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THE LIBRARY

OF

THE UNIVERSITY
OF CALIFORNIA

LOS ANGELES



GIFT



REGENERATION



BY THE SAME AUTHOR



PARLIAMENTARY BLUE-BOOK

Repo t to H.M.'s Government on The

Salvation Army Colonies in the United

States, with Scheme of National Land

Settlement. (Cd. 2562.)



POLITICAL HISTORY
Cetewayo and his White Neighbours

WORKS ON AGRICULTURE,
COUNTRY LIFE, AND SOCIOLOGY

Rural England (2 vols.)
The Poor and the Land
A Farmer's Year
A Gardener's Year

BOOK OF TRAVEL
A Winter Pilgrimage




GENERAL BOOTH



Regeneration

Being an Account of the Social

Work of The Salvation Army

in Great Britain



BY

H. RIDER HAGGARD



LONGMANS, GREEN & CO.

PATERNOSTER ROW, LONDON, E.G.

1910



Dedication

I DEDICATE these pages to the Officers and
Soldiers of the Salvation Army, in token of
my admiration of the self-sacrificing work by
which it is their privilege to aid the poor and
wretched throughout the world.

H. RIDER HAGGARD.

DlTCHINGHAM,

November, 1910.



College
Library

H '\
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Contents

INTRODUCTORY ... ........ 7

MEN'S SOCIAL WORK, LONDON ........ 19

SPA ROAD ELEVATOR . . . , . - . . . . . 27

GREAT PETER STREET SHELTER . ... . . . . 33

FREE BREAKFAST SERVICE ..... .... 41

EX-CRIMINALS ............ 54

MEN'S WORKSHOP : HANBURY STREET, WHITECHAPEL ... 65

STURGE HOUSE, Bow ROAD .......... 71

CENTRAL LABOUR BUREAU ..... . . . . 75

INTERNATIONAL INVESTIGATION DEPARTMENT ..... 77

EMIGRATION DEPARTMENT . .... . . . 80

WOMEN'S SOCIAL WORK IN LONDON . . . , . . 87

HEADQUARTERS OF THE WOMEN'S SOCIAL WORK .... 96

HlLLSBOROUGH HOUSE INEBRIATES' HOME . ., ... . 98

MATERNITY NURSING HOME . . . ' . . . . . . 103

MATERNITY RECEIVING HOME .. ..... -.-... . . 105

MATERNITY HOSPITAL ..... . . . . . 107

'THE NEST,' CLAPTON .'.-.; . ...... na

TRAINING INSTITUTE FOR WOMEN'S SOCIAL WORK . . . 115

WOMEN'S INDUSTRIAL HOME, HACKNEY . . . . . . 119

INEBRIATES' HOME . ... . . -. . . ... . 122

WOMEN'S INDUSTRIAL HOME, SOUTHWOOD ..... 126

WOMEN'S SHELTER, WHITECHAPEL .... . . . . . . 129

SLUM SETTLEMENT, HACKNEY ROAD . . . . . . .131

PICCADILLY MIDNIGHT WORK . . . , , .-. *- . . . 140

ANTI-SUICIDE BUREAU .......... 151

WORK IN THE PROVINCES, LIVERPOOL . . . . . . 165

MEN'S SOCIAL WORK, MANCHESTER ....... 171

OAKHILL HOUSE, MANCHESTER ........ 176

MEN'S SOCIAL WORK, GLASGOW ........ 178

ARDENSHAW WOMEN'S HOME ........ 188

WOMEN'S LODGING-HOUSE, GLASGOW ...... 192

LAND AND INDUSTRIAL COLONY, HADLEIGH ..... 194

SMALL-HOLDINGS SETTLEMENT, BOXTZD ...... 200

IMPRESSIONS OF GENERAL BOOTH ....... 208

THE CHIEF OF THE STAFF .... ..... 218

NOTE ON THE RELIGION OF THE SALVATION ARMY .... 229

APPENDICES ............. 237



104SC94



Author's Note

THE author desires to thank Mr. D. R. DANIEL
for the kind and valuable assistance he has given
him in his researches into the Social Work of
the Salvation Army.

He takes this occasion to make it clear that
this book does no more than set out the results
of his investigations into some of that vast
Social Work, and his personal conclusions as
to it and those by whom it is prosecuted.

To obviate any possible misunderstanding as
to the reason of its writing, he wishes to
state further that it has not been compiled by
him as a matter of literary business.



Introductory



WHAT is the Salvation Army?
If this question were put to the ordinary
person of fashion or leisure, how would it be
answered ?

In many cases thus : ' The Salvation Army is
a body of people dressed up in a semi-military
uniform, or those of them who are women, in
unbecoming poke bonnets, who go about the
streets making a noise in the name of God and
frightening horses with brass bands. It is
under the rule of an arbitrary old gentleman
named Booth, who calls himself a General,
and whose principal trade assets consist in a
handsome and unusual face, and an inexhaustible
flow of language, which he generally delivers from
a white motor-car wherever he finds that he can
attract the most attention. He is a clever actor
in his way, who has got a great number of people
under his thumb, and I am told that he has made
a large fortune out of the business, like the late
prophet Dowie, and others of the same sort. The
newspapers are always exposing him ; but he



8 REGENERATION

knows which side his bread is buttered and
does not care. When he is gone no doubt his
family will divide up the cash, and we shall hear
no more of the Salvation Army!'

Such are still the honest beliefs of thousands
of our instructed fellow-countrymen, and of
hundreds of thousands of others of less degree
belonging to the classes which are generally
typified under the synonym of ' the man in the
street,' by which most people understand one
who knows little, and of that little nothing accu-
rately, but who decides the fate of political
elections.

Let us suppose, however, that the questioner
should succeed in interesting an intelligent and
fair-minded individual holder of these views
sufficiently to induce him to make inquiry into
the facts concerning this Salvation Army. What
would he then discover?

He would discover that about five and forty
years ago some impulse, wherever it may have
come from, moved a Dissenting minister, gifted
with a mind of power and originality, and a body
of great strength and endurance, gifted, also,
with an able wife who shared his views, to try,
if not to cure, at least to ameliorate the lot of
the fallen or distressed millions that are one of
the natural products of high civilization, by
ministering to their creature wants and regene-



INTRODUCTORY 9

rating their spirits upon the plain and simple
lines laid down in the New Testament. He
would find, also, that this humble effort, at first
quite unaided, has been so successful that the
results seem to partake of the nature of the
miraculous.

Thus he would learn that the religious Organi-
zation founded by this man and his wife is
now established and, in most instances, firmly
rooted in 56 Countries and Colonies, where
it preaches the Gospel in 33 separate languages :
that it has over 16,000 Officers wholly employed
in its service, and publishes 74 periodicals
in 20 tongues, with a total circulation of nearly
1,000,000 copies per issue: that it accommo-
dates over 28,000 poor people nightly in its
Institutions, maintaining 229 Food Depots and
Shelters for men, women, and children, and 157
Labour Factories where destitute or characterless
people are employed : that it has 17 Homes for
ex-criminals, 37 Homes for children, 116 Indus-
trial Homes for the rescue of women, 16 Land
Colonies, 149 Slum Stations for the visitation and
assistance of the poor, 60 Labour Bureaux for
helping the unemployed, and 521 Day Schools
for children : that, in addition to all these, it has
Criminal and General Investigation Departments,
Inebriate Homes for men and women, Inquiry
Offices for tracing lost and missing people,



io REGENERATION

Maternity Hospitals, 37 Homes for training
Officers, Prison-visitation Staffs, and so on
almost ad infinitum.

He would find, also, that it collects and dis-
penses an enormous revenue, mostly from among
the poorer classes, and that its system is run with
remarkable business ability : that General Booth,
often supposed to be so opulent, lives upon a
pittance which most country clergymen would
refuse, taking nothing, and never having taken
anything, from the funds of the Army. And
lastly, not to weary the reader, that whatever may
be thought of its methods and of the noise made
by the 23,000 or so of voluntary bandsmen who
belong to it, it is undoubtedly for good or evil
one of the world forces of our age.

Before going further, it may, perhaps, be well
that I should explain how it is that I come to
write these pages. First, I ought to state that
my personal acquaintance with the Salvation
Army dates back a good many years, from the
time, indeed, when I was writing ' Rural
England,' in connexion with which work I had
a long and interesting interview with General
Booth that is already published. Subsequently
I was appointed by the British Government as a
Commissioner to investigate and report upon the
Land Colonies of the Salvation Army in the
United States, in the course of which inquiry I



INTRODUCTORY u

came into contact with many of its Officers, and
learned much of its system and methods, especi-
ally with reference to emigration. Also I have
had other opportunities of keeping in touch with
the Army and its developments.

In the spring of 1910 I was asked, on behalf of
General Booth, whether I would undertake to
write for publication an account of the Social
Work of the Army in this country. After some
hesitation, for the lack of time was a formidable
obstacle to a very busy man, I assented to this
request, the plan agreed upon being that I should
visit the various Institutions, or a number of
them, etc., and record what I actually saw, neither
more nor less, together with my resulting impres-
sions. This I have done, and it only remains for
me to assure the reader that the record is true,
and, to the best of his belief and ability, set down
without fear, favour, or prejudice, by one not
unaccustomed to such tasks.

Almost at the commencement of my labours I
sought an interview with General Booth, think-
ing, as I told him and his Officers (the Salvation
Army is not mealy-mouthed about such matters)
that at his age it would be well to set down his
views in black and white. On the whole, I found
him well and vigorous. He complained, how-
ever, of the difficulty he was experiencing, owing



12 REGENERATION

to the complete loss of sight in one eye, occa-
sioned by an accident during a motor journey,
and the possible deprivation of the sight of the
other through cataract.

Of the attacks that have been and are con-
tinually made upon the Salvation Army, some
of them extremely bitter, General Booth would
say little. He pointed out that he had not
been in the habit of defending himself and his
Organization in public, and was quite content
that the work should speak for itself. Their
affairs and finances had been investigated by
eminent men, who ' could not find a sixpence
out of place ' ; and for the rest, a balance-sheet
was published annually. This balance-sheet
for the year ending September 30, 1909, 1
reprint in an appendix.*

With regard to the Social Work of the Army,
which in its beginning was a purely religious
body, General Booth said that they had been
driven into it because of their sympathy with
suffering. They found it impossible to look
upon people undergoing starvation or weighed
down by sorrows and miseries that came upon
them through poverty, without stretching out a
hand to help them on to their feet again. In the
same way they could not study wrongdoers and
criminals and learn their secret histories, which
show how closely a great proportion of human

* See Appendix C



INTRODUCTORY 13

sin is connected with wretched surroundings,
without trying to help and reform them to the
best of their abilities. Thus it was that their
Social operations began, increased, and multi-
plied. They contemplated not only the regenera-
tion of the individual, but also of his circum-
stances, and were continually finding out new
methods by which this might be done.

The Army looked forward to the development
of its Social Work on the lines of self-help,
self-management and self-support. Whenever a
new development came under consideration, the
question arose How is it to be financed ? The
work they had in hand at present took all their
funds. One of their great underlying principles
was that of the necessity of self-support, without
which no business or undertaking could stand
for long. The individual must co-operate in his
own moral and physical redemption. At the
same time this system of theirs was, in practice,
one of the difficulties with which they had to
contend, since ft caused the benevolent to believe
that the Army did not need financial assistance.
His own view was that they ought to receive
support in their work from the Government, as
they actually did in some other countries. Especi-
ally did he desire to receive State aid in dealing
with ascertained criminals, such as was extended
to them in certain parts of the world.



14 REGENERATION

Thus only a few weeks before, in Holland,
the Parliament had asked the Salvation Army
to co-operate in the care of discharged prisoners
and gave a grant of money for their support.
In Java the tale was the same. There they were
preparing estates as homes for lepers, and soon
a large portion of the leper population of that
land would be in their charge.

General Booth told me the story of a celebrated
Danish doctor, an optician, who became attracted
to the Army, and, giving up his practice and
position, entered its service with his wife. They
said they wished to lead a life of real sacrifice
and self-denial, and so, after going through a
training like any other Cadets, were sent out to
take charge of the medical work in Java. A
recent report stated that this Officer had attended
16,000 patients in nine months, and performed
516 operations.

In Australia, the Government had handed over
the work amongst the Reformatory boys to the
Army. In New Zealand, the Government had
requested it to take over inebriates, and was now
paying a contribution to that work of IDS. per
head a week. There the Army had purchased
two islands to accommodate these inebriates, one
on which the men followed the pursuits of agri-
culture, fishing, and so forth, and the other for
the women. In Canada there was an idea that



INTRODUCTORY 15

a large prison should be erected, of which the
Salvation Army would take charge. He hoped
that in course of time they would be allowed
greatly to extend their work in the English
prisons.

General Booth pointed out to me with refer-
ence to their Social Work, that it was necessary
to spend large sums of money in finding
employment for men whom they had rescued.
Here, one of their greatest difficulties was the
vehement opposition of members of the Labour
Party in different countries.

This party said, for example, that the Army
ought to pay the Trade Union rate of wage to
any poor fellow whom they had picked up and
set to such labour as paper-sorting or carpentry.
Thus in Western Australia they had an estate
of 20,000 acres lying idle. When he was there
a while ago, he asked the Officer in charge why
he did not cultivate this land and make it pro-
ductive. The man replied he had no labour;
whereon the General said that he could send
him plenty from England.

' Yes,' commented the Officer, ' but the moment
they begin to work here, however inefficient or
broken down they may be, we shall have to pay
them 7$. a day ! '

This regulation, of course, makes it impossible
to cultivate that estate except at a heavy loss.



16 REGENERATION

He himself had been denounced as the ' prince
of sweaters,' because he took in derelict carpenters
at their Institution in Hanbury Street (which I
shall describe later), to whom he did not pay the
Trade Union wage, although that Institution had
from the first been worked at a loss. In this case
he had made peace with the Parliamentary Com-
mittee by promising not to make anything there
which was used outside the Army establishments.
But still the attacks went on.

Passing from this subject, I asked General
Booth if he had formed any forecast of the future
of the Salvation Army after his own death. He
replied that there were certain factors in the
present position of the Army which seemed to
him to indicate its future growth and continuity.
Speaking impersonally, he said that the present
General had become an important man not by his
own choice or through the workings of ambition,
but by the will of Providence. He had acquired a
certain standing, a great hold over his community,
and an influence which helped to concentrate and
keep together forces that had grown to be world-
wide in their character. It was natural, therefore,
that people should wonder what would happen
when he ceased to be.

His answer to these queries was that legal
arrangements had been made to provide for this
obvious contingency. Under the provisions of



INTRODUCTORY 17

the constitution of the Army he had selected his
successor, although he had never told anybody
the name of that successor, which he felt sure,
when announced, was one that would command
the fullest confidence and respect. The first duty
of the General of the Army on taking up his
office was to choose a man to succeed him, reserv-
ing to himself the power to change that man for
another, should he see good reason for such a
course. In short, his choice is secret, and being
unhampered by any law of heredity or other con-
siderations except those that appeal to his own
reason and judgment, not final. He nominates
whom he will.

I asked him what would happen if this nomi-
nated General misconducted himself in any way,
or proved unsuitable, or lost his reason. He
replied that in such circumstances arrangements
had been made under which the heads of the
Army could elect another General, and that what
they decided would be law. The organization of
the Army was such that any Department of
it remained independent of the ability of one
individual. If a man proved incompetent, or did
not succeed, his office was changed; the square
man was never left in the round hole. Each
Department had laws for its direction and guid-
ance, and those in authority were responsible for
the execution of those laws. If for any reason



i8 REGENERATION

whatsoever, one commander fell out of the line of
action, another was always waiting to take his
place. In short, he had no fear that the removal
of his own person and name would affect the
Organization. It was true, he remarked, that
leaders cannot be manufactured to order, and
also that the Army had made, and would con-
tinue to make, mistakes up and down the world.
But those mistakes showed them how to avoid
similar errors, and how and where to improve.

As regarded a change of headship, a fresh
individuality always has charms, and a new force
would always strike out in some new direction.
The man needed was one who would do some-
thing. General Booth did not fear but that he
would be always forthcoming, and said that for
his part he was quite happy as to the future, in
which he anticipated an enlargement of their
work. The Organization existed, and with it
the arrangements for filling every niche. The
discipline of to-day would continue to-morrow,
and that spirit would always be ready to burst
into flame when it was needed.

In his view it was inextinguishable.



Men's Social Work, London
The Middlesex Street Shelter

THE first of the London Institutions of the
Salvation Army which I visited was that
known as the Middlesex Street Shelter and
Working Men's Home, which is at present
under the supervision of Commissioner Sturgess.
This building consists of six floors, and contains
sleeping accommodation for 462 men. It has
been at work since the year 1906, when it was
acquired by the Army with the help of that
well-known philanthropist, the late Mr. George
Herring.

Of the 462 men accommodated daily, 311 pay
3d. for their night's lodging, and the remainder
$d. The threepenny charge entitles the tenant to
the use of a bunk bedstead with sheets and an
American cloth cover. If the extra 2d. is forth-
coming the wanderer is provided with a proper
bed, fitted with a wire spring hospital frame and
provided with a mattress, sheets, pillow, and
blankets. I may state here that as in the case
of this Shelter the building, furniture and other



20 REGENERATION

equipment have been provided by charity, the
nightly fees collected almost suffice to pay the
running expenses of the establishment. Under
less favourable circumstances, however, where the
building and equipment are a charge on the
capital funds of the Salvation Army, the experi-
ence is that these fees do not suffice to meet the
cost of interest and maintenance.

The object of this and similar Shelters is to
afford to men upon the verge of destitution the
choice between such accommodation as is here
provided and the common lodging-house, known
as a ' kip house,' or the casual ward of a work-
house. Those who avail themselves of these
Shelters belong, speaking generally, to the desti-
tute or nearly destitute classes. They are harbours
of refuge for the unfortunates who find themselves
on the streets of London at nightfall with a few
coppers or some other small sum in their pockets.
Many of these social wrecks have sunk through
drink, but many others owe their sad position to
lack or loss of employment, or to some other
misfortune.

For an extra charge of id. the inmates are
provided with a good supper, consisting of a
pint of soup and a large piece of bread, or of
bread and jam and tea, or of potato-pie. A
second penny supplies them with breakfast on
the following morning, consisting of bread and



porridge or of bread and fish, with tea or
coffee.

The dormitories, both of the fivepenny class
on the ground floor and of the threepenny class
upstairs, are kept scrupulously sweet and clean,
and attached to them are lavatories and baths.
These lavatories contain a great number of brown
earthenware basins fitted with taps. Receptacles
are provided, also, where the inmates can wash
their clothes and have them dried by means of
an ingenious electrical contrivance and hot air,
capable of thoroughly drying any ordinary gar-
ment in twenty minutes while its owner takes
a bath.

The man in charge of this apparatus and of
the baths was one who had been picked up on
the Embankment during the past winter. In
return for his services he received food, lodging,
clothes and pocket-money to the amount of 35. a
week. He told me that he was formerly a com-
mercial traveller, and was trying to re-enter that
profession or to become a ship's steward. Sick-
ness had been the cause of his fall in the world.

Adjoining the downstairs dormitory is a dining
and sitting-room for the use of those who have
taken bed tickets. In this room, when I visited
it, several men were engaged in various occupa-
tions. One of them was painting flowers.
Another, a watch repairer, was apparently making



22 REGENERATION

up his accounts, which, perhaps, were of an
imaginary nature. A third was eating a dinner
which he had purchased at the food bar. A
fourth smoked a cigarette and watched the flower
artist at his work. A fifth was a Cingalese who
had come from Ceylon to lay some grievance
before the late King. The authorities at White-
hall having investigated his case, he had been
recommended to return to Ceylon and consult a
lawyer there. Now he was waiting for the
arrival of remittances to enable him to pay his
passage back to Ceylon. I wondered whether the
remittances w : ould ever be forthcoming. Mean-
while he lived here on "]\d. a day, 5^. for his
bed and 2%d. for his food. Of these and other
men similarly situated I will give some account
presently.

Having inspected the upper floors I descended
to the basement, where what are called the
4 Shelter men ' are received at a separate entrance
at 5.30 in the afternoon, and buying their penny
or halfpennyworth of food, seat themselves on
benches to eat. Here, too, they can sit and
smoke or mend their clothes, or if they are wet,
dry themselves in the annexe, until they retire to
rest. During the past winter of 1909 400 men
taken from the Embankment were sheltered here
gratis every night, and were provided with soup
and bread. When not otherwise occupied this



MIDDLESEX STREET SHELTER 23

hall is often used for the purpose of religious
services.

I spoke at hazard with some of those who were
sitting about in the Shelter. A few specimen
cases may be interesting. An old man told me
that he had travelled all over the world for fifty
years, especially in the islands of the South
Pacific, until sickness broke him down. He came
last from Shanghai, where he had been an over-
seer on railway work, and before that from
Manila. Being incapacitated by fever and rheu-
matism, and possessing 1,500 dollars, he travelled
home, apparently via India and Burma, stopping
a while in each country. Eventually he drifted to
a lodging-house, and, falling ill there, was sent
to the Highgate Infirmary, where, he said, he was
so cold that he could not stop. Ultimately he
found himself upon the streets in winter. For


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