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H. Rider (Henry Rider) Haggard.

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A FARMER'S YEAR




BY THE fyLME AUTHOR
CETYWAYO AND HIS WHITE NEIGHBOUES



THE WITCH'S HEAD '

KING SOLOMON'S MINES

SHE

JESS

ALLAN QUATEEMAIN

MAIWA'S EEVENGE

ME. MEESON'S WILL

COLONEL QUAEITCH, V.O.

CLEOPATEA

ALLAN'S WIFE

BEATEICE

EEIC BEIGHTEYES

NADA THE LILY

MONTEZUMA'S DAUGHTEE

THE PEOPLE OF THE MIST

JOAN HASTE

HEAET OF THE WOELD

DOCTOE THEENE

SWALLOW

(In collaboration with Andrew Lang)

THE WOELD'S DESIEE



A FARMER'S YEAR

BEING

HIS COMMONPLACE BOOK FOR 1898

BY

H. RIDER HAGGARD



"Who minds to quote
Upon this note

May easily find enough :
What charge and pain,
To little gain,

Doth follow toiling plough.

"Yet farmer may
Thank God and say,

For yearly such good hap,
'Well fare the plough
That sends enough

To stop so many a gap ' "

THOMAS TUSSER, 1558



WITH 2 MAPS AND 36 ILLUSTRATIONS
BY G. LEON LITTLE

NEW IMPRESSION

LONGMANS, GREEN, AND CO.

39 PATERNOSTER ROW, LONDON

NEW YORK AND BOMBAY

1899

All rights reserved



B1BLIOGRA PHICAL NO TE.

First printed September 1899.
Reprinted November 1899.



S



DEDICA TION

MY DEAR HARTCUP,

Had your mother who found interest in these pages
and who to the end was fond of quiet reading about country
things lived to see them finished, I should have asked, as some
small token of their author's affection and respect, to be allowed
to set her name upon a book that tells of the home where she was
born and the fields in which she spent her distant youth.

But it cannot be', so to you, as a friend and fellow inhabitant
of Arcady, to you who also have had experience of the frowning
face of adverse agricultural balance sheets, I venture to offer

them.

Believe me

Ever sincerely yours,

H. RIDER HAGGARD.

DlTCHINGHAM : 1899.

HERBERT HARTCUP, ESQ.



AUTHOR'S NOTE



AMONGST a great deal of very kindly criticism that has reached
him during their publication in serial form (for which hereby he
tenders his best thanks) the author of these pages has read one or
two notices complaining that they are not sufficiently technical.
He wishes to explain, therefore, that he never intended them to
be a manual of farming, but rather what their title implies the
record of one year of the daily experiences and reflections of an
individual farmer. With the many existing and admirable works
upon the subject he has neither the desire to enter into com-
petition nor, in truth, the scientific and detailed knowledge
necessary to such a task.

Outside of descriptions of rustic scenes and events, which to
some quiet minds are often pleasing, any interest that this book may
possess, indeed, for the present or for future time, must be due in the
main to the facts that it is a picture, or perhaps a photograph, of one
facet of our many-sided modern life, and that it mirrors faithfully,
if incidentally, the decrepit and even dangerous state of the farming
and attendant industries in eastern England during the great agri-
cultural crisis of the last decade of the nineteenth century. That
is to say, its pages describe those industries with their surroundings



vih A FARMER'S YEAR

as they presented themselves in the year 1898 to the eye and mind
of a landowner and farmer of the smaller and therefore more repre-
sentative sort ; a man who chanced to have had the advantage of
visiting other countries, and to the best of his ability to have
observed the conditions, social, agricultural and political, which
prevail in them.

How that crisis will end it is not possible for the wisest
among us to guess to-day. Thus, in obedience to some little
understood and subtle law of averages and economic retaliation,
Agriculture the starved and neglected, may yet avenge itself upon
the towns full-fed with cheap and foreign produce, by swamping
them with the competition of the inhabitants of the hamlets who
troop thence to find a higher wage than ' the land that dies ' can
pay them. This movement, indeed, perhaps one of the most
significant if the most silent and unnoticed of our time, is already
in rapid progress, and when should no unforeseen event, accident
or political change, such as the revival of some modified form
of Protection, not expected now, but still possible as an expedient
of despair, occur to stay it the exodus is completed, and the
rural districts are desolate, then it may be asked : Must not the
numbers, health, and courage of our race in their turn pay a portion
of the price of the ruin of its wholesome nurseries ?

When the ' highways were unoccupied ' and the * inhabitants of
the village ceased ' Deborah the Prophetess and a wise Mother in
Israel did not think the omen good.

Perhaps it is a superstition and no more ; yet it seems hard to
credit that a country will remain prosperous for very long after
it has ceased to be even moderately remunerative to till any
but its choicest fields for food, and when for the lack of a



AUTHOR'S NOTE ix

reasonable reward, the tillers themselves, abandoning the free
air their fathers breathed for centuries, have swarmed to inhabit
the grim and sweltering courts of cities. Under like circumstances
at least Rome did not remain prosperous.

Heretofore John Bull has been depicted as a countryman and
nothing else, a comparison with meaning. . If henceforth he is to
forsake the soil that bred him, how will he be pictured by our
children, drawing from a changed and shrunken model ?

Indeed to the millions who follow it, and therefore to the nation
at large, although few seem to understand that this is so, the
practice of Agriculture that primaeval occupation and the cleanest
of them all means more than the growing of grass and grain.
It means, among other things, the engendering and achieve-
ment of patient, even minds in sound enduring bodies, gifts
of which, after the first generation, the great towns rob those
who dwell and labour in them. And when those gifts are gone,
or greatly lessened, what does history teach us of the fate of the
peoples who have lost them ?

When, too, the countryman has put on a black coat, or, for
that matter, kept to his corduroys, what welcome has the city he
craves for him ? What kind of places are these cities to live in,
for the poor ? What mercy do they show to those who fall sick
or fail ? Ask the labouring man who seeks work after the cheap
hair-dye ceases to conceal that he is turned of fifty. Ask the
clerk, competent, blameless (and married, with a family), but on
the wrong side of forty-five. Ask the widow derelict and tossing
upon that bitter sea. They will reply with a paraphrase of the
famous saying of the Emperor Charles V., or would if they knew
it, 'Cities are women, who reserve their favours for the young.'



x A FARMER'S YEAR

There the hideous grinding competition of the age leaves little
room for those from whom the last possible ounce of brain or
body work can be no longer pressed. They go to the wall, they
sink to the slum, and the Dock gate, and the House, and the
hospital ward. I say that from these great towns with their aggre-
gated masses of mankind, there rises one eternal wail of misery
the hopeless misery that with all its drawbacks the country
does not know, of those who, having fallen, are being trampled
by those who stand.

Such are the things of the cities, with their prizes for the few,
their blanks, their despairs for the many. And all the while
that is why I speak of them and their pomps and poverties
outside these human hives lie the wide, neglected lands of
England, peopled often enough but by a few struggling farmers,
and in the course of desertion by a dwindling handful of labouring
folk. And yet here should be not palaces with deer parks only,
though sometimes these have their uses but tens and twenties of
thousands of quiet homes, where, given easier conditions as regards
carriage, taxation and markets, families might live, not in riches
indeed, but in ample comfort ; in health of body and of mind, with
pure air, pure thoughts, pure sights. Oh ! who will so handle
matters as to make this enthusiast's dream a possibility, who will
turn the people to the land again and thus lessen the load of a
nation's sorrows ? And from the empty waste of half-tilled acres
floats back the echo 'Who?'

Most of us pass such problems with a shrug ; they do not
concern us we think.

It is an unnatural war between the cities and the land which
bore and nurtured them, if that can be called a war where the



AUTHOR'S NOTE xi

mother lies prostrate for the daughters to tread out her life. When
the towns are full what do they care to-day if the fields be empty ?
'Bear our burdens, feed, educate, give us the best of your
blood and brain your hungry Realty can meet the bill. Then
you may go starve,' say they ; ' what is that to us who have
enough ? Send us your stalwart men and women : we will pay
you back in sparrows ! '

Indeed, the masses of the population, and therefore the govern-
ments who seek their suffrages, whatever they may pretend, at
heart interest themselves little in the welfare of rural England. It
is troublesome with its complaints, half bankrupt, divided by class
prejudice, and therefore politically impotent let it take its chance
that is their attitude secret if not declared. Countries in China,
Central Africa, anywhere, must be seized or hypothecated to
provide ' new markets ' even ' at the cost of war ' for this is
fashionable and imperialistic, and, it is hoped, will bring profit to
the people with the most votes and influence, the traders and
dwellers in the towns. For these, money, men, everything they
ask ; but for the home earth and its offspring, small help, no,
scarce the most naked justice. 'Gentlemen, the Cities would
never stand it,' runs the accustomed formula of repulse.

' Open doors abroad ' is the cry what does it matter if the
old-fashioned door at home is shut, that door which in bygone ages
has so often stood between the wolf and the Englishman ? It
matters nothing at all, is the answer of our masters (short-sighted
as some of us think), for British-grown products are no longer of
great importance to the community except, perhaps, to an enter-
prising section of it, those of the meat-salesmen and traders wh6
use the title as a veil for fraud.



xii A FARMER'S YEAR

In short, British agriculture on its appropriate journey to
Jericho resembles that Biblical traveller who fell among acquisitive
and self-seeking characters. At least the parallel holds to a certain
extent. The Pharisee, the Scribe, the Priest and the Levite
townsfolk all of them pass by with a jest and a curse sometimes
they add a kick but the good Samaritan has yet to appear. When
he comes, if ever, and proves successful in his work of healing ;
when he has emptied the anaemic, enervated cities back on to the
land and caused the vanished yeoman class to re-arise, he will
be the greatest man of his age, and as a reward will earn the
gratitude of healthy country-nursed posterities, who, without him,
would not have been.

Where is he this son of consolation ?

But with reference to the above opinions and sundry others
expressed from time to time throughout this book, some of them
unconventional perhaps, its student is asked to remember, in
conclusion, that they are only the unimportant though sincerely
held views of a private observer of events ; intended, it is true, to
con vert as many as possible to their author's way of thinking, but,
should they fail in this, at least to give offence to no one ; to be
taken, indeed, at such value as the reader pleases, much, or little,
or none at all.

DlTCHINGIIAM t 1899.



CONTENTS



BEDINGHAM, DITCHINGHAM AND THE FARMS

PAGE

The Education of Nature The small Scale My Acreage The Moat
Farm Derivation of Bedingham The Procession of the Past The
Lords of Bedingham Bruce's buried Heart Margery's Love Letter
The Priory The Charm of Age Heavy Land The Fall in Farm
Values Websdill Wood Map of Moat Farm The New Pastures
Tenants and 'Laying Down' Ditchingham Shells in the Sand
Outney Common Views The Vine in England The Essay of
Apothecary King The Bath Spring Bungay Sir Hugh Bigod
The Deed of Roger de Huntingfeld Copper-bottoming and the
Black Dog of Bungay A Wild Bird Preserve Ditchingham Lodge
Mr. Ives and the Duke Miss Ives and the Viscount The Sons and
the Tutor Floods and High Tides Lack of the Co-operative Spirit

Farms and Stock at Ditchingham Condition of Land in 1889

Land-sucking and the Land-sucker Valuations All Hallows
The Glebe Baker's Tindale Wood- -Map and Details Capital and
Profit and Loss Accounts -Governments and the Farming Interests
Borrowed Capital Advice to Investors The Silver Lining . . I

JANUARY

A Mad Hare Christmas Weather Ploughshares Bungay Compost
First Calves of Heifers Dyke-cleaning An Early Lane Bankrupt
Families A Rent Audit An Ancient Bridle Storage of Beet
First Lambs Southdowns and Suffolks Strange Behaviour of Cows
Red Poll Cattle Ditching Fences Young Pastures A Poor Crop
Ploughing of Barley Lands The Bedingham Steer Showing
Cattle Bush Draining The Lot of the Agricultural Labourer Old
Age Pensions Migration of the Labourer Going for a Soldier . 45

FEBRUARY

The Wind in the Pines Candlemas Day Sheep and Heat The
Influence of Frost First Snow Thrashing, Old and New Rooks



xiv A FARMER'S YEAR



and Mawkins Sale of the Sick Ox The Art of PloughingIntelli-
gence of Farm Horses Autopsy of the Sick Ox The Crying Evil of
the Tied House Monopoly The Power of the Brewers Purchase of
Bungay Castle by the Duke of Norfolk Miss Peggotty's Misfortune
The Turkey and the Cock The Terrier and the Hen A Peaceful
Scene Rate of Wages Sale of Bullocks County Council Election
Parish Councils a Failure Drilling Barley Marking of Trees-
Growth and Management of Timber . . . . . .100

MARCH
Winter at Last The Fall of Lambs Brushing Pasture .124

APRIL

The Fruits of Free Trade A Question A Missed Baulk Soil for
Carrots The Back Lawn The Effect of Weather on Temperament
A 'Cast' Mare Pond Water for Drinking The Water Question in
Villages A Suggested Solution Rolling Heavy Land Felling
Trees Rooting A Stub-oak Air-roots on Trees - Refreshing a
Pasture Lamb Murder An Easter Vestry Meeting The Mare
and the Horseman The Bull and the Bailiff Tail-cutting Beet-
drilling The First Swallow Undermanned Farms The Sick
Lambs What happened before Root - culture Nightingales on
Hollow Hill Total Loss of Lambs Interviewing a Lunatic at
Church Missionary Bazaar Superstition Local Race Meetings
Horse-hoeing Beans Shifting the Sheep A Short Notice Rise in
the Price of Wheat Service at Bedingham Church The First
Orchis Estate Repairs Increase of Birds on Bath Hills A Kicking
Cow The Coming of the Leaf Mice in Stacks Election Excite-
mentsThe Labourer's Prejudices Money a Defence The Corrup-
tion of County Constituencies The Worship of Mammon The Re-
duction in the Tobacco Duty The Grievances of the Clergy Wheat
at 48^. the Quarter- -A Bounty on Wheat The Reign of King Stork
Prices of Grain in 1800 Destruction of Young Trees by Boys
Hedgerow Timber Sensibility to Pain of Men and Animals The
Humours of an Election Meeting Fact versus Fiction . . . 120

MAY

May-DayStones on Sandy Soil Wheat at Forty-nine Shillings a
Quarter The Price of Corn and War Snakes on the Bath Hills
The Hare and the Cobra Rough Jimmy An Egg-eating Turkey
The Margarine Deputation The Gilling of Timber The Pleasures of



CONTENTS xv

PAGE

Canvassing Politics of the Labourer Heat or Pheasants Courtship
among Turkeys The Last of the Irish Cattle A Bad Balance Sheet
The Low Price of Butter The Foreign Article A Margarine
Factory Home-grown Hams An Election Tale Snake Bite in
Norfolk Gathering Orchids at Bedingham The Vitality of Seed-
Political Meetings School Board Cases Sir J. Gorst on Education
Laying down Grass at Kessingland The Result of the Election
Backwardness of the Season The End of Newborn Pride Benacre
Broad The Habits of Peewits The Closing of the Broads May
sayings . . . . . . . . . . . i?8

JUNE

Grass in Iceland Njal's Hall at Bergsthorsknoll Backwardness of the
Season Crops and Stock at Bedingham A June Frost Preparing
to Steam-saw -Sheep-shearing The Humour of Shearers Weight
of Fleeces Lights and Colours Bees in the Beans The Ways of
Swallows Weeds and Carrots The Decay of Bungay Market Low
Price of Wool Striking a Bargain Lucky Pigs A Use for Oak
Butts Steam-sawing Spoke Setting Curlew on the Common
Farming with the Hoe - Flat Hoeing - Cracked Shoulder-blades
A Tale of the Zulu War Fairy Rings Adventure with the Porch
Swallows Egg-Stealing Resale of the King's Head Hotel Price
of Lambs The Uses of the Dock About Hawks The Work of the
late Mrs. Scudamore The Keeper and the Owl Moorhens and their
Young The Cold and the Swallows Sheep Dipping Life on the
Lawn The Refusal of Christian Burial Cutting the Layer Hen
and Ducklings Swifts on the Bath Hills Dragging Twitchgrass
Curiosities of the Bedingham Registers Dan and Sheep Murder A
Solemn Sky Naturalism Wanted, a Kicking-strap Allotment
Crops Price of Garden Stuff Good Blood versus Bad Docks on
the Marshes Hoeing under Difficulties Drying Wet Hay The
Blooming of Wheat The First Breath of Summer Female Labour
Transplanting Mangold Machine-mowing Laid Grass Barleys at
Bedingham The Fly Flowers and Birds in Websdill Wood . .211

JULY

The Season Up to Date The Shed at Baker's Woodton Hall and
Church The Infamous Dowsing - Forgotten Brides Epitaphs-
Wealth of the Georgian Era The Hay on Nos. 5 and 11 Effect of
Sheeping Pastures - Treading of Land by Sheep Weaning Lambs
Haysel at Bedingham Kohl-rabi and Pigeons A Wicked Pony A



xvi A FARMER'S YEAR



Stormy Sunset Hay Heating on the Stack Committee on Old Age
Pensions The Benefices Bill Ulsters in July Scene on the Back
Lawn Feeding Cattle in 1557 Two Views of a Crop St. Swithun's
Day American Reapers The Cattle and the Young Willows The
Docks on the Marsh Sparrows in the Wheat Cutting out Swedes
Magistrates and Conscientious Objectors An Object Lesson The
Divorced Game-cock The Advantages of Baby Beef The Process
of Thatching Splitting of Soil by Beet Bulbs -Destruction of Beet
by the Horse Hoe Buying a Reaper Proposed Agreements for
Harvest Boarding out of London Children A Rise of Swallows
Galvanised Roofs for Stacks The Bedingham Hay Crop Underbred
Cattle Rain at Last Drilling Maize and Mustard The Swallows
and their Egg An Ancient Farm An Old-fashioned Couple . . 255

AUGUST

A Primrose League Fete Sale of Red Poll Heifers Red- weed and
Rabbits Hare and Rabbits Bill Price of Fat Stock at Harleston
The Harvest Bargain Martha, Jane, and Babette Fight Between
Threshers and a Whale The Natural Law Some Examples A Wet
Day The Dead Foal An African Snow Scene The Work of Messrs.
Garton Agricultural Distress as a Subject for Jest Cause of Death of
Foal Fool's Parsley The New Ewes The Beginning of Harvest
The Reaper at Work Offers for Bedingham Layer in Barley Lady
Farmers of the Old Sort Cost of Repairs A Tree Tragedy-
Summer Fallowing and ' Maffies 'Barley Mowing A Confusion of
Terms A Hawking Owl A Rabbit Hunt Result of Over-manur-
ing Wheat Mysterious Successes in Agriculture Carting Pease
Horse-bees at Work Charges for Chemical Analysis The Humming
of Gnats A Summer Frost A Large Farm The Thunder-blasted
Tree Effects of Pressure on a Mast Experiences of Lightning at
Home and Abroad Chicory and Thistle Down Stacking Damp
Oats and Wheat An Ancient Brick The Past and the People -The
Instinct of Perpetuation Old Methods of Cottage Building Matted
Corn The Rising of the Harvest Moon 292

SEPTEMBER

Bungay Brewster Sessions Decrease of Crime Great Bulk of the
Crops First Day's Shooting The Heaven-sent Bicycle Forbidding
Aspect of Ripe Beans Messrs. Horton and Sime The Mettingham
Skeleton Seventeenth Century Joke The Abundance of Straw
The Great Heat Failure of the Reaper in Barley The Jeremiad of



CONTENTS xvii

PAGB

Sir William Crookes Some Statistics of Wheat Areas Leguminous
Crops and Muck versus Niagara and the Zambesi The Death of Lord
Winchilsea The Heat and the Sun-spot Produce at Bedingham A
poor Day's Shooting Drought The Tricks of the Corn Market
The End of Harvest Co-operation : is it Practicable ? Bad Stacking
Decay of the Labourers' Skill A Visit to the Hebrides Locomo-
tion : Past, Present, and Future Oban to Coll Landing at Coll
The Swede in Coll Johnsonian Wit Farming in Coll Sportsmen ;
and a Story Bird-life in Coll Seals The Untiring Lees Shooting
and Scruples A Day's Sport in Coll The Function of Elymus
Arenarius The Old Castle The Tomb of the McLeans The Sea
Rovers' Grave Plover in a Gale Peat Drains Success at the
Agricultural Show A Clever Collie A Snipey Field Church at
Coll Superiority of Scotch Preachers Intelligence of their Congre-
gations The Lead Mine The Benhogh Stone Hangman's Hill
The Bradenham Chains Crofters and Population A Desolate Scene
' Coll for my Money 'Drought at Upp Hall The Water Question
in Hertfordshire True Tale of a Dowser Large Fields and Steam
Ploughs Good Stacking Advantages of the London Market
Hertfordshire Rents Method of Well-SinkingManufacture of a
Trout Stream Memories ........ 327

OCTOBER

Ditchingham and Drought State of Crops and Stock First Thrashings
A Misguided Pheasant Ploughing in the Drought The Tale of a
Farmer Earlham Hall and Elizabeth Fry Tuberculosis and Tuber-
culin Necessity of Dairy Inspection Pigeons on the Lawn The
Lesson of Decay Our Fear of the Dark A Crazy Heifer The
Hatred of Hospitals A Broken Link Sale of two Red Polls Messrs.
Garton and Darwin Autumn on the Norfolk Coast A Well-man-
aged Shooting Tale of a ' Gallery 'Beet Lifting and Haling
Largesse Fall of Wages Grand Juries ...... 364

NOVEMBER

A Difference of Opinion The Eternal Round of Nature Critics on
Galvanised Iron Kohl-rabi verstis Swedes War and the Strength of
the Empire Valuation Day The Woes of Six Stops Sudden Fall
of Elm Boughs A Change of Farm Policy The Results of Bungay
Compost Autumn Sunlight and Cloud When the Strength Fails
The Beauty of Large Meadows Another Way of Beet Lifting The
Clergy as Sportsmen Loaders Bean Roots The Risks of Rabbit-
pie Sale of the Barley The Battle of Lubwa An Instance of

a



xviii A FARMER'S YEAR

I'AGE

Physical Endurance The Triumph of Reason -The End of the
Battle African Rinderpest Dividing the Spoils Death of the South-
down Ram A Visit to the Agricultural Show Rearing of Prize
Cattle Fat Pigs An Etruscan Winner Queensland and Emigration
Prize Chrysanthemums The Poultry Show If only ! A Prophetic
Passage A Surgical Feat Wild Ostriches The Beet on Baker's -
Carrots and Carrot Lifting The Last of the Green Maize The Uses
of Road-grit Sale of the Lambs The Criminal Evidence Act
Mustard and the Sheep The Cunning of Dogs The End of Dan
A Result of Bad Stacking A Self-planted Covert Purchase of Steers
The Ways of Moles -A Story 378

DECEMBER

A.n Agricultural Debate The Lack of Labourers Mr. Bagenal's Report
Exodus from the Land a National Question Cattle at Norwich
Market Brutality of Drovers The Cost of Carriage Its Gravity-
Warmth of the Season The Harleston Auction A Controversy
Prices at Harleston The Dead of Winter Ruin The Patience of
the Afflicted - An < Old Radical 'Nightfall The Charm of Beding-
ham The Lack of Bushes A Critic Criticised Raspberries in
December The Swede Crop A Plethora of Bailiffs Large Ideas -
Begging Letters Impostors A Curious Case Queen's Nurses -Fuel
Doles Heckingham Workhouse Outdoor Relief versus the House
The Tale of Turk Taylor A Master Rogue A Fortified Workhouse
Parish Homes and Unions An Ae'riel Fire A Discreet Defendant
At the End of the Fell The Woodcock's Note Ware 'Cock-
Shooting as a Sport The Shortest Day The First Frost An En-
thusiastThe Pheasant and the Cat The last of Royal Duke The
Labourer and the Land Chilled Mutton Balance Sheets A Profit
How to Succeed Jeremiah considered by a Minor Prophet - The
Lowest on Record Roses in December Kessingland and the Ocean
The Great March Gale A Nelson Relic Lady Hamilton and her
Critic The Nelson Club Pewits and Sunlight The Smell of the Soil
Kohl-rabi and Swedes A Desolate Scene The Dignity and Doom
of Labour The Last Sunrise Tithe and the Parsons The Con-
clusion of the Matter ......... 407

APPENDIX

I. THE RURAL EXODUS 459

II. EFFECT OF FOREIGN COMPETITION ON THE BRITISH PRODUCER 470

INDEX 471



ILLUSTRATIONS



BUNGAY COMMON FROM THE VINEYARD HILLS . . . Frontispiece
PRIORY FARM AND BEDINGHAM CHURCH . . . . to face p. 4

THE MOAT FARM, BEDINGHAM ,, 10

THE VINEYARD HILLS AND BATH HOUSE, DITCHINGHAM,

IN 1738 ,, 21

ALL HALLOWS FARM ,, 35



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