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principal law of the physiology of the

nervous system, 106
Duty, feeling of, 260



Effort, sensation of, 225, seg.

Egoism, feeling of, 242, seg.

Element of consciousness, 88 ; conscious

element and material element (atom), 66,

141, seg.
Elementary choice, 121
Elementary feelings, 221, seg. ; 232
Elementary memory and comparison. 116
Elementary sensations, 105
Emotion, 282, seg.
Energy, conservation of, 31 ; consequences

as regards the relation between mind and

body, 55. seg.\ the conservation of energy

and the principle of individuality, 66,

86 ; the conservation of energy and in-

determinism, 347
Epistemology, 15, 27, 61, 214, 2r6, 355
Eschricht, on the psychology of idiots,

291, 321
Ethics and psychology, 27, seq. ; 221, 284,

348
Ethical feeling, 259
Euripides, sentimentality, 258 ; character

of Orestes, 338
Evolution, hypothesis of, see .Spencer
Expansion of feeling, 303 ; concentration

ande.vpansion (differentiation) of mental

life, gi, seg.

Expectation, 131, seg. ; 292, 304



Fear, 226, 228, 237

Fechner, formula for the increase of sen-
sations, 22, seg.\ no; on the relation
between mind and body, 69 ; after-image
of an unconscious excitation, 76 ; asser-
tion of absolute sensations, 115 ; memory-
after-images, 147 ; direct and associative
factor in jesthetic effect, 265 ; biological
significance of feeling, 272 ; sensations in
attention, 315, seg.

Feeling, unconscious growth, 77 ; indepen-
dence of the other sides of consciousness,
89, 222, seg. ; 239, seg. ; feeling and cog-
nition, 95—98, 160, 221, seg. ; 233, seg. ;
298, seg. ; feeling and -will, 98, 235, 301,
330, seg. ; physiology and biology of
feeling, 267, seg. ; slowness of feeling as



INDEX



361



compared with cognition, 223, 237, 240,
•4S, 298, ],o2. se,/.
Fellberg (Ludwig), on cmolional cllci.i,

Feuerbach (Ansclm von), capacity of }a>-
sioii to excite emotions of another kiiiJ,
283 ; on the blinding force of passion,
300

FiChte ([. f'l.), subjective idealism, 218 ;
connection between ethical and religious
feeling, 263; spontancuus m ivemeni,
310 ; individuality and external in-
fluences, 351

Flourens, polemic against localization in
tlie brain, 40. seq. \ instinct correlated
willi the cerebrum. 312

Freedom (of the will), 342, seq.
Free Meaa, ij6
Function, 60



G



Gall, theory of localization, 40 ; seat of

feeling in the brain, 268
Galton, sight and visual memory, 147 ; on

generic linages, 168

General feeling, (vital feeling), 4, 77, 98,

139, 225, 2Ss, 291, 299, 349
General Ideas, i6fi, stq.
General sensation, 4, 139, 22;;
Genetic theory uf the perception of space,

■JO 2

George Sand, transition from instinct to
ideul feeling, 251

Goethe, concept of function, 60 ;_ on
primary colours, 103 ; hallucinations,
145 ; Phant.xsy, 103, 183 ; effect of colours
upon feelings, 220 ; '" Der Schafer," 254 ;
" Das Bliimlein Wunderschon," 254 ; on
the effect of repetition upon feeling, 282 ;
expansion of feeling, 303 ; " Der Zau-
berlehrling," ^30 ; resignation, 334 ;
" Der P'ischer, ' 335

Goldschmldt^M.), 306, 331

GoltZ, on localisation in the brain, 41, 312,

■>■'■'/•

Grleslnger, dissolution of consciousness
through insanity, 46 ; on sensations ac-
comv>anying brain activity, 53 ; on psy-
chical reflex movement, 58

OulSlaln, on insanity in its tirst stage, 306



H



Hallucinations, 144 uq., 207

Hamilton (sir William), inverse relation
between sensation and perception, 129 ;
fundamental law of association of ideas,
158; relativity of cognition, 217; con-
sciousness as owe with cognition, 239 ; on
the attractiveness of deep sorrow, 258

BftTtley (David), on psychical chemistry,



163 ; psychological evolution from egoism
to sympathy, 244 <

Hatred, 235 ; disinterested hatred, 252,
Si'q.

Hearing, sensations of, 104, 107, 114, 228,

SflJ.

Hecker, physiological explanation of
l.iuizhter, 291

Helmnoltz, unconscious judgments, 74 ;
compound character of sensations of hear-
ing, 104, si-q. ; sensation and perception,
123 ; on the apprehension of space, 193

Herbart, attempt at a mathematical psy-
chology, 22 ; atomistic theory of mind,
49, 142, 144

Heredity, 351, scq., cf., 26, to6, 203, 252

Herlng, on primary colours, 103 ; " Nati-
vistic" theory of the apprehension of
space, 201

Hobbes, law of psychological relativity,
45> '-'75 ; influence of feeling on the asso-
ciations of ide.is, 161 ; laughter as ex-
pression of sense of power, 293, 298

Holbach, IS, 61

Homer, materialism, 9 ; description of
melancholy, 238 ; blinding of passion and
repentance, 260

Hope, as original sanguine disposition, 133 ;
as a species of vital feeling, 226 ; as effect
of sensuous excit.itions, 228 ; as deter-
mined by ideas, 237

Homemanu (E), on the death struggle,
1 1

HorwlCZ (Adolt), consciousness begins as
mere feeling, 96 ; against the notion of
neutral feelings, 288

Hume, consciousness as mere succession,
47 ; criticism of the causal concept, 209,
seq. ; on the association of feelings, 241 ;
feeling overcome only by feeling, 2S4 ;
expansion of feeling, 303

Humour, 295, 298, 335

Hunger, 226, scq.

Hypnotism, 45



I



Idealism, epistemological idealism (sub-
jectivism), 61, 68, 217, 356; artistic
idealism, 1S2, seq. ; idealism of feeling,
262

Idealization, 183

Ideation, 121 — 1S4; ideation and percep-
tion, 129, seq. ; 145 ; ideation and feeling,
t6o, 233, seq. ; 301, seq. ; ideation and
will, 315, seq. ; 321, Sty. : 331, seq.

Identity, principle of, m logic, 175, 177;
principle of identity and the causal
[irinciple, 211

Identity-hypothesis of the relation be-
tween mind and body, 64, seq.

Idiots, smiling and l.iughier, 291 ; late
control of the senses aJidof the limbs, 321

lUusions, 145



362



INDEX



Imagination (see also under Memory),
135, 178, seif. ; iinportance_ of, for sym-
pathy, 255, seq. ; for the will, 346, seg.

Impulse and instinct, 92 ; impulse and
feeling, 235, seq. ; impulse and will, 312,
322, seq.

Indeterminism, 346, seq.

IndiTiduallty, as fundamental form of
mental existence, 66 ; law of individuality
in nature, 86, 353 ; limitedenergy of each
individual, 93, 99, 233, 240, 336 ; centre
of individuality and centre of conscious-
ness, 343 ; typical individual differences,
348, seq. \ origin of individuality, 48, 246,
321

Individualldeas, 164

Inhibition, 43, 52, 93, 312, 335

Instinct, its relation to reflex movement
and to impulse, 91, 235, seq., 312, 322, ;
instinct of self-preservation, 243 : sym-
pathetic instincts, 248 ; instinct and feel-
ing, 248, 251 ; instinct and reflection, 319 ;
instinctive movements in children, 320

Intellectual feeling, 263

Interval between stimulation and re-
action, 92. 326

Irritability, 34, 309, 350



J.



James (W.), on different ideas, 169 ; feel-
ing as a species of sensation, 271
Joy, 235

Judgment, 175, seq.
Justice, feeling of, 259



K



Kant (Immanuel), consciousness as syn-
thesis, 48 ; critique of the metaphysical
psychology, 16 ; identity hypothesis, 69 ;
psychological tripartite division, 89 ;
matter and form in cognition, 117 ;
inverse relation of sensation and percep-
tion, 129 ; importance of memory for
perception, 130 ", the causal concept, 212 ;
cognition as the essence of consciousness,
239 ; the feeling of duty, 260 ; connection
between ethical and religious feeling,
263 ; passion and emotion, 2S2 ; pain as
a condition of pleasure, 285 ; feeling of the
sublime, 289, 290 ; the ridiculou-, 296 ;
struggle against hypochondria, 334 ;
doctrine of temperament, 350
Kierkegaard (S.), on repetition, 280
Kussmaul, on the mental life of infants, 4 ;
phyciology of speech, 42 ; word-deafness
and word-blindness, 125 ; forgetting of
words, 148, seq. ; loss of power of speech
without loss of intellisence, 171



Lange (Albert), on the conception of

simultaneous presentation, 191
Lange (Carl), on latent innervation, 226
Language, expression for mental phe-
nomena, 2 ; physiology of language, 42 ;
origin of language, 156 ; language and
ideas, 170 — 173

Laplace, 276

Larocliefoucauld, supremacy of egoism,

'-'■♦-*
Latent innervation, 226

Laughter, as a purely physiological

phenomenon, 290, seg.
Laycock, effect of narcotics, 36 ; reflex

action of the brain, 58 ; nightmare, 226 ;

laughter consequent on a swelling in the

brain, 291
Lehmann (A.)i on the effect of colour on

feeling, 230
Leibniz, on verbal expressions for mental

phenomena, 2 ; unconscious growth in

mental life, 78; the unconscious as

potential consciousness, 8i, seg. \ on the

criterion of reality, 220
Leopardi, 284
Lessing, 295

Lichtenberg, 303, 307, 333, 334 . „
Littre, on a case of " automne'sie affective,

242
Local signs, 200, seq.
Locke, on verbal expressions for rnental

phenomena, 2 ; on association of ideas,

157 ; on abstract ideas, 166
Logic and Psychology, 27, 173, seq.
Lotze, on substance, 13 ; on nervous

activity, 36; on the relation between

mind and body, 63, seq. ; on local signs,

200, seq. ; on the biological significance

of mental life, 273; on the influence of

the vital feeling on the production of

ideas, 299
Love, in the most general sense, 235; love

as sympathy, 247, seq. ; the feeling of

love, 250



M



Madvig, language denotes the non-spatial
by the spatial, 3; on the origin of
language, 156

Maimon (S.), pure sensations a mere
abstraction, 117; criticism of Kant's
causal theory, 212

Marshall Hall, theory of reflex move-
ments, 58

Materialism, 15, 59, seg.

Maternal feeling, 24S

Mechanical explanation of nature, 10,

-;>, seg., ;:i6, 302

Melancholy, 238, 240



INDEX



363



Memory, a fundamental mental phenom-
enon, 47 ; memory not always a proof of
conscious apprehension, 77 ; elementary
memory, 116; implicate memory, 124;
free memory, 126, seij. ; remembrance
and obliviscence, 142, seq., 161, seq. ;
vivacity of memory-images, 146 ; con-
ditions of preservation and rise of
memory-images, 147, seij. ; consciousness
of things remembered as reproductions
of past experience, 133; remembrance of
feelings, 241, seq. ; remembrance and the
will, -;27, ■;46

Memory-after-images, 147

Metaphors, 153

Metaphysics and Psychology, 14—16,

6:?, sci/., 67, serf.

Mill (James), 157, 161, 244

Mill (John Stuart), consciousness as a
series of states, 47, c/., 137: unconscious
cerebration, 81 ; logical theory, 177 ;
subjective idealism, 218; psychological
development of sympathy, 244; import-
ance of education, 351

Mind, notion of the, i, 6, 12 ; metaphysical
doctrine of the mind, 12, seq. \ mind and
body, 29 — 70 ; extent of the mental life,

71—85
Mixed feelings, 236 — 239, 290
Modality (of sensation), 106
Monism (in the narrower sense), see

Identity- hypothesis

Monistic hyi)0theses, 59, seq.
Monoideism, 45
Motive, 324, 335, 345, seq.
Motor-ideas, 147, 172, 317, seq.
Motor-sensations, 118, 225, seq.., 227, 317
Movement and sensuous perception, 118;

different kinds of movement, 308, seq.
Muller (Joh ), on the sensation of effort,

iiq ; on spontaneous movement, 310
Muller (Max), on verbal expressions for

mental phenomena, 2 ; on radical and

poetical metaphors, 153, seq. ; stages in

the development of language, 163
Munk, on localization in the brain, 41,

268, 313; mental blindness and mental

deafness, 125
Music, 265, 305, seq.
Mythological Conception of the Mind,

7, seq. ; mythological causal concept,

215



N

NablOWSky, on sensation and feeling, 221 ;

the analogy of sensations, 306
Natlvism, 194, 108, 201, seq.
Nature, feelmg for the beauty of, 266
Necessity, 208, 302
Nerve-process, 36, seq. : 82, 271, seq.
Nervous system, 37, seq.
Neutral feoUngs, 287
Nightmare, 2:6



O



OblivlSCence, 141, seq. ; 161, seq.

Organic life, 33, seq.

drsted (H. C"), on. the aesthetic effects of
colour, 229



Panum, physiology as organic physics, 10,
35, seq. ; differences in the capacity of
organic beings to feel pain, 11 ; on the
organic basis of the apprehension of
space, 204 ; on the relation between
physical and physiological observation
of colours, 232

Parallelism between the functions of the
nervous system and the activity of con-
sciousness, 50. seq.

Passion, as distinct from emotion, 282, seq.

Paternal love, 249

Perception, iS, jj^, seq. ; 129, seq. ; 318

Personal equation, 18

Pfluger, on the power of animal organism
to form organic substances, 35 ; on the
irritability of organic tissue, 309

Physiology, standpoint and method, 9,
^<^f '< 33i ■^''?- ; 57) ■^^i'- ; physiology and
psychology, 24, seq. ; 69, 83, seq. ; phy-
siology of cognition, 40, seq. ; 50, seq. ;
125 ; physiology of feeling, 267, seq. ;
physiology of laughter, 291 ; physiology
of volition. 311. seq.

Physiological time, 51, 94

Platner, on a blind person's idea of space,
197

Plato, mind and body, 9 ; seat of thou.^ht
in the head, 53 ; the '■ parts " of the mind
87, 267, seq. ; higher and lower forms
of mental life, 90 ; mixed feeling, 238 ;
self-preservation and propagation, 247 ;
Eros, 250 ; passion as false knowlege,
284 ; doctrine of pre-existence. 355

Preyer, the unity of the Ego not original,
138; on the memory of the experiences
of childhood, 149 ; a child's judgments,
176 ; pain predominant in early child-
hood, 286; laughter of a child, 291;
first movements in the embrj'O, 310

Psychology, provisional description, i ;
ultimate sources, 11 ; experiential psy-
chology and metaphysics, 11 — 16: me-
thod, 16. seq. ; experimental psychology,
21 ; subjective and objective psychologj',
24 ; psychology and physiology, 24, seq.;
69, 83, seq. ; psychology ancf logic, 27,
173, seq. ; psychology and ethics, 27, seq. ;
221, 284, 348 ; psychology and cpiste-
mology. 19. 27, 61, 214. 216, 355

Psychophysics (experimental psychology),
21

Purpose, 328



364



INDEX



Quincey, De, emergence of forgotten
memories, 143 ; the swelling of time, 189;
lost power of coming to a decision, 339



Realism as artistic tendency, 182,^^7. ; as
contrast to epistemological idealism, 355

Reality, criterion of, in the province of ex-
ternal experience, 206, seq. ; cf. 130, seq. ;
in the province of will, 340, seq.

Reflex movement, 37, seq. \ 57, 91, 31°.

seq.

Relativity, law of, in the province of sen-
sation, 114, seq. ; in the province of re-
presentations and concepts, 216, seq. \ in
the province of feeling, 275. seq. : in the
province of volition. 314, 329

Religious feeling, 261, seq.

Repentance, 244, 260, 344, 348

Repetition, as condition of conscious life,
121, seq. ; its importance for thought,
176, seq. ; 213 ; its influence on feeling,
273, seq.

Resignation, 334

Resolve, 328, seq.

Reverence, 261

Rlchet, memory as condition of pain, 96,
224 ; pain is intermittent, 278

Ridiculous, the feeling of the, 290—297

Rousseau, independence and importance
of feeling, 88, seq. ; 96 ; the feeling for
the beauty of nature, 267 ; polemic
against Moliere, 293



SchiUer, "Der Tanz," 154; pleasure and

love, 251 ; origin of art, 265
Schlodte (J. C), 183
Schneider (G. H.), on manifestations of

consciousness in the lowest animals, 97 ;

on successive and simultaneous contrast,

"5

Schopenhauer, " der Wille zum Leben,"
93 ; on the sexual instinct, 251 ; negative
character of pleasure, 284

Self and Not-Self, 3—6, 223, seq. ; psycho-
logical conception of the self, 136, seq.

Sensation, loi — 121; sensation and per-
ception, 121, seq. ; sensation and feeling,
221 — 233 ; analogy of sensations, 306

Sexual selection, 251, 264

Shaftesbury, 251

Shalcspeare, King Lear, 109, 155 ; Othello,
237; Hamlet, 238, 337; Richard III.,
252 ; Macbeth, 300 ; Shakspeare's hum-
our, 297

Sibbem, identity-hypothesis, 69; evolu-
tion takes place sporadically, 85 ; feeling
and will in relation to cognition, 98 ; on



sensation and perception, 125; associa-
tion between the whole and the parts,
T54 ; mixed feelings, 23S
Single element of consciousness, 157
Smith (Adam), birds' instinctive know-
ledge of surroundings, 194 ; an impulse
of imitation the basis of sympathy, 246
Space, apprehension of,-i9o — 205 ; absolute

space and psychological space, 205
Speculative philosophy, see Metaphysics
Spencer (Herbert), on the mythological
conception of the mind, 7, seq. ; laws of
evolution common to mind and matter,
85 ; explanation of the modalities of sense
by the evolution-hypothesis, 106 ; rhythm
of movement, 122 ; the inverse relation of
sensation and perception, 12Q ; the appre-
hension of space explained oy the evolu-
tion-hypothesis, 203; sympathy explained
by the evolution-hypothesis, 250, 252 :
on pleasure in sorrow, 258 ; play as the
germ of art, 265 ; biology of feeling ex-
plained by the evolution-hypothesis,
274 ; rhythm of the expressions of emo-
tion, 278 ; the ridiculous, 296 ; expansion
of feeling, 303 ; hypothesis as to the
evolution of conscious life, 354
Spinoza, notion of substance, 13, 85 ; on
association of feelings, 239 ; psychological
development of sympathy, 244 ; disin-
terested malice, 252 ; disinterested love,
259 ; the law of relativity in the province
of feeling, 275, 278 ; feeling can be sup-
pressed only by feeling, 284 ", dependence
of the will on memory, 327 ; resignation,

334 ,

Spiritualism, 12, seq. ; dualistic spiritual-
ism, 55, seq. ; monistic spiritualism, 62,
seq.

Spontaneous movement, 118, 131, 309,

seq.

Stael (Madame de), on improvization,
181 ; on expansion of feeling, 303

Stumpf, polemic against the law of rela-
tivity, 116 ; nativist theory of the appre-
hension of space, 198, 201, 204

Subject and Object, 217

Subjectivity, theory of, 219

Sublime, the feeling of the, 288, seq. \ 297

Successive apprehension clearer than sim-
ultaneous, 114, seq. ; 163, 199, 237, seq. \
290

Sympathy, 23s, 244, seq.



Tegner (E.), want of verbal expressions for
certain ideas, 172

Teleology, 302

Temperament, 349

Thirst, 226, seq.

Thought, elementary thought in all sensa-
tion, 116 ; thought in all perception, 130;
in all association of ideas, 159 ; on thought



INDEX



36s



proper in relation to the involuntary flow

of ideas, 173, seq.
Time, apprehension of, 184 — 190
TooquevlUe, 325

Tone, sensations of, see Hearings
Totality, law of, isg
Typical IndlTldualldea, 165



U



Unconscious mental activity, 71, seg. ; the
unconscious as potential consciousness, 8 1 ,
sea. ; the will and the unconscious mental
life, 342, seg.

Unity, as characteristic mark of conscious
life, 47 ; formal and real unity of coii-
liciousness, 139, seg.



Vivos. (L.), 291. 292
Vogt(Carl),6o



av



Weber (V.. H.), on touch and common
sensation, 115, 123; the delicacy of the
sense of touch in different parts of the
body, 120; sensation arises more quickly
than feeling, 223

Wllkens, 250

Will, as first and last, 99, 308 ; the will-
moment of thought, 95, 173, seg. ; 315,
seg. ; will and feeling, 98, seg. ; 301, 317 ;
psychology of the will, 308 — 348 ; physio-
logical seat of the will, 311, seg. ; impulse
and will, 329 ; will and movement, 308

Wish, -,26

Word-blindness ami word-deafness,

'-5 . . , .

Wundt, on physiological time, 94 ; on
association between the whole and the
parts, 154; on apperception (conscious
attention), 161 ; on estimation of time,
187 ; on apprehension of space, 200, 204 ;
sensation and feeling, 223 ; analogj" of
sensations, 306 ; motor-centres in the
cerebrum, 313; phj'siology of attention,
316 ; doctrine of temperaments, 349



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A HISTORY OF
MODERN PHILOSOPHY.

A Sketch of the History of Philosophy from
the close of the Renaissance to our own day.

Translated from the German Edition by B. E. /lEYER.
A utborised Translation.



Vol. I. contains : Introduction. Book I. The Philosophy of
the Renaissance, (a) The Discovery of Man ; {b) The
New Conception of the World. — Book II. The New
Science.— Book III. The Great Systems.— Book IV.
English Empirical Philosophy. — Book V. The French
Enlightenment Philosophy and Rousseau. — Notes. —
Index.

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Philosophy and Lessing. — Book VII. Immanuel Kant
and the Critical Philosophy. — Book VIII. The
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(a) Comte and French Philosophy; {b) John Stuart
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Nineteenth Century ; {c) The Philosophy of Evolution.
— Book X. Philosophy in Germany, 1850-1880. —
Notes. — Index.



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The Philosophy of Religion.

Translated from the German Edition
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CONTENTS.
I.— PROBLEM AND PROCEDURE.
II.— EPISTEMOLOGICAL PHILOSOPHY OF RELIGION.

A. Understanding.

(a) Casual Explanation. (3) The World of Space, (c) The
Course of Time.

B. Concluding Thoughts.

C. Thought and Figure. ,

III.— PSYCHOLOGICAL PHILOSOPHY OF RELIGION.

A. Religious Experience and Religious Faith.

{a) Religious Experience, {d) Religious Faith.

B. The Development of Religious Ideas.

(a) Religion as Desire, (d) Polytheism and Monotheism.
{c) Religious Experience and Tradition, (tfj The Scientific
Conclusion for the Psychology of Religion.

C. Dogmas and Symbols.

D. The Axiom of the Conservation of Value.

(a) Nearer Determination of the Axiom of the Conservation
of Value and its Relation to Experience. {6) Psychological
and Historical Discussion of the Axiom of the Conservation
of Value, (c) General Philosophical Discussion of the
Axiom of the Conservation of Value.

E. The Principle of Personality.

(a) The Significance and Justification of the Principle of
Personality. (d) Main Groups of Personal Differences.
(c) Buddha and Jesus, (d) Is the Principle of Personality
a Principle of Growth or of Dissolution, (e) Learned
and Lay.

IV.— ETHICAL PHILOSOPHY OF RELIGION.

A. Religion as the Basis of Ethics.

B. Religion as a Form of Spiritual Culture.

(a) Psychological Inquiry. (^) Sociological Considerations.

C. Primitive and Modern Christianity.

D. We Live by Realities.
NOTES. INDEX.

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