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Anne GeneVieVe de Bourbon, Duchesse de
LongueVille, and her Times



Author of " Five Fair Sisters," " Madame Recamier and her Friends,"
" Madame de Pompadour," " Queen Margot," etc.

" En France nous avons trois femmes qui seroient capables de gouverner
ou de bouleverser trois grands royaumes : la Duchesse de Lxragueville, la
Princesse Palatine, et la Duchesse de Chevreuse." — Mazarin.


Paternoster Row M jfi 1907









CHAPTER XVII I . . . 452














Louis II. de Bourbon, Prince de Conde (" le Grand Cond'e ")

{Photogravure) Frontispiece

From an engraving by Lisebetten after the painting by Teniers.


Cardinal Mazarin

From a contemporary print.

Anne de Rohan, Duchesse de Chevreuse

From an engraving by Gaitte.

Anne Genevieve de Bourbon, Duchesse de Longueville

From an engraving by Regnesson after the drawing by Chauveau.


Henri de la Tour d'Auvergne, Marechal de Turenne . 434
From an engraving by Schley.

Anne de Gonzague, Princess Palatine 462

From an engraving by Rousselet.

Armand de Bourbon, Prince de Conti 480

From a contemporary print.

Charlotte Marie de Lorraine, Mlle. de Chevreuse . . 506

From a contemporary print.

Marie d'Orleans, Mlle. de Longueville (afterwards

Duchesse de Nemours) 526

From an engraving by Nanteuil after the painting by Beaubrun.

Charles Amedee de Savoie, Due de Nemours .... 564

From a contemporary print.


Angelique Isabelle de Montmorency-Boutteville, Duchesse

de Chatillon

From an engraving published by Moncornet.

Claire Clkmence de Maillk-Brkzk, Princesse de Conde . 622

From an engraving published by Moncornet.


x List of Illustrations

facing page
Maria Felicia Orsini, Duchesse de Montmorency . . . 650
From an engraving by Van Schuppen.

Madeleine de Souvre, Marquise de Sable .... 668
From an engraving by Leguay after a painting by an unknown artist.

Antoine Singlin 682

From an engraving after the painting of Philippe de Champagne.

Antoine Arnauld ......... 692

From an engraving by Edelinck after the painting by Philippe de Champagne.

Charles Paris d'Orleans, Due de Longueville . . . 706

From an engraving after the painting by Ferdinand.



Reconciliation between the members of the Conde family — Madame
de Longueville resumes her influence over Conde, and endeavours
to draw him from his alliance with Mazarin — Position and pre-
tensions of Monsieur le Prince — He refuses the command of
the army in Flanders and retires to Burgundy — Disorders in
Paris — Renewed efforts of Madame de Longueville to separate
her elder brother from the Cardinal — Mazarin's matrimonial
schemes — Conde joins the Court at Compiegne — Return of their
Majesties to Paris— Ball at the Hotel de Ville — Madame de
Longueville urges Conde to oppose the marriage of Mazarin's
niece, Laure Mancini, with the Due de Mercceur — The New
Fronde — Violent quarrel between Mazarin and Conde (September
14) — Overtures by the Old Fronde to the prince — Intrigues of
Madame de Longueville and Conti to prevent an accommodation
between their brother and the Cardinal — Reconciliation of
September 17 — Conversation between Conde and his sister — Re-
newed negotiations between the prince and the Frondeurs —
Agreement of October 2 between Mazarin and Conde.

THE reconciliation between the rival parties was
followed by a reconciliation in the House of
Conde. The nrincess-dowager, who had deeply de-
plored the division in her family, employed all her
influence to re-establish harmony between her children,
and with complete success. Conde despised rather

VOL. II. 345 1

34-6 A Princess of Intrigue

than disliked his brother (one day, at Saint-Germain,
he is said to have drtssed up a hunchback in a
general's uniform and presented him to the Queen,
with the remark : " Behold, Madame, the generalissimo
of the Fronde ! ") ; while, in spite of recent events, he
still retained for his beautiful and talented sister much
of his former affectionate admiration. The meeting
between Monsieur le Prince and his relatives took
place at Chaillot, where embraces and complimentary
speeches were exchanged, and it was unanimously
agreed to forgive and forget.

Far better would it have been for the House of
Conde and for France had the division between its
members remained unhealed, for no sooner did Madame
de Longueville find herself again on terms of friend-
ship and confidence with her elder brother, than she
resumed her efforts to draw him from his alliance
with Mazarin. " She made him understand," says
Madame de Motteville, " that he had done wrong
in separating himself from his family, who would be
useful to his interests. He perceived that the Prince
de Conti was obtaining great advantages at Court,
and he recognised that Madame de Longueville, who
had guided the latter to this result, was worth listening
to, and could be of use to him in many ways. In
a word, he was pleased and captivated by the flattering
illusions of the princess ; and blood, added to policy,
bound him by fresh ties."

The good understanding between Monsieur le
Prince and the Cardinal had been merely of a tern-

A Princess of Intrigue 347

porary nature, called into being by the danger to
which the royal authority had found itself exposed ;
and it did not long survive the restoration of order.
Conde, indeed, declared publicly that he had upheld
Mazarin because he had pledged his word to do so,
but that, if matters took a different course, he should
consider himself at perfect liberty to withdraw his
protection from the Minister. His natural pride and
arrogance had been enormously increased by the
events of the last few months, and he had begun to
consider his support absolutely indispensable to the
Crown. It may have been so in a military sense,
but certainly not in a political one. His high rank
and great territorial influence must always command
a large following among the nobility, both at the
Court and in the provinces ; but he had none of the
consummate tact, none of the winning personality,
of a Henri de Guise ; and, in spite of the glamour
of his victories, he aroused no popular enthusiasm.
In Paris, he was disliked by the Parlement, for the
haughty and contemptuous manner in which he had
so often treated it, and detested by the people, both
as the protector of Mazarin and on account of the
cruelties which the royal troops had perpetrated during
the siege upon the Frondeurs and the defenceless
peasantry. On the first occasion on which he visited
the capital after the conclusion of peace, this hostility
manifested itself in an unmistakable manner, in the
angry cries which followed his coach as it passed
through the streets.

34 8 A Princess of Intrigue

Nevertheless, he was a powerful ally and a dangerous
enemy ; and the Regent and her Minister were willing
to go to great lengths to secure a continuance of the
support. But no ordinary favours or concessions were
likely to satisfy a man who regarded himself as the
saviour of the Crown, and believed that he held its
fate in the hollow of his hand ; while his jealous and
suspicious mind, skilfully played upon by his sister,
seemed to see in every action of Mazarin a carefully
calculated move to strengthen the Cardinal's position
or to diminish his own prestige. Thus, he excused
himself from accepting the command of the army in
Flanders, ostensibly on the ground that he could not
approve of the object of the campaign, which was the
reduction of Cambrai, but really because he believed
that, whatever might be the result, Mazarin would be
the gainer ; that, whereas success would strengthen
the hands of the Minister rather than add to the
laurels of the general, failure might seriously prejudice
the latter's reputation. 1 Accordingly, the command
was entrusted to the Comte d'Harcourt, who failed
completely before Cambrai ; and Conde, apparently on
the advice of Madame de Longueville, retired into
his government of Burgundy, to await with impatience

1 This is the view taken by the prince's eulogistic biographer, Earl
Stanhope ("Life of Louis of Bourbon, Prince of Conde"). The Due
d'Aumale, on the other hand, also a warm admirer of Monsieur le
Prince, seems to be of opinion that Conde was justified in declining
the command, or, as he prefers to put it, " asking not to be entrusted
with it, " in view of the total failure of the Government to support
him during the Flemish campaign of 1648, of which we have spoken

A Princess of Intrigue 349

the hour when the Government should again require
his services, promising himself that they should be sold
at a high price.

That hour was not long in arriving. The " Paix
Mazarine ' had satisfied the Parlement, which had
resumed its long-neglected judicial functions ; but the
people were still discontented, and a section of the
nobility, headed by Retz, Beaufort, Madame de
Longueville, and Conti, seemed to have settled down
into definite opposition to the Government, and lost
no opportunity of fomenting the popular unrest.
The more adventurous spirits among them made no
secret of their hostility to Mazarin. They swaggered
about the streets, with the badge of the Fronde, a sling
of cord, on their hats ; they called themselves " masters
of the pavement ; ' chastised the royal lackeys when
they happened to meet them, bidding them carry their
complaints to the Queen and the Cardinal ; and
quarrelled and fought with the nobles of the Court
party on the terrace at Renard's. The needy scribes
in the pay of the coadjutor, who tells us that he
" almost made of his house an academy," continued to
pour forth Mazarinades, which attacked the Minister
and Anne with more indecency than ever. The
Parlement forbade the printers to print or sell them,
and one Claude Morlot, who had published a
particularly gross libel upon the Regent (le custode du
lit de la Reine, qui dit /out), was condemned to death.
But, when he was taken to the Place de Greve, the
mob, with shouts of " Down with the Mazarins ! '

35° A Princess of Intrigue

attacked the officers, demolished the scaffold, and
rescued the prisoner. Clearly it was time that the
Court returned to Paris, from which its continued
absence was one of the chief sources of irritation.

The Regent and Mazarin, however, both felt that
it was essential that Monsieur le Prince should ac-
company them, lest the malcontents should derive
encouragement from the belief that all was not as it
should be between the Government and its protector.
Accordingly, the Cardinal wrote urging Conde to
return ; and on July 22 the latter arrived in Paris, on
his way to join the Court at Compiegne.

During his absence, Madame de Longueville had
been at work upon her mother, and had contrived to
gain Madame la Princes se completely over to her
views. The latter had not, in consequence, visited
the Court since the peace, and spoke of her old
friend the Queen as if she were now quite in-
different to her. Encouraged by this success, the
Frondeuse princess redoubled her efforts to win Conde,
" telling him that he would some day be glad to
follow her counsels, and would bitterly repent of the
protection he had given Mazarin." At the same time,
" in order to reconcile the populace to her brother,
she spread abroad a report that he had become devout
during his absence, and that a much-respected
Carthusian monk had converted him." 1

Mazarin, on his side, had not been idle. After the
Peace of Rueil, Madame de Chevreuse, profiting by

1 Motteville.

A Princess of Intrigue 351

the general amnesty, had returned to France, not
indisposed to exchange her role of an exiled intriguer
for that of a friend of the Court. Mazarin, who
entertained a high opinion of her talents, was only too
ready to meet her half-way ; and the lady, who had
once been his deadly enemy, now became one of his
most valued advisers. Her step-mother, Madame de
Montbazon, was also gained over, by the promise of
a substantial pension and the grant of a tabouret to
her daughter ; * and the Cardinal proceeded to use the
two duchesses for the furtherance of a scheme whereby
he hoped to greatly strengthen his position.

This was to attach the Vendome family to his
interests, by giving the eldest of his nieces, Laure
Mancini, 2 plus a dowry of 600,000 livres, to the
Due de Vendome' s eldest son, the Due de Mercceur,
and restoring the Admiralty to the father. By this
means, he intended to disarm Beaufort, whose immense
popularity with the Parisians rendered him an im-
portant factor in the political situation, notwithstanding
his personal ineptitude. At the same time, he pro-
posed that Beaufort should marry Marie d'Orleans,
the Due de Longueville's daughter by his first
marriage, a match which, he believed, would be very
acceptable to the " Roi des Halles."

1 Marie El6onore de Rohan, afterwards abbess of the Couvent de
Sainte-Trinite\ at Caen, and later of Malnoue, in Brie.

3 For an account of Laure Mancini and the other nieces of Mazarin,
see Am6d6e Renee's les Alices de Mazarin (Paris, 1858), and the
author's " Five Fair Sisters " (London : Hutchinson ; New York ;
Putnams', 1906).

35 2 A Princess of Intrigue

Vendome, tired of opposition to the Court, which
had brought him nothing but exile and imprisonment,
was willing enough to accept the good things which
an alliance with the Cardinal's family would ensure
him ; while his son, an amiable and pious young
man, the exact antithesis of his turbulent brother,
appeared to be as favourably impressed by the charms
of Mile. Mancini as by the magnitude of her proposed
dowry. Longueville, too, raised no objection to giving
his daughter to Beaufort, and the lady herself was not
opposed to the match ; but, in spite ot the efforts of
his relatives and of Mesdames de Chevreuse and de
Montbazon, Beaufort absolutely refused to compromise
his popularity with the mob by a reconciliation with
Mazarin, and, instead of yielding to their solicitations,
attached himself more closely than ever to the irrecon-
cilable Frondeurs.

Conde quitted Paris on August 22, and, after a
brief visit to Chantilly, proceeded to Compiegne. If
he had shown any ill-humour on his departure for
Burgundy, there were no traces of it on his return
to the Court. Immediately on his arrival, he sought
out Mazarin, whom he greeted with every appearance
of cordiality. He next visited the Queen " and told
her that he had become neither a Frondeur nor a
saint, assuring her that he renounced entirely the
sentiments of his family, which he frankly admitted
were somewhat tainted." l He promised, however, to
do all in his power to bring them to a better way of

1 Motteville.

A Princess of Intrigue 353

thinking, and pressed her to return to Paris, declaring
that he would be personally answerable for Mazarin's
safety, Anne's fears for which had been the chief cause
of the prolonged absence of the Court.

One of Conde's most intimate friends, the Due de
Rohan-Chabot, assured Madame de Motteville at this
time that the prince was perfectly sincere in his pro-
fessions of friendship for the Court, and had not the
least intention of allowing his sister to draw him into a
rupture with Mazarin, although he was not unwilling
that the Cardinal should suppose such a result possible,
in order to intimidate him into granting his demands.
But Rohan expressed his belief that Madame de
Longueville would eventually succeed in persuading
her brother to go a great deal further than the latter
desired, " since there was nothing so easy as to find
means of irritating a Prince of the Blood, who always
wanted more than could be given him."

On August 18, their Majesties returned to their
capital, after an absence of seven and a half months.
They reached the Porte Saint-Denis at eight o'clock
in the evening, and proceeded to the Palais-Royal,
through streets ablaze with torches, everywhere greeted
by the capricious populace with frenzied acclamations,
which, as Retz justly remarks, signified nothing.
Even Mazarin, who sat by Conde's side at the portiere
of the royal coach, 1 and might justifiably have felt

1 According to Mademoiselle, there were eight persons, including
herself, in the royal coach, who, as it was an intensely hot day, found
the journey a decidedly trying experience.

354 A Princess of Intrigue

some uneasiness in passing through the serried ranks
of that mob which held him in such abhorrence, found
himself received with no more hostile greeting than
cries of " Voila Mazarin ! "

Their Majesties alighted at the Palais-Royal, where
Retz and Beaufort waited upon them to offer their
submission. The latter was received somewhat coldly
by the Queen, who, however, confined herself to
remarking that she desired to see his actions correspond
to his words. Before retiring, Monsieur le Prince
saluted Anne of Austria, and addressed to her some
words of felicitation. " Monsieur," replied the Queen,
" the service which you have rendered the State is
so great that the King and I should be ingrates if
we ever forgot it."

As Conde left the room, a friend whispered in his
ear : " This is a greatness of service which makes me
tremble for you." Five months later, he was a
prisoner at Vincennes.

A few days after the return of the Court, the
municipality, wishing to testify its joy at the auspicious
event, gave a magnificent ball to their Majesties at the
Hotel de Ville. The Queen had accepted the invita-
tion, on condition that the ball should take place in
the afternoon, probably owing to the fact that, in
spite of the enthusiastic demonstrations which had
greeted the entry of the Court, she was still somewhat
distrustful of the good-will of the citizens. But,
according to one authority, because she believed day-
light would be somewhat trying to certain ladies of

A Princess of Intrigue 355

the Fronde who were accustomed to summon art to
the assistance of Nature. 1 Madame de Longueville,
who had recently retired to Chantilly, " out of pique
at seeing the King and Queen again in Paris," con-
sidered that this ball would furnish her with a good
excuse for returning to the capital. But the Queen
desired to give expression to her hostility to the
duchess by not inviting her ; and when Madame la
Princesse asked for an invitation for her daughter, her
Majesty replied coldly that " she feared to incon-
venience her," for the lady's pretext for retiring to
Chantilly had been that of ill-health. It was not,
indeed, until Conde himself intervened that Anne
yielded, remarking that "she was surprised that that
important Madame de Longueville had made such
great efforts to obtain so small a thing." 2

On August 25, the King went in great pomp to
celebrate the Festival of Saint-Louis at the Jesuit
Church in the Rue Saint-Antoine. The royal pro-
cession, in which rode the Princes de Conde and de
Conti and a number of the greatest nobles, mounted
on magnificent horses covered with elaborate trappings
of gold and silver embroidery, which reached to the
ground, was welcomed all along the route with
tumultuous demonstrations of joy. As for the
Cardinal, the boatmen on the Seine gave a fete in his
honour ; his health was drunk in the same taverns in

1 Motteville.

' Bourgoing de Villefore, la Veritable Vie d Anne- Genevieve de
Bourbon, Duchesse de Longueville,

3 $6 A Princess of Intrigue

which his confusion had been so lately toasted, and, as
he passed through the streets, he met with nothing but
respectful salutations.

However, in the midst of these manifestations of
public joy, the situation at Court had again become
strained. Mazarin, always ready to promise more
than he could perform, had given Conde reason to
believe that the Government would purchase for him
the county of Montbeliard, which belonged to the
Duke of Wurtemberg ; but the negotiations had come
to nothing, and the Cardinal's enemies did not fail to
accuse him of perfidy. 1 The prince, moreover, saw with
jealousy and uneasiness that Mazarin was inclining
more and more towards the Vendomes, between whom
and the House of Conde a bitter rivalry had existed
ever since the beginning of the Regency ; and he
accordingly lent but too-willing an ear to the warnings
of Madame de Longueville, who pointed out that the
alliance projected between the Due de Mercceur and
Laure Mancini was a certain proof that Mazarin had
ceased to regard Monsieur le Prince as his chief support,
and that when the Due de Vendome had become, by
this marriage, the connection of the Minister, he would
be more considered than any one by the King and
Queen. At the same time, she reminded him that
her husband had not yet obtained the government of
the Pont-de-1'Arche, promised him at the time of the

1 A despatch of Lionne de Servien, dated July 26, 1649, which
Cheruel cites (Histoire de la France pendant la minorite de
Louis XIV.), proves, however, that Mazarin, on this occasion at least,
had acted in perfectly good faith.

From a contemporary print.


A Princess of Intrigue 357

Peace of Rueil ; while, on the other hand, Vend6me
was about to obtain the Admiralty, which he himself
had demanded in vain on the death of his brother-in-
law, the Due de Breze. 1

To the exhortations of his sister, who was fully
determined on the overthrow of Mazarin, unless the
Minister were prepared to be content with the mere
shadow of power and yield the substance to the House
of Conde and its allies, was joined the flattery of
a band of young nobles, the La Moussayes, the
Bouttevilles, and the Tavannes, who imitated Monsieur
le Prince s grandiose manners, styled him " The
Master," and were themselves dubbed by the people
the cc petits-maitres " (little masters). These young
men were constantly urging Conde to play an
important part in the State — a role for which, it may
be observed, he was not in the smallest degree fitted —
and declaring their belief that the services he had
rendered the Crown had been most inadequately re-
compensed. In short, a new Fronde was beginning
— a Fronde of the princes and the "petits-maitres" —
which had not the excuse of the old Fronde, since its
origin was merely the ambition and the rivalry of the
great families of the realm, though it was sustained by
the turbulent and intriguing section of the latter, which
desired at all cost to break the peace and overthrow

The Cardinal, aware of the cabals that threatened
him, pressed on the union of his niece with the Due

1 See p. 2 58 supra.

35 8 A Princess of Intrigue

de Mercoeur, which was to secure for him the powerful
support of Vendome, and, he hoped, the neutrality at
least of Beaufort. All the preliminaries were satis-
factorily arranged, and the celebration of the marriage
was fixed for September 19, 1649. Conde, however,
urged on by his sister, was now resolved to use every
means in his power to prevent an alliance which would
render Mazarin less dependent and Vendome more
powerful. On the 14th, he was at the Palais-Royal,
when the Cardinal approached and asked him to sign
the marriage-contract. The prince replied brusquely
that he was not related to the parties, and that there-
fore his signature was not needed. He added that
he, on his side, had several requests to make to the
Minister, the first and most important of which was
that he should fulfil the promise made to the Due de
Longueville of the government of the Pont-de-1'Arche,
" That is one of those engagements which one enters
into without any intention of keeping them," rejoined
Mazarin laughing ; and he reminded Conde that, during
the negotiations at Rueil, it had been agreed that the
Pont-de-1'Arche should be promised to Longueville, in
order to hasten the peace, but that subsequently a
pretext should be found for not conferring the post.
It was certainly highly undesirable that the duke, whose
power in Normandy already overshadowed that of the
Crown, and who had so recently used it without
scruple against his sovereign, should have an important
fortress in that province placed in his hands. Never-

Online LibraryH. Noel (Hugh Noel) WilliamsA princess of intrigue, Anne Geneviève de Bourbon, duchesse de Longueville and her times (Volume 2) → online text (page 1 of 27)