colonel-General of the Swiss to the Marquis de
Coislin The marshal's hopes of liberty constantly flattered and as
constantly deceived Malignity of Richelieu The ravages com-
mitted by the contending armies upon his estates in Lorraine
reduce Bassompierre to the verge of ruin The marshal's niece,
Madame de Beuvron, solicits her uncle's liberty of Richelieu
Mocking answer of the Cardinal Some notes written by Bassom-
pierre in the margin of a copy of Dupleix's history are published
under his name, but without his authority The historian com-
plains to the Cardinal Arrest of Valbois for reciting a sonnet
attacking Richelieu for his treatment of Bassompierre Appre-
hensions of the marshal His despair at his continued detention
Grief occasioned him by the death of a favourite dog The Due
de Guise dies in exile pp. 614-633



CHAPTER XLII

Death of Richelieu Bassompierre is offered his liberty on condition
that he shall retire to his brother-in-law Saint-Luc's Chateau of
Tillieres He at first refuses to leave the Bastille, unless he is
permitted to return to Court His friends persuade him to alter
his decision He is authorised to reappear at Court His answer
to the King's question concerning his age He recovers his post as
Colonel-General of the Swiss His death His funeral His sons,
Louis de Bassompierre and Frangois de la Tour His nephews

pp. 634-640



VOL. II

QUEEN HENRIETTA MARIA - Frontispiece

From the picture by Van Dyck at Dresden.

V AGING PAOB

Louis XIII, KING OF FRANCE - 346

From an engraving by Picart.

CHARLES, MARQUIS DE LA VIEUVILLE - - 402

From a contemporary print.

FRANCOIS, SEIGNEUR DE BASSOMPIERKE, MARQUIS

D'HAROUEL - 430

From a contemporary print.

CHARLES I - 470

After the picture by Van Dyck at Dresden.

GEORGE VILLIERS, FIRST DUKE OF BUCKINGHAM - 518

After the picture by Gerard Honthorat in the National Portrait
Gallery. Photo by Emery Walker.

MARIE DE' MEDICIS, QUEEN OF FRANCE - - 564

From an old print.

CHARLOTTE LOUISE DE LORRAINE, PRINCESSE DE

CONTI - - 604

From an engrarimg by Thomas de Lou.



A Gallant of Lorraine



CHAPTER XXV

Offer of Schomberg, Saint-Geran and Marillac to take Montauban within
twelve days Advice of Pere Arnoux Diplomacy of Bassom-
pierre A humiliating fiasco A second attempt meets with no
better success Bassompierre counsels the King to raise the siege,
and it is decided to follow his advice General exasperation against
Luynes Louis XIII begins to grow weary of his favourite
Conversation of the King with Bassompierre The latter warns
Luynes that he " does not sufficiently cultivate the good graces of
the King " Reply of the Constable Louis XIII twits Luynes
with the love of the Due de Chevreuse for his wife Puisieux,
Minister for Foreign Affairs, and Pre Arnoux, the King's Jesuit
confessor, conspire against the Constable Disgrace of the latter
Bassompierre, at the head of the bulk of the Royal forces, lays
siege to Monheurt A perilous situation Bassompierre falls ill
of fever He leaves the army and sets out for La Reole He is
taken seriously ill at Marmande His three doctors Approach of
the enemy Refusal of the townsfolk to admit him and his suite
into the town A terrible night He recovers and proceeds to
Bordeaux Death of the Constable before Monheurt.

DURING the next few days some progress was made by the
Guards at Ville-Nouvelle ; but the other two divisions
seemed able to do little or nothing ; while the garrison,
strengthened by the accession of several hundred first-
class fighting men, harassed them incessantly. On
October 4, Louis XIII summoned another council of war
at Picqueos, to which Bassompierre went. On his
arrival he was met by Pere Arnoux, the King's Jesuit
confessor, who said to him : " Well, Monsieur, Montau-



Online LibraryH. Noel (Hugh Noel) WilliamsA gallant of Lorraine; Francois, seigneur de Bassompierre, marquis d'Harouel, marechal de France (1579-1646) (Volume 2) → online text (page 1 of 28)