Hampshire) Priory of St. Swithun (Winchester.

Compotus rolls of the obedientiaries of St. Swithun's priory online

. (page 1 of 52)
Online LibraryHampshire) Priory of St. Swithun (WinchesterCompotus rolls of the obedientiaries of St. Swithun's priory → online text (page 1 of 52)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook


■.-.'•.vK>;';:,«!i'''''4r),''^ •^' • ■
•."*'>■ '■'V ;';>'-■■' fl'-rK'i'-'



w,




THE LIBRARY

OF

THE UNIVERSITY

OF CALIFORNIA

LOS ANGELES






«-^^-e-c



-;^



^>i^



/^ ^a.:^ r ^'



/^













f^^^^^ - -5




4C^^ ^^^^^- cX^-^



^-ii-^



/ /



I



a:
<



o
o
m

u

z

o

>•

-J

z

o



O T)



;^ vj -o 1) U ■" 1)
— ri •" ■" r^ -

,E-|



a



3 <u



o

o j= •£
o E o






S U.2Q






u



TO t*^ t-t 5 C^ X ^

E o g „^l ^2



") ii <"



o o ■*-*■*-• cj (J
D C '- 1) c



>
o






3
tjD



c8 tn c






«.-3Z_S-go



rt "C









tX'



^•5

o






C -.
1) bf



:i "-o



c :5 «
E 5 2



>



o

EO 3 U
3 ^^ f 1 u



U



" " 1^ § -

" O in -CI
- O C

— - tx br o M
•^ .?£:5SE

«-E«iiJ;S3u2^

- .S "B .!£ o "^"S -o ii .

O o rt

l) 0,J3

c/5 aj c«

=■ c



u



br ^ ^ 3 J2 „
1" ^ o



o t

E a

2 2.> o



03



'- 3 ^



uj u-5 <?



° ^

b£"



bO "



rt



O



> -c f- :>

_c •" ,^ -w






"J -a

O u-

c o

O <->









o
o
O)

Di



3 '



o



3 t~
O O
>



V



4.1



1)



U)



o u c
re X t "5



O)



C
1)

CO C

o. o



C !/)

O a!
E a



tn (J O

^ — *^

bO nj <u

•— ^ a:
13 T3

•^^ <^

> o rt u

u. <U K- 3
0)"- ■"



3^ ^ s 5|-«

^j_-rt3Q^rt'rt^
O 04jOu-._i.i;^, C

3 C 3 ^ " o "U ^OJZ

"0- o



3
O



"i a -^



> -a



ii - 9.



be ="
vi 1)



— . ^r: 3 j=



« ?J^.



bJD o *— "" e
2 -Q -



° .T3

o t»
•r; 1)
^ ■*-•

c x;
bOD ^ "



E



3
O



O c >^ u



c/)



^ tr, UJ (H .._.



(U •-



SO S



; >

: J
• -5



(7} **-*



1- tn



C T3
O

>, o

> en



- uo c —

S-, aj en

O M -^ 3



P (U



-a :i:
h c "" ■



I- M
c ,v
c ^

be c

be - >



c
o



2 o
1)



-7^ .— rt *^



0) l^lc



u



u —
O rt
tn 1)



is



3 C
O



OJ bc^






4) ">



•5 o



- u <J ii

, •— 3 C
'- cj a, (U



J3 rt



2"B



"a jc o iJ -5
D o • - > u

3.ii 2 a;:S

^? =:^-

« y ■" - r?
3 O - 3 '^

§ bC^



b£ t)
C ■"

(TJ ^

E-=

O U3

u x



C rt

o <->

"3 "C

rt . 2



O •- I, -

>,x: J5 -a -c

S .^2 2
■^ V 2 - <u SI

C. C bo J'r, en •- _



O
U









C



-^ IJ «t ^^ •— lu vy

O 3 U-Or-^i C*— ■"

u. „ .. . -.t; c c u 3



y.



O 2 SS

" ;- 'Z C
c ::; « n!

a'



o - ^
C ui c

:^ on

fc > r-* *" >
C



tn cTj ^ 3 "



c

o .



u



a;

Q O

H

u 4J



o



11 o c
o £ ^

tn 13 ^
M C 3



u



en



en



U

3 O -^
O -C
O



Z..« ■= -2 C tn

.■P ■« O 5 t« o)

E -^ 3 ,-> -c b

" „. o ma s rt "*



tn



C rt



^. - S S-§.3,£^

.E g.c >.„ 5'2.y



en t: rt

tn 1- -;: o. CI.

(U en — ^ c •"

<n e« o

C C

o

*-* z* '->

„, en ro ._

u u rt j:: J3

■ ^ ^>.

ct! («



C



;.s



':= £






n!



W



• ^ ^ o « .-r
K o c^ ^



bo en to " "
C -L, .3-5



feii &rt-0 3:5.2l/5 o«



tn c< ^
O e" '^



f- ^ "^^

3. en -13 •'

C 1) <u

O. c 3

X rt ^
U J2



lU jj v,_ rt



C

- tTl Q

« lU *J

a -



m



u



° g-bc

Ji u .E rt »j 3 S



c <->



OJ



en



tu






(U -
en O
t! °
O o
(J (<)






C w

tn t« e*H

bo - o

c o

g.? -

n- = (O
3 —

c c o

Sg-^

Een^



♦^ tn 13
tn 1) T3

r> E i ■" ^ 5 « ^



■i; en u be c t:



O U -^ -^
(U to 1- en



>
O T3
S2 lU



I br 05






_^ >^'s *^



:h " t:! " '-s



ii «



c ■-

•a 3

^- en

3 J3

O rt

^_



tu



05

tu <



u



-= E



£ 2 rt
-i E U

n r3

<" OS






1)



be M



11



U..S "

eO-O-S

- C V,



c

en U O

« d *^
t« M 3



.^



■" OS
OJ



c
c



o -p -C f-
en CU'r ■<-< 0!



_ 1) O



CS 13



t:; .■" o



u



P ""

<-• o



■a
p <u xi -r
*- -^ (11 rt



bc-._



§'



be
3 lU



-5H



~ aj

ej£ >

O

o ^ = E
n. be 1)

C ^ en

U XI *j



w o



o

c

3:iO

« ^ ■-



oJ -o



e^



^ be

' c c

V o

c ^



X ID

3 OJ

E ^



■H ^
>






rt.2 2

en
"^ 2 Ji

-£ S ■■

D



n



05

y

>,z

en —



C

cw2-
bx



1) tn

O O



tn



rt t; -Q *-" «









c
o ,

OS



C 0!
JJ c

be OJ



ti



ra



3



0! .1

V (



' o!-C „



c« —
tn ""

- x






>. OS



c
1;
>

u

be
c



£ E
|.E

t^ aj



OJ ^



3
£1. V

tn tn



~ 3

tf>

tu - =

> O



-i .iC



- en






w CO >



tn p _ G



1) j= -a

c ^
o „

•a -5
tu *^

o c



C V



E

2 -^-a

c



c



1)



u; _=: rt c:



lU



c I o

ODD



OS _ U

. tn >



c E

O X

— tj
t« "

c



- o

tu ^



ci



- (^ 2 o






o ••



^ V (ll

O C XI

u o -w

J- n c I?






.— 01 O

00 w



• = c
-a •-



^g:o



gQ 0-0

O tu ^ ^^

tn ^ aj x:

^ o tie u i« _ S
.^ E 2 O.S



tn u J2 D

^ £ §

o „, >



tn



01 -i -i:

u c j: 3

<-> o ■" o tu

• -:: x:



O
£



0<XVu'^Q'VCO - (*'



—■ -C L- 1 r* ( '^^ *^ .4J (J

£- rt ^£ o *^ - u, !2 5



D _i! >,13 ^



'" o






iSo-ESioS^S^C



u JJ ^.



1) o



^ >" - ^ c ~ E •"

S *.- 5 o 15 •= •- 5 -T3 v2 *^
i: o^ „ c > ^= 2 °



rS



i: O " <U 5 ^

C ,u ^ 1) ^ —

1) r- >

•w 3 0) u

C O J I/) ^

IL) _ _ 5

C C "S c






^u-5



J -C3










'^'x:.



u ^ u - ^

3 tc OJ

^ u5 -a -

- U) O -' ■



3 J=






M C «) ns c



"u .. .i2-f== -•



'X



1:^.'^



c



c/)



0) ^ ;5 r- *J " 3



re '






^ o "=> ^ a



V



re
o



_ c
— - oj cA re ■'-



I

'S. H vc- >y. - -

r- c «■' t£ <

K^ O "S re S









„ - c

o « c

_£. U C j:; rt u

' 'EI - _ o — -c t^

-tcc-> 'C.^"' ♦^^o"^
:^^o-5creJ=ti — H-^'

- - -■ - _ u

r- re o *" r;

^ (J C C ...



E 2 ..
re ^



re o ^



■■J u
re



a; X3

w (J -.

re ^

1) — re u

C (J 1-,



'X



■X, &-
z w c



.E-^ E "= '^ ^-«

re ,



^" - -t; 33 -5 T3
u 1: ^ ;_; ^ re



J^ •/



£

c -'9



^ re



o re _3



re



-re , n n






3 O J2
3-0 =






re i-='='2".^'^=!-.
*<.S O"!!: _ re

'X -c is -^ u 5 =
J -I :d ^ « i; r ^'^



'C *" £ 2t3

re w rt rt -" '^

^ re

>-



J^ ?



X



, o



_ re

U 1) D






u P



rt



' ^ 2i '^^'re'^ « 5 ^ " iJ c-5

3 rr u -r. y. O I' ° re '»^ >.r 5 -! re



>. w) c 2 ^ u u

1) ^



3 r; U



C

re 22 t£ ? 3



n, O = 1^



tS y c



'^ 5 ^

■> - r- c ^ > ^ .i£
r. ■- :s S c >, o c a>
" -:?°'~ an .-r.Oc

J . „^ 4J ^^ fe U ■" OJ

bJ),, oCreSJXci.?^
: ni.S-i ^c S re 5^-

CO c

^ _.... = ^ re
?i "" ^ '-S re S -S

c u c J^ >" u
o ■- t; .= j3 ^ ^
c/3 oj re ^

o ^-5



V



.S S o t><
-1 -w •*' p



bO






E.5 =
o i

r o -<

3= ?

u



= ^ o



re



re

6



re =°
re u



*j u. -^ u, c re &£•?;; "^

- -^ . , . W ,- '^ -^



c-S'^'§=*-5^-"'«- cgt5::^SJi-



<u ■



=^re -



._ 3 re rrrr

P tc^ .E ° >-

re'^j-i-"4>u«_c'— -^ !_;"■
J=Uo .G3-^o't:-i=5-



^ 5 ■" [-1



^i^s-'S^J



ox; M .t:

o *- >,Q E ^ .
"1 "' 0*0



c« - ^ O ^ :^ '.H S - ?= Tj- « ■" " .S ■- en O - >,Q E ^ '.

£ >.c-> iJ u ^ ^ " [? ^ 2 ^ S S g Ji^::;^ - c

3^-^ •5?^-Co.SjJ?'u^-^-aS^<.2^-'-'~"re3



jn ^ !-> re ^ u



c

CD



.- ._ c re ^

- ^ s «- " X :- E s !! ^ E ^^

c3.^-aJu^rro^ure>— u* -
■>J2 — -C<i^— -P'i>co

ajt:<- — S-2^§°2ci

"2?.^^reO>^-^wy^-^„
^ - "- re =.5.E >.„ 5 Ji 0-G13 £

z^ i> "C re



93

TO U



O



.- ~ ,0 .
o a; '



<U CA



O p ^^-^ ".b-X rt a,

_ i^ r; ^ ^ ^ ■'-' <^ -^ - ti cr„ o •t:j3

Kt^C<;o5<U|^232g-C4,-4=cXT3

-^ " ^ fci) O 3



rt O j3 -i: — -5^ ■-
tn en »j O ■ t: J3 ,.



Z J= C C -

UJ ** •— •

.. - M C ^



o u



a.



•5 ^-^



o o



■n



•;2^uE-fl.Q^^jj^fc^'^3
cc-"S^re"'PP<^-Sjr:



•— re „



i- u 3 -t;

"" XI w,

en - O



J t,r CO c^ ^^ — ' '^~' "" — —

t (11 '^ r#^ *-'






X =«



; T3 J -5 -°



to -a o



«^re « P
=" re P =^-" ^ >xi v_

y ^ O X -^ Q



."^ re



4^ re
>.x;



' §-o S



reOw^Ogp •^^^->~5_<upu^-P?a



to to 5^ h X -' -



— -^ M O CO X O

^ OJ -:i U3 3 <u C

'- > p 1) i: ■" p



5 £ c x:

5 P re -^ TD S ~ £=

3 « - be u ^ J' y

■•s S-S ^ I p^



J — — , 3 ~



CJ X



•5 E2 re;g

i~'i; o 1) CO

— CO cj ;^ -

3 3 u _ w

y< =r-, u. re I— I



re rt



c o o ""
C 4-; *j -J



CO ^ (>^
P CO -^



1^ ■^ O



> > _ O —
"S £ ^



£1. CA



CJ

u

_ C. ai

P CO u-

l' -. O
CJ re <_•



t^ CO x; -^ T-i
c ^ -g o O 3



&-|.|i^f^^^^E-e2.:^-^^§

^•-cu-£-tJD.co^^U-°P->>,^i^.E*:^*^^

-QcOrtP^
■— O



O u



X

.y cu y-P re
■? > o 5 t!'

&.^ CJ



O d -^ =

u x: >-■ —



c cc! O S 3 .2 r- — 't; ^ w <o " .

rea;ii;;re&.ucj-:;:2i:;; &,0






7



c




\




J^ftmpsljire llcrori ^orUtn.



OBEDIENTIARY ROLLS OF ST. SWITHUN'S,



WINCHESTER.




rC~^ Lt-»-^ —f~^




COMPOTUS ROLLS

OF THE
FROM THE WINCHESTER CATHEDRAL ARCHIVES.



Transcribed and Edited,
with an Introduction on the Organisation of a Convent, by

G. W. KITCHIN, D.D., F.S.A.,

Dean of Winchester.



SIMPKIN & Co., Limited, STATIONERS' HALL COURT.

MincljEater :
WARREN & SON, HIGH STREET.

1892.






TABLE OF CONTENTS.



I' AGE

Introduction ... ... ... ••■ ••• ••• ••• '

Appendix I.— Calendar of St. Swithun's Priory, 1308-1537 ... ... 98

Appendix II. — Specimens of Obedientiary Rolls, treated as Balance Sheets: —

Sacristan's Roll, a.d. 1536-7 ... ... ... ... ... 108

Anniversarian's Roll, a.d. 1394-5 ... ... ••• ■•■ "2

Roll of Warden of Works, A.D. 1408-9 ... ... ••• ... "4

Receiver's Roll, a.d. 1334-5 ••• ••• ••■ — •• "^

Hordarian's Roll, a.d. 1336 ... ... ... ••• ••• 128

Chamberlain's Roll, a.d. 1416-7 ... ... ... ... 130

Curtarian and Cellerar's Roll, a.d. 1484-S ••• ••• ••' '34

Almoner's Roll, a.d. 131 1-2 ... ... ... ... ... 138

Appendix III. — Specimen of a Court Roll of Hinton Amner ... 142

Appendix IV.— Specimen of a Compotus Roll of Hinton Amner ... 145

Appendix V. — Documents relating to the exchanges made between

Bishop William of Wykeham and St. Swithun's Priory... ... 153

Appendix VI. — Notices of Corrodies found among the Documents

belonging to St. Swithun's Priory ... ... ... ... I59

Appendix VII. — Excerpta ex Institutionibus Monasticis .i^thelwoldi
Episcopi Wintoniensis compilata in usum Fratrum Egneshamnen-

sium per i^lfricum Abbatem ... ... ... .• ••. i?'

OBEDIENTIARY ROLLS OF ST. SWITHUN'S PRIORY:—

I.— Sacristan's Roll, a.d. 1536-7. S.S. 64 [64]... ... ... 201

2.— Anniversarian's Roll, a.d. i394-5> S.S. i [i] ... ••■ 201

3.— Ditto, a.d. 1396, S.S. 3 [3] ••• ••■ ••• ••• 2°5

4. — Ditto, fragment, undated, but either a.d. 1396-7 or 1397-8,

S.S. 2 [2] ... ... ... ... ••• ••• 207

5.— Custos Operum Roll, a.d. 1408-9, S.S. 11 [11] ... ••• 209

6.— Ditto, a.d. 1532-3, S.S. 12 [12] ... ... ... ... 215

7.— Receiver's Roll, a.d. 1334-S. S.S. 62 [62] ... ... ... 224

8.— Ditto, A.D. 1337, S.S. 63 [63] ... ... ... ... 244

9.— Hordarian's Roll, a.d. 1327, S.S. 47 [47] ... ..• ... 253

10.— Ditto, A.D. 1330, S.S. 48 [48] ... ... ... ... 257

u.— Ditto, A.D. 1330, S.S. 48 [48] ... ... ... ... 260

12.— Ditto, .\.D. 1331. S.S. 48 [48] 261



lj:t3<^'^



vi Table of Contents.



PAGE



13.— Hordarian's Roll, a.d. 1332, S.S. 48 [48] ... ... ... 264

14.— Ditto, A.D. 1333, S.S. 49 [49] ••• ■•• ••• ••■ 2^"^

15.— Ditto, A.D. 1334, S.S. 50 [50] ... ... ... ••• 267

16.— Ditto, A.D. 1334. S.S. SI [51] 270

17.— Ditto, A.D. 1335, S.S. 51 [51] 270

18.— Ditto, A.D. 1337, S.S. 52 [52] ... ... ... ... 273

19.— Ditto, A.D. 1336, S.S. 53 [53] 276

20.— Ditto, A.D. 1381-2, S.S. 54 [54] ••• ••• - ••• 279

21.— Ditto, A.D. 1400-1, S.S. 55 [55] ... ••• ... *■■ 282

22.— Ditto, A.D. 1405-6. S.S. 56 [56] ... ... ... ... 285

23.— Ditto, A.D. 1409-10, S.S. 57 [57] ••• ••• 290

24.— Ditto, A.D. 1469-70, S.S. 58 [58] 293

25.— Ditto, A.D. 1484-5. S.S. 59 [59] ... ... ... ••• 295

26.— Ditto, A.D. 1495-6, S.S. 60 [60] ... ... ... ... 299

27.— Ditto, A.D. 1532-3, S.S. 61 [6il 302

28.— Diet Roll, A.D. 1492-3, S.S. 13 [13] ... ••• ••• 307

29.— Ditto, A.D. 1514-5 (probably), S.S. 14 [14J ... ... 330

30.— Chamberlain's Roll, a.d. 1416-7, S.S. 4 [4] ... ••• 363

31.— Ditto, A.D. 1422-3, S.S. 5 [5] ■•. 369

32. — Ditto, A.D. 1427-8, S.S. 6 [6] ... ... ... ... 372

33.— Ditto, A.D. 1432-3, S.S. 7 [7] ... ... ... ... 375

34.— Ditto, A.D. 1482-3, S.S. 8 [8] ... ... ... ••. 377

35.— Curtarian and Celerarian's Roll, A.D. 14845, S.S. 9 [9] ... 380

36.— Ditto, A.D. 1497-8, S.S. 10 [10] ... ... ... ... 386

37. — Almoner's Roll, for the tenement of Robert of Oterbourne

and Cristina Botes, A.D. 1309-10, S.S. 15 [15] ... ... 389

38.— Ditto, A.D. 1310-11, S.S. 16 [16] ... ... ... ... 391

39.— Ditto, S.S. 17 [17] ... ... ... ••• ... 392

40.— Ditto, A.D. 131 1-2, S.S. 18 [18] ... ... ... ... 392

41.— Ditto, A.D. 1312-3, S.S. 22 [22] ... ... ... ... 392

42.— Ditto, A.D. 1313-4, S.S. 19 [19] ... ... ... ... 394

43.-Ditto, A.D. 1314-5, S.S. 21 [21] ... ... ... ... 395

44.— Ditto, A.D. 1315-6, S.S. 20 [20] ... ... ... ... 396

45._Almoner's Roll, a.d. 131 1-2. S.S. 18* [18*] ... ... 397

46.— Ditto, A.D. 1316-7, S.S. 23 [23] ... ... ... ... 400

47.— Ditto, A.D. 1317-8, S.S. 24 [24] ... ... ... ... 403

48.— Ditto, A.D. 1318-9, S.S. 25 [25J ... ... ... ... 40s

49.— Ditto, A.D. 1352, S.S. 26 [26] ... ... ... ... 407

50.— Ditto, A.D. 1352-3, S.S. 26 [26] ... ... ... ... 409

51.— Ditto, A.D. 1386-7, S.S. 27 [27] ... ... ... ... 412

52.— Ditto, A.u. 1389-90, S.S. 28 [28] ... ... ... ... 415



Table of Contents. vii



53.— Almoner's Roll, a.d. 1395-6, S.S. 29 [29] ... ... ... 418

54.— Ditto, A.D. 1398-9, S.S. 30 [30] ... ... ... ••• 420

55.— Ditto, A.D. 1402-3, S.S. 31 [31] ... ... ... ... 423

56.— Ditto, A.D. 1404-5- S.S. 32 [32] ... ... ... ... 425

57.— Ditto, A.D, 1405-6, S.S. 33 [33] ... ... ... ... 428

58.— Ditto, A.D. 1409-10, S.S. 34 [34] ■•• ••• ••• ••• 430

59.— Ditto, A.D. 141 1, S.S. 35 [35] ... ... •■• ••• 433

60.— Ditto, A.D. 1413-4. S.S. 36 [36] ... ... ... ... 435

61.— Ditto, A.D. 1415-6, S.S. 37 [37] ... ... ... ... 437

62.— Ditto, A.D. 1418-9, S.S. 38 [38] ... ... ... ... 438

63.— Ditto, A.D. 1437-8, S.S. 39 [39] ... ... ... ••■ 442

64.— Ditto, A.D. 1444-5, S.S. 40 [40] ... ... ... ... 445

65.— Ditto, A.D. 1459-60, S.S. 41 [41] ... ■■. •.• ••• 447

66.— Ditto, A.D. 1471-2, S.S. 42 [42] ... ... ... ... 451

67.— Ditto, A.D. 1476-7. S.S. 43 [43] ••• ••• ••• ••• 454

68.— Ditto, A.D. 1514-5. S.S. 44 [44] ■.. ••• ••• ••• 459

69.— Ditto, A.D. 1516-7, S.S. 45 [45] •■■ ••• ••• ••• 462

70. — Fragment of an Almoner's Roll, S.S. 46 [46] ... ... 465

71.— Fragment of a Receiver's Roll, a.d. 1308, S.S. 65 [65] ... 467

72. — Ditto, A.D. 1308 ... ... ... ••• ... ... 469

Appendix VIII. — Monks of St. Swithun's ordained by successive Bishops

of Winchester, a.d. 1325-1528 ... ... ... ... ... 472

Glossary ... ... •.• ••• ••• ••• ••• 481

Index ... ... ... ••• ••• ••• ••• •■• 5i7



PREFACE.



This volume of Obedientiary Rolls is the chief publication
of the Hampshire Record Society for 1892 ; and the
members will be pleased to see that it is issued within
the current year. The slender income of the Society is
not sufficient to give the subscribers two volumes every
year ; and as two books have been issued for 1891, and it
is hoped that two will appear in 1893, the Council are
obliged thus to husband their resources for 1892.

I believe that no collection of Obedientiary Rolls has
heretofore been printed. There is a very fine collection
of such Rolls in Norwich Cathedral, well cared for by
their learned and judicious custodian, Dr. Bensley. The
Norwich Rolls are often strong where ours are weak ; and
it is much to be hoped that they will some day be printed,
and be both preserved from the many risks which lie in
wait for ancient documents, and also made accessible to
the student of Church History.

Though in the MSS. here laid before the Society
there are many unhappy blanks and not a little wearisome
redundancy, still I cannot but hope that they will be
found to be really interesting ; for they certainly bring
vividly before us some of the characteristics of the
medieval life in community. It is disappointing to learn
so little from them respecting the Conventual buildings ;
so little respecting the changes made from time to time
in the fabric of our huge Cathedral Church. One would
have liked, too, to see more of our monks in their dealings
with the world around them. For nowhere did spiritual
persons have such temporal opportunities. Here were



X Preface.

kings and their courts, and all the machinery of medieval
government ; here were great Prince-Bishops, magnificent
personages, to whom St. Swithun's Monastery was the
home and centre of work ; here were merchants, church-
men, diplomatists, passing through on their way to and
from the continental centres of life, Paris, Rome, and the
seat of Empire ; here were shoals of pilgrims of every
estate, on their way from foreign parts, or from the West
of England, to St. Thomas' shrine of Canterbury ; and
yet these Rolls only at rare points touch on any of these
things. The bustle and bravery of life rolled on through
St. Swithun's gates, and the good monks calmly took it
as it came, deeming their own administrative work of far
greater interest than the picturesque turmoil of the world
without. Just so, when revolution has been shaking
society to its bases, the well -trained domestics of a court
have been known serenely to ply their daily tasks, en-
grossed in beef or bonnets, while the very roof that
sheltered them was tottering to its fall.

In these Rolls we find no notice of the political changes
which England underwent during the two centuries which
they cover ; there is only one slight reference to the
Hundred Years' War, and no allusion to the English Civil
wars ; neither the excitement over the Lollards, nor the
social troubles of the fourteenth century, finds any reflexion
here. We do not even note a single fact to indicate that
those within our walls took any interest in the spiritual
welfare of those without.

This said, there still remains much that is really in-
structive. We can trace the daily life point by point.
The Diet Rolls give us the monk's food and sustenance ;
the Receivers' Rolls tell us of his clothing, his sources of
supply, his money difficulties, his relations with Lombard
and other usurers ; the Corrodics explain how he tried to



Preface. xi

" realise " capital by charging his successors with annuities,
an aggravating form of debt. St. Svvithun's did in the end
clear itself from these painful liabilities ; for the Monastery
had wealthy members, and they (like Prior Alexander of
Heriard, who paid off the heavy debt on the Hordarian's
office) from time to time helped the House from sinking
deeper towards insolvency ; and, as time went on, and the
number of monks within the walls dropped to thirty or
thirty-five, the produce of the estates, which were very
large and not unproductive, more than sufficed for the
yearly outgoings. And thus, when the sixteenth century
came, St. Svvithun's had a fine rent-roll, and, apparently,
no encumbrances.

The main interest of our Rolls lies in the varied details
they present ; perhaps not least in the linguistic and
philological difficulties, which appear from time to time on
the face of Latin documents written by men who thought
in English, and who did not hesitate to use English or
French terms when Latin ones were not ready to hand.
In this part of my task I have had the invaluable help
of the Rev. A. L. Mayhew, M.A., of Oxford, who has saved
me often from the perilous paths of guess-work, and
has, without stint, given me the advantage of his great
erudition. One who is removed from all chance of pro-
secuting philological enquiry cannot be too thankful for
such kindness as I have thus received from a man who
is at the headquarters of that fascinating branch of
human study.

In a work so full of details there must be many errors
and many short-comings. Some of my MSS. are in so
bad a state that the text will remain, in places, for ever
uncertain ; and where the text is clear, the allusions to
persons, to habits, to law-usages, to food and raiment,
to buildings, in fact, to everything which goes to make



xii Preface.

up life, provide so many traps for the unwary. Wherein,
when I have been caught, I would pray the wiser critics,
who stand safe, to be not scornful but pitiful.

Here and there are discrepancies between notes and
Glossary — where these collide the wrong is mine, the
right is Mr. Mayhew's ; sometimes, as I have gone on, I
have discovered the way out of my own ignorance, too
late to correct the printed word in the text. Thus, on
p. 256, I say that I cannot explain the word freshynges,
whereas in the Glossary, thanks to Du Gauge's Friscinga,
I have been able to give the true meaning of it. I
comfort myself with thinking that no book is worth any-
thing unless the writer goes on learning with an open
mind down to the very end of it, and unless he is willing
to recognise and confess his errors. I will therefore take
this opportunity of noticing a mistake in the Introduction
(which had to be printed and cleared off before the
Rolls themselves were in type). On p. 56 I have written
" William Frost," " Brother William," whereas (as may be
seen from the document printed on p. 215) his name was
Walter ; William Frost, for there was a man of that name
in Winchester at the time, was a layman.

Yet one more confession, and I have done. It will
be noticed that there are seven Appendices at the close
of the Introduction, and one Appendix, containing the
names of monks of St. Swithun's and the date of their
ordinations, at the end of the Rolls. This irregularity is
due to the fact that this eighth Appendix was unluckily
mislaid, and was only found by me just in time to be
inserted where it stands, I thought it better to acknow-
ledge the carelessness and secure the record, than to save
myself by suppressing it altogether.

My readers will, I think, be very glad to see Appendix
VII, which I owe to the generosity of Miss Mary Bateson



Preface. xiii

of Cambridge. It is a very valuable addition to our
volume, as it throws much light on an important side of
the Monastic life which is very little noticed in our MSS.
— the Rule of the daily Church Services in an English
Benedictine House. Let me tender my best thanks to
Miss Bateson for this interesting document. Her accurate
and scholarly work is, in truth, too good to be treated as
a mere Appendix.

With the exception of this " Concordia Regularis," I
am responsible for the text of all the documents. I have
copied the MSS. myself, and have also carefully collated
them with the printed text. It is, perhaps, hardly needful
for me to remind students that medieval Latin is often
queerly spelt, and that proper names vary much, even in
the same document ; this may often be seen in the list
of Ordinations on pp. 472 — 480.

Lastly, I owe much to kind help and information
received from Dr. Wolseley Emerton, of Banwell Castle,
whose great erudition more than once has stood me in
good stead ; from the Rev. A. W. Milroy, of West Cowes,
who helped me with my legal personages and other
matters ; to T. F. Kirby, Esq., M.A., Bursar of Winchester



Online LibraryHampshire) Priory of St. Swithun (WinchesterCompotus rolls of the obedientiaries of St. Swithun's priory → online text (page 1 of 52)