Hans Jacob Hausen Ernest Edward Austen.

A monograph on the tsetse-flies genus Glossina, Westwood based on the ... online

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to Manyaraf, which occupied us six and a half hours.
The sun was intensely hot ; but the mtundu and miombo
trees grew at intervals, just enough to admit free growth
to each tree, while the blended foliage formed a grateful
shade. The path was clear and easy, the tamped and
firm red soil offered no obstructions. The only provocation
we suffered was from the attacks of the Tsetse, or Panga
(sword) fly, which swarmed here. We knew we were
approaching an extensive habitat of game, and we were
constantly on the ^ert for any specimens that might be
inhabiting these forests " (p. 330).

" Buffalo gnats and Tsetse were very troublesome on

* In Unyanzi : approximate position, according to author's map,
34^ 1' E. long., 6° SC S. lat.

t In Unyamwezi : approximate position of Manyara, according to the
author's map, 6*=* S. lat., 82° 25' E. long. ; the Ziwani (or pool) is about
fifteen miles N.E.



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MAENO ON "SUREETA" IN SENNA AE. 153

this march * [Oct. 8, 1871], owing to the numerous herds
of game in the vicinity " (p. 354).

46. 1873. F. Walker.

"Central African Blood-sucking Flies" (The Ento-
mologisty Vol. VI., pp. 327-328).

Notes on Stanley's statements about blood-sucking
flies, quoted above [45].

The fly called by the native name " chufwa " by
H. M. Stanley is considered by Walker to be Glossina
longipalpia, Wied.

Glossina fu^ca^ Walk., is erroneously stated to be
identical with Qh longipalpis, Wied.

47. X873. E. Mamo.

"Uber den Einfluss der Fliegen (Tuban) und insbe-

SONDERB DBR SuRRETA AUF DIE HaUSTHIERE SeNNAAR's "

(MittJieilungen aus Justus Perthes* Geographischer Anstalt
iiher Wichtige Neue Erforschungen auf dem Gesammtgehiete
der Geographies von Dr. A, Petermann. 19. Band, pp.
246-249).

Tsetse-flies stated to have been brought to the author
under the name " SurrSta," with three other species of
flies, two of which were true Tabanidse — ^by natives in
Sennaar, who consider the " Surreta " to be the cause of
the mortality among their cattle in the rainy season.

[The occurrence of a species of Glossina in Sennaar
needs conflrmation : f the fly identified as such by Mamo
was perhaps a Stomoxys^ or Hsematopota,]

According to Marno (p. 249), the statement that "in
certain parts of Africa at certain seasons domestic animals
are killed by the poisonous bites of flies, which in some
countries even make the keeping of particular domestic
animals impossible" has been constantly repeated since
the time of Agatharchides.

Mamo speaks (pp. 246-247) of " the Bauda, a small
gnat [eine kleine MOcke^y which is found the whole year
through, in damp, swampy lowlands, but occurs in the
Charif in myriads, and gives human beings fever by its
bite." He proceeds wrongly to identify it with the

* In Unyamwezi : approximate locality, from author's map, 6° lO* S.
lat., 32° 12' E. long.

t Cf. [12].



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154 LIVINGSTONE'S "LAST JOUENALS."

Tsetse : " This Dipteron, named in South Africa Tsetse,
in Sennaar Surreta, is commonly looked upon as the cause
of the perishing of domestic animals in many regions, in
consequence of which its evil reputation has since the
earliest times extended even to Europe. It is a fact,
that in Sennaar in and shortly after the wet season the
mortality among human beings and domestic animals is
much greater than at other times. . . ." Possibly the
insect in question is a malaria-carrying gnat (Anopheles),

Marno considers that the bites of flies, whether called
Tsetse or Surreta, under which names the natives include
a large number of species, are only one, and "perhaps
even a subordinate factor" in causing the mortality among
imported domestic animals, which occurs in certain parts of
Africa either throughout the year, or only during the Charif,
and is actually due to adverse climatic conditions.

48. 1874- Dr. Gnibe.

" Dber die Tsetsefliege " (Ein-und-funfztgsier Jahrcs-
Bencht der SchlesiscJien Geaelhchaft fur vaterldndiache
Cultur (Breslau: G. P. Aderholz' Buchhandlung), pp.
50-51).

Report of a lecture (with exhibition of a specimen
of a Tsetse-tiy provided by Prof. Loew) delivered by
Dr. Grube at a meeting of the ^^ naturwissenachafiliche
Section'' of the Gesellschaft, held October 29, 1872.—
A resimio of Livingstone's observations.

49. 1874. David Living^one.

" The Last Journals of David Livingstone, in
Central Africa, From 1865 to his Death." Edited by
Horace Waller, F.R.G.S. (London : John Murray).

Livingstone's experiment with camels and Indian buffaloes
introduced from Bombay,

Mikindany Harbour, north of the mouth of the
Rovuma River, March 29-30, 1866.—" The people have
no cattle, but say there are no Tsetse-flies. . . . The
adjacent country has large game at different water pools,
and as the whole country is somewhat elevated it probably
is healthy " (Vol. L, p. 15).

" 8^^ April [1866].— We spent the Sunday at a village
called Nyangedi [about three miles inland from Mikindany
Bay]. Here on the evening of the 7th April our buffaloes



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CAMELS AND INDIAN BUFFALOES. 155

and camels were first bitten by the Tsetse-fly " (Vol. I.,
p. 17).

" 17 ih April [1866]. — I fear that my experiment with
the Tsetse will be vitiated [it seemed likely that the camels
and buffaloes would die owing to their being overloaded
by Livingstone's sepoys], but no symptoms yet occur in
any of the camels except weariness " * (Vol. I., p. 23).

On (he north hank of (he Bovuma BiveVy 20th April,
1866. — " Tsetse are biting the buffaloes again. Elephants,
hippopotami, and pigs are the only game here, but we see
none : the Tsetse feed on them " (Vol. I., pp. 24-25).

23rd April, 1866.— "Buffaloes bitten by Tsetse again
show no bad effects from it : one mule is, however, dull
and out of health ; I thought that this might be the
effect of the bite till I found that his back was so strained
that he could not stoop to drink, and could only eat the
tops of the grasses. An ox would have been ill in two
days after the biting on the 7th " (Vol. I., p. 26).

30th April, 1866. — On the north hank of the Bovuma
Biver, near Nachuchu : approximate position according to
Dr. Livingstone's map, 11° 2' S. lat., 39° 28' E. long.—
** Buffaloes again bitten by Tsetse, and by another fly
exactly like the house-fly, but having a straight hard pro-
boscis instead of a soft one j" ; other large flies make the
blood run. The Tsetse does not disturb the buffaloes, but
these others and the smaller flies do. The Tsetse seem to
like the camels best; from these they are gorged with
blood — they do not seem to care for the mules and
donkey8"(Vol. L, p. 30).

4th May, 1866. On the north hank of the Bovuma, tcest
of the N^konya Biver. — " The buffaloes were bitten again
by Tsetse on 2nd, and also to-day, from the bites of other
flies} (which look much more formidable than Tsetse),
blood of arterial colour flows down ; this symptom I never
saw before, but when we slaughtered an ox which had been
Tsetse-bitten, we observed that the blood had the arterial
hue. The cow has inflammation of one eye, and a swelling

♦ " Dr. LiviDgstone was anxious to try camels and Indian buffaloes in
a Tsetse country to see the effect upon them." — Editor's Note.

t Obviously a species of Stomoxys: the "other large flies" which
caused the buffaloes to bleed must have been horse-flies (Tabanidse).
— E. E. A.

X Tabanidse.— E. E. A.



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156 LIVINGSTONE'S EXPERIMENT:

on the right lumbar portion of the pelvis; the grey
buffalo has been sick, but this I attribute to unmerciful
loading, for his back is hurt ; the camels do not seem to
feel the fly, though they get weaker from the horrid
running sores upon them and hard work. There are no
symptoms of Tsetse in mules or donkeys, but one mule has
had his shoulder sprained, and he cannot stoop to eat or
drink"(Vol. L, pp. 33-34).

Gth May, 1866. On the north hank of the Bovuma. —
" Tsetse again. The animals look drowsy. The cow's eye
is dimmed ; when punctured, the skin emits a stream of
scarlet blood." . . .

" 7th May. — A camel died during the night, and the
grey buffalo is in convulsions this morning. The cruelty
of these sepoys vitiates my experiment, and I quite expect
many camels, one buffalo, and one mule to die yet; they
sit down, and smoke and eat, leaving the animals loaded
in the sun."

" 7th May. — We are now opposite a mountain called
Nabungala,* which resembles from the north-east an
elephant lying down. Another camel, a very good one,
died on the way ; its shiverings and convulsions are not
at all like what we observed in horses and oxen killed by
Tsetse, but such may be the cause, however. The only
symptom pointing to the Tsetse is the arterial-looking
blood, but we never saw it ooze from the skin after the
bite of the gad-fly as we do now.

" 8th May. — We arrived at a village called Jponde, or
Lipond^, which lies opposite a granitic hill on the other
side of the river (where we spent a night on our boat
trip), called Nakapuri ; . . . One mule is very ill ; one
buffalo drowsy and exhausted ; one camel a mere skeleton
from bad sores ; and another has an enormous hole at the
point of the pelvis, which sticks out at the side. I suspect
that this was made maliciously. . . ." (Vol. I., pp. 35-36).

20th May, 1866. On the Loendi JR., just above its
confluence mth the Bovuma. — **The black buffalo is dead;
one camel ditto, and one mule left behind ill. Were I not
aware of the existence of the Tsetse, I should say that

♦ From the map, the approximate position of Dr. Livingstone on this
day would appear to have been 11^ 8' S. lat., 38° 62' E. long.— on the N.
bank of the Rovimia.— E. E. A,



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DOUBTFUL EESULT. 157

they died from sheer bad treatmeut and hard work"
(Vol. I., p. 42).

2nd JunCf 1866. Locality as above, — "From the
appearance of the cow-buffalo, I fear the Tsetse is its
chief enemy, but there is a place like a bayonet-wound on
its shoulder, and many of the wounds or bruises on the

camels were so probed that I suspect the sepoys." . . .

» « « « «

..." the European house-fly chases away the blue-
bottle-fly in New Zealand. Settlers have carried the
house-fly in bottles and boxes for their new locations, but
what European insect will follow us and extirpate the
Tsetse! The Arabs have given the Makonde bugs, but
we have the house-fly wherever we go, the blue-bottle and
another like the house-fly, but with a sharp proboscis* ;
and several enormous gad-flies. Here there is so much
room for everything. ...

. . . the wild hogs abound and do much damage, besides
affording food for the Tsetse : . . ."

Brd June, 1866. Same locality. — " The cow-buffalo fell
down foaming at the mouth, and expired. The meat
looks fat and nice, and is relished by the people, a little
glariness seems to be present on the fore leg, and I some-
times think that, notwithstanding the dissimilarity of the
symptoms observed in the camels and buffaloes now, and
those we saw in the oxen and horses, the evil may be
the Tsetse after all, but they have been badly used,
without a doubt. The calf has a cut half an inch deep,
and the camels have had large ulcers, and at last a
peculiar smell, which portends death. I feel perplexed,
and not at all certain as to the real causes of death " j*
(Vol. I., pp. 44-45).

* SUmoxy8,—'E, E. A.

t According to Laveran and Mesnll (XXL, p. 47, note 7), Lingard
found Surra to be fatal to the buflalo in India (duration of the malady
125 and 51 days in two experiments), while Penning found it likewise
fatal to buffaloes in the Dutch E. Indies. The prolonged course of the
malady in these animals, as evidenced by Lingard's experiments, would
seem to show that Livingstone's buffaloes may really have been suffering
from Nagana at the time of their deaths.

As to camels, Laveran and Mesnil (op. dt.^ p. 48) write : "In the
dromedary Nagana develops pretty rapidly; in the Asiatic camel the
course of Surra is sometimes pretty rapid, and at other times very slow ;
it may even last three years (whence the name tei-barsa^ signif3dDg three
years f given to the malady of camels in certain districts of India).'*
— E. E. A.



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158 OBSEUVATIONS ON FLY-DISEASE IN DONKEYS.

26/^ e/une, 1866. Further west, along the south hank
of the Bovuma. — " My last mule died " (Vol. I., p. 61).

10/^ December J 1870. In the Manyuema country, to
the east of the Lnaldba B, — "Lion's fat is regarded as
a sure preventive of Tsetse or bungo.* This was noted
before, but I add now that it is smeared on the ox*s tail,
and preserves hundreds of the Banyamwesi cattle in safety
while going to the coast ; it is also used to keep pigs and
hippopotami away from gardens : the smell is probably the
efficacious part in * Heresi,' as they call it " (Vol. II., p. 87).

10th August, 1871. Near Mamohela, Manyuema coun-
try, — " Lion's fat smeared on the tails of oxen taken
through a country abounding in Tsetse, or buiigo, is a
sure preventive ; when I heard of this, I thought that
lion's fat would be as difficult of collection as gnat's
brains or mosquito tongues, but I was assured that many
lions are killed on the Basango highland, and they, in
common with all beasts there, are extremely fat ; so it is
not at all difficult to buy a calabash of the preventive,
and Banyamwezi, desirous of taking cattle to the coast for
sale, know the substance, and use it successfully (?) "
(Vol. IL, pp. 149-150).

lOth November, 1872. Near the Kalambo B, at the
south-east end of Lake Tanganyika. — "The donkey is
recovering ; it was distinctly the effects of Tsetse, for the
eyes and all the mouth and nostrils swelled. Another
died at Kwihara with every symptom of Tsetse poison
fully developed " (Vol. IL, p. 247).

With reference to the foregoing passage the editor
writes as follows : — **The above remarks on the suscepti-
bility of the donkey to the bite of the Tsetse-fly are
exceedingly important. Hitherto Dr. Livingstone had
always maintained, as the result of his own observations,
that this animal, at all events, could be taken through
districts in which horses, mules, dogs, and oxen would
perish to a certainty. With the keen perception and
perseverance of one who was exploring Africa with a view
to open it up for Europeans, he laid great stress on these
experiments, and there is no doubt that the distinct result
which he here arrived at must have a very signiflcant

♦ This statement appears to have been obtained by Dr. Livingstone
from the Arabs.-— E. E. A.



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HOMCEOPATHIC EEMEDY FOR FLY-DISEASE. 159

bearing on the question of travel and transport " (Vol. II.,
p. 247).

16/A November, 1872. Near the Aeezy 2?., at the south
end of Lake Tanganyika, — " After waiting some time for
the men I sent back yesterday to look after the sick donkey,
they arrived, but the donkey died this morning. Its
death was evidently caused by Tsetse bite and bad usage
by one of the men, who kept it forty-eight hours without
water. The rain, no doubt, helped to a fatal end ; it is a
great loss to me ".(Vol. II., p. 249).

50. 1874. Carl Mauch.

" Carl Mauch's Reisen im Inneren von Sijd-Afrika,
1865-1872. IV. Das Gebiet zwischen Limpopo und
Zambesi und die Ruinen von Zimbabye" (Mittheilungen
au8 Justus Perthes^ Geographischer Anstalt uher Wichtige
Neue Erforschungen auf dem Gesammtgehiete der Geographie,
von Dr. A. Petermann. Erganzungshand VIII, pp. 48-49).

[Translation.] ** The Tsetse Fly, — A great drawback
to those regions is a small fly, in size and shape approaching
our house-fly, but somewhat paler in colour, of which the
natives assert that a single puncture is sufficient to kill
a horse, cow, or dog, while donkeys and goats sufier no
injury from it. Only one remedy appears to be effective,
and that is based upon homoeopathic principles : the fly
itself, taken internally, makes the punctures innocuous,
as I have seen in the case of a dog, which after admin-
istering this remedy I took with me as far as the Lower
Zambesi and sent back again perfectly well with those
who had accompanied me. In the year 1868, when I had
an ox, a she-ass, and a dog with me and made experi-
ments witli a solution of muriate of ammonia, the ox and
the dog perished, while the she-ass, to which I did not
administer any of the solution of this salt, after a few
days of rest suddenly attached itself to a troop of zebras
that were charging by, and ran off*, without my ever
being able to catch it again " (p. 49).

51. 1875. J. P. M^gnin.

"M^MOIRE SUR la question DU TRANSPORT ET DE

l'inoculation DU VIRUS PAR LES MOUCHES " (1 planche)
(Journal de Vanatomie et de Physiologie, <fec. (Paris), XI,
pp. 121-133. Also in Journal de mSdecine vitMnaire
militaire, Paris, 1875, XTI, pp. 4G 1-475).



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1(30 IMMUNITY OF GOATS ASSERTED BY MOHR.

62. 1876. E. Mohr.

**To THE Victoria Falls of the Zambesi." (Trans-
lated from the German by N. D'Anvers. London : Sampson
Low, Marston, Searle and Rivington.) Pp. 192, 244,
286-287, 290, 352-354.

Beneficial effects of ammonia, administered internally,
upon "horses apparently suffering from Tsetse-fly disease,

" Jennings* party came to see me every evening. . . .
They had just come from the banks of the Ganyana
River, near the Zambesi, and three of their horses
* showed symptons of the Tsetse sickness, the result of the
bite of the venomous insect of that name. I therefore
administered strong doses of eau de Phuis, or extract of
ammoniac ; and all I can say as to the results of this
treatment is, that none of the horses died" (p. 192).

Goats stated not to suffer from Tsetse-fly disease. —
" Goats are especially suited for long journeys ; on account
of their elastic natures, they can accommodate themselves
to any circumstances, live upon any and the scantiest
food, walk immense distances, and above all, they never
suffer from the bite of the Tsetse-fly " (p. 244).

In Mataheleland, south of the Shangani, May, 1870. — " I
marched with the greatest caution, as we might now at any
moment enter the district rendered dangerous to domestic
animals by the presence of the Tsetse-fly. I generally rode
on half a mile in advance of the rest of the party, or some
natives reconnoitred in front, so as to announce the appear-
ance of the poisonous insect at once " (pp. 286-287).

May 2bth, 1870. — As above : from the author's map
the precise locality is nearly due south of WanJdes, —
" Bokhis, who had ridden forward on Roland at twelve
o'clock, came back at three in the afternoon with the
news that the Tsetse were close upon us, and brought
half-a-dozen of these poisonous flies, which had settled on
his horse's neck, as a positive proof of his assertion. We
could not therefore think of advancing any farther with
the horses and oxen. Latitude 19*^ 11' S. was to be the
most northerly point reached by our waggon; and as
there was plenty of good grass and water here, we set
up a permanent encampment for the animals and their
attendants, resolving shortly to press on on foot for the
Zambesi, accompanied only by our baggage carriers "
(p. 290). [Cp.42.]



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EDUARD MOHE'S OBSERVATIONS. 161

" In the districts recently traversed we had often met
with the Tsetse-fly, and in some places swarms had flown
out of the bushes, inflicting their sharp burning stings
upon every member of the party; but we were now*
passing out of its haunts, and its occurrence was rare,
although a short distance off there might still be thousands.
The insect flies rapidly, and stings as it settles on its
victim. The sharp sting penetrates easily through a
cotton shirt and flannel vest, but a severe momentary
itching is the only efiect felt by a man ; no evil results
ensue. I managed to catch several, which I put into a
hollow bird's bone, closing the ends with resin, and subse-
quently gave them to my friend Dr. Hartmann,f of
Berlin, the African traveller.

" Some travellers, Vincent Erskine J amongst othei*s,
have recently called in question the fatal results to
domestic animals of the bite of the Tsetse; but all the
natives of whatever race who have accompanied me on
my wanderings were agreed in accounting it poisonous,
and not one of them would have driven his own oxen or
horses into districts frequented by the Olossina nwraitans,

" Mofiat the missionary, who, accompanied by the
chief Mosilikatze, had wished to make his way to the
Zambesi in a north-westerly direction from the chief
kraal of the Matabeles, had to abandon his design
through losing all his oxen in the Tsetse district, and only
saved his waggons through the intervention of the chief,
who made hundreds of the natives yoke themselves to
them, and draw them out of the wilderness " (pp. 352-353).

53. 1877. Dr. Hartmann.

Sitzungs - Bericht der GeselUchaft naturforscHender
Freunde zu Berlin vom 17. Juli 1877, pp. 205-206.

Report of a lecture by Herr Hartmann. — [Transla-
tion.] " Herr Hartmann further made some observations
on the Tsetse-fly. At his request the late traveller
Eduard Mohr had brought home and handed over to
him to work out a number of specimens of the true
Olossina morsiians.% They had been caught^ it was
stated, with the hand, by Mohr's people in the neighbour-

"^ July 6, 1870, near the Denzue B., south of the Shangani : approxi-
mate latitude, 18*^ 66' 27" S.— E.E.A.

t Cf. [53]. - X Cf. [38]. § Cf. Csa].

M



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162 ALLEGED HARMLESS TSETSE IN LOANGO.

hood of the Mosi watunja, or Victoria Falls, of the
Zambezi, and had been excellently preserved in a piece
of hollow bone, coated with wax. On being taken out
they proved to be dried up, it is true, but still supple.
The lecturer found among the specimens of Glossina in
the Royal Entomological Museum here, two of the
Diptera collected by the German Loango Expedition,
which were likewise determined as belonging to Glossina,
Besides these there proved to be among the Loango
insects forwarded by Herr Falkenstein two more flies
preserved in alcohol, which in all respects presented the
characteristic features of the true Tsetse {Glossina
morsitans). On comparison with the Zambezi form all
that was noticeable was a slight difierence in size.
While, for instance, the specimen from the first-mentioned
locality was 9 mm. in length, with a wing 10 mm. long,
the same measurements in the case of the Tsetse from
Loango were 10 and 11 mm. respectively. Moreover, in
the case of the former the abdominal bands were not so
very dark and yet appeared sharply differentiated one
from another, while in that of the latter these markings
looked darker and less clearly defined. For the rest, the
two specimens agreed in the structure of the proboscis,
and in the doubly-feathered arista (characteristic of
Glossina), The lecturer endeavoured to show this by
means of coloured drawings, magnified 100 times, of
the heads of the Zambezi and Loango Tsetse. According
to information supplied by Herr Falkenstein, the Tsetse
on the Loango Coast appears to be innocuous. No single
case has come to light there of the death of a domestic
animal caused by fly-bites; while on the other hand
oxen and such-like animals are seen to perish there from
other diseases, which admit of ready diagnosis. This
agrees with the views first expressed by the lecturer
{Beise des Freiheim v. Bamtm in Nord-, Ost-Afrika, &c.,
Anhang XLI) as to the, if not absolute harmlessness,
still only slightly harmful nature of the Diptera known
under the name Surrlta (Sorr6ta, Surrfita, Serott, etc.),
as also of the Tsetse-fly in general. Subsequently the
traveller E. Mamo expressed himself on the question in
a precisely similar manner {Beisen im Gehiete des hlauen
und weissen Nil, Wien, 1874, p. 283).



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EXPERIMENT WITH TREK-OXEN IX E. AFRICA. 163

'* Herr Hartmann then stated his intention of making
further communications on this subject at one of the
autumn meetings.'^

64. 1877. Rer. Joseph Mullens, D.D.

A New Route and New Mode op Travelling into
Central Africa adopted by the Rev. Roger Price
IN 1876, described by Rev. Joseph Mullens, D.D. — Pro-
ceedings of the Boyal Geographical Society, Vol. XXI.

"Reflecting on these things, the Directors of the
London Missionary Society, when planning their expe-
dition to Lake Tanganyika, thought it worth while
specially to enquire into two points : (1) Could a route
be found to the north of the W4mi River, on higher



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