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Volume 27, Article 2
December, 1958

Printed by Authority of
the State of Illinois

A Century of
Biological Research




STATE OF ILLINOIS* William G. Stratton, Governor





Wiii.iAM G. Stratton. Governor


X'era M. BiNKS, Director

Vera M BiNits. Chairman. A. E. Emerson. Ph.D., Biology: L. H. Tikfany, Ph.D., Forestry; Walter H. Newhouse,
Ph.D., Geology: Roger Adams, Ph.D., D.Sc, Chemistry: Rohert H. Anderson. B.S.C.E., Engtrteering: W. L.
EvERiTT, E.E.. Ph.D., Representing the President of the University of Illinois: Delyte W. Morris. Ph.D.,
President of Southern Illinois University



Harlow B. Mills. Ph.D., Chiej

lUssii. H. East, M.S.. Assistant In th,- Chi,-t

Section of Economic Entomology

Geor^^e C. DtiKLK. Pii.D.. Principal Scientist and Head

J. H. Bigger, M.S.. Entomologist

L. L. E.NOLISH, Ph D., Entomologist

Willis N. Bruce, Ph.D., Associate Entomologist

Norman Gannon, Ph.D., Associate Entomologist

W. H. LucKMANN. Ph.D., Associate Entomologist

John D. Briggs, Ph.D., Associate Entomologist

Ronald H. Meyer, M.S., Assistant Entomologist

John D. Paschke. Ph.D., Assistant Entomologist

Robert Snetsincer, M.S.. Field Assistant

Carol Morgan. B.S.. Laboratory Assistant

Eugene M. Bravi, M.S., Research Assistant

Richard B. Dysart, B.S., Technical Assistant

Re<;inald Roberts. A.B., Technical Assistant

James W. Sanford, B.S., Technical Assistant

Earl Stadelbacher, B.S.. Technical Assistant

Sue E. Watkins, Technical Assistant

H. B. Petty, Ph.D., Extension Specialist in Entomology*

Stevenson Moore, III, Ph.D., Extension Specialist in

John W. Matteson, M.S., Research Associate*
Zenas B. Noon, Jr., M.S., Research Assistant*
Clarlncl E. White, B.S.. Research Assistant*
John Arthur Lowe, M.S., Research Assistant*
J. David Hoffman, B.S., Research Assistant*
Carlos A. White, B.S., Research Assistant*
Roy E. McLaughlin, B.S., Research Assistant*
CosTAS Kouskolekas, M.S., Research Assistant*
Louise Zincrone. B.S.. Research Assistant*
MvRv K M\NN. R.N., Rc'carch A^i'lant"

Section of Faunistic Surveys and Insect Identification

H. II. Ross, Ph.D., Syslcmntic Entomologist and Head
Milton W. Sanderson, Ph.D., Taxonomist
Lewis J. Stannard. Jr.. Ph.D., Associate Taxonomist
Philip W. Smith, Ph.D., Associate Taxonomist
Leonora K. Gloyd, M.S.. Assistant Taxonomist
II. B. Cunningham, M.S., Assistant Taxonomist
Edward L. Mockford, M.S., Technical Assistant
TiiEi.MA H. OvERSTREET, Technical Assistant

Section of Aquatic Biology

GF..,K,.r \V. Blnm IT, IMi.I).. Aqiialu Kialu^i.l and Head

William C. SiARRLri. Ph.D., Aquatic Iholngist

R. W. Larimurf. PIi.D.. Aquatic Biologist

David II. Bi;ck. Ph.D., Associate Aquatic Biologist

Robert C. IIilthiran, Ph.D., Associate Biochemist

Donald F. Hansen. Ph.D.. Assistant Aquatic Biologist

William F. Ciiilders, M.S.. Assistant Aquatic Biologist

John C. Crali.ky, B.S.. Field Assistant

Richard E. Bass, Field Assistant

Robert D. Crompton, Field Assistant

Section of Aquatic Biology— continued

.Maurice A. Whitacre, M.A., Assistant Aquatic

.\rnoi.d \V. Fritz, B.S., Field Assistant*
David j. McGintv. Field Assistant^

Section of Applied Botany and Plant Pathology

I. Cedrr Carter. Ph.D., Plant Pathologist and Head
J. L. Forsberg, Ph.D.. Plant Pathologist

G. H. Boewe. M.S., Associate Botanist
Robert .\. Evers, Ph.D., Associate Botanist

E. B. HiMELiCK. M.S.. Assistant Plant Pathologist
Robert Dan Neely, Ph.D., Assistant Plant Pathologist
Walter Hartstirn, Ph.D., Assistant Plant Pathologist
Donald F. Schoeneweiss, Ph.D.. Assistant Plant

Ro\i\iA K. Fitz-Gerai.d. B..\.. Technical Assistant

Section of Wildlife Research

TiioMA.s G. ScoiT, I'h.D.. (.lame Specialist and Head
Ralph K. YtATThK. Ph.D., Game Speciali>l
(.'arl O. Mohk. Pli.D., Game Specialist

F. C Bellrose. B.S., Game Specialist

II. C. Hanson, Ph.D., Associate Game Specialist
W. R. Hanson, Ph.D.. Associate Game Specialist
Richard R. Graber. Ph.D., Associate Wildlife Specialist
Fr\nces D. Robbins. B.A.. Technical AssiitanI
X'iRGiNiA A. Langdon. Technical Assistant

Howard Crum, Jr.. Field Assistant
Rkxford D. Lord, D.Sc. Project Leader*
Frederick. Greeley, Ph.D., Project Leader*
Glen C. Sanderson, M.A., Project Leader*
Paul A. Vohs, Jr., M.S., Project Leader*
Ronald F. Labisky, M.S., Project Leader*
Iack a. Ellis, M.S.. Assistant Project Leader*
Thomas R. B. Barr. M.V.Sc, M.R.C.V .S., Research

Bobbie Joe Verts, M.S., Field Mammalogist*
Erwin W. Pearson, M.S., Field Mammalogist*
Ken.nkih 1.. Johnson, A.B., Field Assistant*
K Ell II I'. Dvuphin, Assistant Laboratory Atlendant*

Section of Publications and Public Relations

Iamis S. A^ \ks, H.S.. Tchnuat Editor and Head
Hi.ANiHi. I' 'l'iirN(.. B..A., .tiyiilant Technical Editor
Diana R. Braverm\n, B.A.. Assistant Technical Editor
William E. Clark. Assistant Technical Photographer
Margitrite \'i;ri.ev. Technical Assistant

Technical Library

Ri I II R. W akku k,
Nell Mills, M.S.

H.S., B.S.L.S.
B.S.I..S.. A>

Technical Librarian
istant Tchniial

CONSULTANTS: Herpetoi.oc.y, Hobart M. Smith, Ph.D., Projessor of Zoology, University of Illinois: Parasitology,
Norman D. Levine, Ph.D., Professor of Veterinary Parasitology and oj Veterinary Research, University of Hlinois:
WllDI.l^E Research. VVillard D. Klimstra. Ph.D.. Assistant Professor of Zoology and Director of Co-operative
IVildlife Research, Southern Illinois Unii'ersity.

•Employed on co-opcrative projects with one of several agencies: University of Illinois, Illinois Agricultural
l-'.xlcnsion Service, Illinois Deparlmciil of Conservation. United Stales Army Surgeon General's OtlKe. United Stales
Department of AKriculture, United Slates Fish and Wildlife Service, United Slates Public Health Service, and others.

(8r.O;!2— .fiM— il-.'-.S)




THE record of one hundred years of
the scientific progress of the Illinois
State Natural History Survey inspires us to
reflect on its origin and brilliant achieve-
ments. We pay the highest tribute to those
early educators and scientists who had vision
beyond the exigencies of the moment.

And we express the highest commenda-
tion to the present Chief, Dr. Harlow B.
Mills, and all of his staff for their contri-
butions to the well-being and pleasure of
our citizens. The important results of their
research extend well beyond the borders of

In contemplating the future, we are con-
fident that this group of dedicated men and

women will meet the increasing demands
for assistance in the problems of the pro-
duction of the necessities of life, that they
will continue their research on the devel-
opment and protection of our natural re-
sources. In the future we may be depend-
ent for our very existence on scientists
such as these. We know they will meet the

Illinois is justly proud of the century of
progress of one of its own agencies.


Vera A I. Binks, Director

Department of Registration
and Education


T!|ni! ft!


The original hiiiidiiifj; of the Illinois State Normal University, Normal, Illinois, spring, 1880.
In this building the lUinois Natural History Society was founded and its museum was housed.
Here the Illinois State Laboratory of Natural History had its head(iuarters from its founding
in 1877 until late in 1884, and here the fourth State Entomologist was located for approxi-
mately 2 years.


From 1858 to 1958 85

Natural History Society 86

State Laboratory of Natural History. 87

State Entomologist 88

Benjamin Dann Walsh 91

William Le Baron 91

Cyrus Thomas 93

Stephen Alfred F"orbes 94

Reorganization 97

Natural History Survey 98

The Future 101

Economic Extomoi.ogv 104

Early History 104

Practical Problems and Progress 106

Fruit Insects 106

Truck Crop Pests Ill

Cereal and F"orage Crop Pests 113

Pests of Forest and Shade Trees

and Ornamental Plants 118

Insects Attacking Man

and Animals 119

Biological Control 120

Value of Insect Control 123

Emphasis for the Future 124

Fauxistic Surveys 127

Early Background 127

Changing Habitats 128

Periods of Faunistic Activities 128

Initial Period, 1858-1869 129

Expansion Period, 1871-1922 130

Specialization Period,

1923 to Present 132

Research Collections 134

Vertebrates 134

Invertebrates Other Than Insects. . 134

Insects 134

Faunistic Reports 135

Vertebrates 135

Invertebrates Other Than Insects. .137

Insects 137

Retrospect and Prospect 144

Applied Botany

AND Plant P.athology 145

Early Activities 146

Recent Activities 149

Plant Disease Survey 149

Botanical Collections 152

Shade and Forest

Tree Pathology 154

Floricultural Pathology 158

Identification and Extension 159

Past and Present 160

Unsolved Problems 160

Future Possibilities 161

Aquatic Biology 163

Beginning of Aquatic Ecology 163

First Field Laboratory 165

Fishes and Plankton 166

The Fishes of Illinois 167

Illinois River Plankton 167

Bottom Fauna 168

New Lines of Research 169

Early Management Attempts 170

Modern Management 170

The Last Twenty Years 172

Direction of Future Studies 177

Wildlife Research 1 79

Development 179

Organization 181

Research Contributions 183

Birds 183

Mammals 195

Wildlife Management 198

The Future 199

Publications and Public Relations. 202

Early Publications 203

Publications Series 205

Editorial Personnel 207

Public Relations 208

Editorial Policy 208

Library 210

The Library at Normal 210

The Library at Urbana 210

Library Collections 211

Library Personnel 213

Financial Support 213

P'ormer Technical Employees 215

Literature Cited 219

From 1858 to 1958

HARLOW B . x\l 1 L L S

THE inid-point of the nineteenth cen-
tury in the United States was marked
by ferment, by excitement, by great
ideas. River traffic was at a peak ; rail-
roads had been built and were being ex-
tended. New areas were becoming more
easily accessible to settlers. The point
of departure to the exciting and mysteri-
ous Far West was on the Mississippi
River, and two things happened just
before 1850 which focused attention
on that vast and largely unexplored area
— the movement of the Mormons from
Nauvoo, Illinois, on the banks of the
Mississippi, to the Great Salt Lake, and
the discovery of gold at Sutter's Mill in

The United States tried its muscles in
the Mexican W'^ar in its first inter-
national conflict since its last test with
England, and it ended Mexican domi-
nance in California with the assistance
of the Bear Flag Revolution.

Politically the young country was go-
ing through the series of events which
ultimately led to the Civil War. On
August 27, 1858, the most important of
the Lincoln-Douglas debates, according
to the estimate of some historians, took
place at Freeport, Illinois. This debate
is said to have won for Judge Douglas
the Senatorship in his contest with Lin-
coln, but at the same time it lost the
Presidency for the Judge in a later con-
test with the same adversary.

At the debate, there was a boy of four-
teen who wormed his way to the front
of the crowd and gained some renown
b\- vocally taking issue with Douglas at
one point in this historically climactic
discussion. The youngster was consider-
ably chagrined by reproof from those
around him, but perhaps he was caught
by the character of that meeting, for it is
reported bv George W. Smith (1927:
410) that'

There was much confusion — some real dis-
order. ... It appears from the reports that
orators, reception committees, invited guests,
and newspaper reporters all engaged in a

hand-to-hand conflict for seats and in some
cases for standing room.

This boy who had the courage to chal-
lenge Judge Douglas was Stephen Alfred
Forbes, later to be the person most re-
sponsible for the development of the
Illinois State Natural History Survey,
the centennial of which this number of
the Bulletin commemorates.

Not only was this point in history one
of swift movement and of critical impor-
tance in the politics and development of
the country; it also brought science into
clearer focus. Many scientific societies
were organized. Darwin's Origin of Spe-
cies appeared in 1859. Scientists were
just beginning to play with the idea that
their field was not a mental toy, that it
could be put to practical use ; and some
scientists were announcing that they were
interested in the practical application and
popularization of their knowledge, much
to the distress of most of their colleagues.

As an illustration, there is a rather long
apology which Walsh (1868/^:9) felt con-
strained to include in his First Annual
Report of the Acting State Entomologist.
Apparently this comment was written for
the eyes of Walsh's scientific confreres ;
in part it says:

In a Memoir intended for publication in
the Proceedings of some grave Scientific So-
ciety, it would, of course, be highly indecorous
to break the dreary monotony of scientific
hair-splitting by a single remark, which had
the slightest tendency towards exciting that
convulsive movement of the midriff, which
the vulgar herd of mankind call "laughter."
. . . Four hundred years ago Martin Luther
said, that "he could see no reason why the
Devil should run away with all the good
tunes." I can see no reason, in the year 1867,
why the pestilent yellow-covered literature
of the day should monopolize all the wit
and humor. If there is one thing which I
have at heart more than another, it is to
popularize Science — to bring her down from
the awkward high stilts on which she is or-
dinarily paraded before the world — to show
how sweet and attractive she is when the
frozen crust, in which she is usually en-
veloped, is thawed away by the warm breath
of Nature — ... If I merely succeed in en-
ticing away a single young woman from her



lii.iNois Natural History Survey Bulletin

Vol. 27, Art. 2

mawkish novelettes and romances into the
flowerv paths of Entomology, or if I can only
induce a single young man, instead of haunt-
ing saloons and lounging away his time at
street-corners, to devote his leisure to study-
ing the wonderful works of the Creator, as
exemplified in these tiny miracles of perfec-
tion which the people of the United States
call "bugs," 1 shall think that I have not
written altogether in vain.

The (growth of the population of Illi-
nois resulted in the brin^inji together,
within the state's boundaries, of people
with common interests in natural history.
This Held of knowledge had not gone un-
noticed in this general geographical area,
but the investigators here were individuals
and worked pretty much alone. Just
across the Wabash River to the east,
Thomas Say had earlier done research
on insects and other animal groups.
Across the Ohio River to the south, John
Jaines Audubon had studied birds.


Because by mid-century people inter-
ested in natural history had become more
numerous in the state, Cyrus Thomas of
Carbondale was able to propose to the
December, 1857, meeting of the State
Teachers' Association in Decatur that a
Natural History Society of Illinois be
formed (Bateman 1858(7). The next year,
on June 30, 1858, the Society was organ-
ized at Bloomington in the office of the
Illinois State Normal University (Bate-
man 1858/>' : 258-9). It was given official
sanction and notice when It was chartered
by an act of the state legislature ap-
proved Februarv 22, 1861 (Illinois Gen-
eral Assembly 1861:551-2).

Immediately' after its organization the
new Society began the development of a
museum and the collection of scientific

Among its active members mentioned
by Forbes ( 1907r : 893-4) were C. D.
Wilber, who later became a consulting
mining engineer; Dr. J. A. Sewall, who
later became President of the University
of Colorado at Boulder; iMajor J. W.
Powell, who was to gain renown as an
e,xplorer in the West; Dr. George W.
V^asey, for many years botanist with the
United States Department of Agricul-

ture; A. H. Worthen, head of the first
Illinois State Geological Survey; Cyrus
Thomas, Benjamin D. Walsh, M. S.
Bebb, Dr. Oliver E^verett, James Shaw,
Dr. Henry M. Bannister, Dr. J. W.
Velie, Professor J. B. Turner, Dr. Ed-
mund Andrews, Dr. Frederick Brendel,
and Newton Bateman. The above list in-
dicates a great breadth of interest and no
lack of intelligence on the part of the
original members of the Society.

The first officers of the Society included
a General Agent, among whose duties
were the collection and exchange of speci-
mens (Batemen 1858Z<:258). C. D. Wil-
ber was named to this office. The Society's
original constitution (Bateman 1858/*:
258) and the revised constitution of
1859 (Francis 1859/^:662-3) provided
that all specimens should be deposited in
the Museum of the State Normal Uni-

The constitution as revised on June 20,
1859 (Francis 1859/^:662-3), 'dropped
the General Agent, gave most of his du-
ties to a newly created Superintendent,
and added a Curator, whose duties were
to receive and arrange specimens. Cyrus
Thomas, who was elected Curator, lived
in Jackson County, many miles from the
Museum, and the elected Superintendent,
Wilber, who taught geology at the State
Normal University, according to Mar-
shall (1956) acted as unofficial curator.

At the 1860 meeting, R. H. Holder of
Bloomington was named both Curator
and Treasurer (Wilber 186l«:538).

The state charter of 1861 gave the
Society authority to establish its own
Museum at the State Normal University
(Illinois General Assembly 1861:551),
and officers of the Society set December
25, 1861, as the date on which the Mu-
seum was to be "dedicated, with appro-
priate exercises, as a free offering to
(Wilber 1861r:675).

Forbes (1907r:893) listed Sewall,
Powell, Vasey, and himself as curators
of the Society's Museum, Vasey serving
only nominally as Powell's deputy. Powell
was named Curator by the State Board of
Education on March 26, 1867. His ap-
pointment was ratified and consented to
on the same day b}' the Directors of the
Natural History Society (Bateman 1867:




Mills: From 1858 to 1958


8). Forbes was appointed to the same
office on June 26, 1872, the day Powell's
resignation was offered and accepted
(Bateman 1872:6).

Because the Natural History Society
was composed principally of people who
were prosecuting natural history investi-
gations as sidelines to other activities, and
because it was not a strong cohesive agent,
it finally reached the point where it could
no longer sustain itself. Forbes (1907r:
898) said of the times, "It should be
remembered, in this connection, that this
was a time when college men, as a rule,
worked like dray-horses and were paid
like oxen, . . ."

The Society turned to the state for
aid, and by an act approved February 28,
1867, $2,500, to be paid annually to the
State Board of Education, was appropri-
ated by the General Assembly for the
salary of a curator and "for the necessary
expenses of improving and enhancing the
value" of the Museum (Illinois General
Assembly 1867:21). Major Powell was
the first curator to receive state aid. The
state appropriations, according to Forbes
( 1907c : 895) , "were largely drawn upon
to outfit and maintain the Powell expedi-
tions to the far west." As a condition
upon receiving further state aid, as pro-
vided by legislative act approved April
14, 187i, the Society had to turn its Mu-
seum over to the state (Illinois General
Assembly 1872:152). On June 22, 1871,
the Society agreed to the transfer and
when, on June 28, 1871, the Board of
Education accepted the transfer, the Mu-
seum officiallv became state propertv
(Bateman 1871:9; Forbes 1877:324-5)'.

On December 15, 1875, the State
Board of Education passed the following
resolution (Etter 1876:17):

Rfsol-vrd, That we regard the Museum as a
State institution, devoted to the prosecution of
a natural history survey of the State, to the
encouragement and aid of original research,
and to the diffusion of scientific knowledge
and habits of thought among the people.

Forbes, who in 1872 had been appointed
by the State Board of Education as Cura-
tor of the Museum, remained in that
capacity until July 1, 1877, when by legis-
lative act approved May 25, 1877, a State
Historical Library and Natural History
Museum were established at Springfield,

and the Illinois Museum of Natural His-
tory at Normal was "converted into a
State Laboratory of Natural History"
(Illinois General Assembly 1877:14-6).


The act that established the State
Laboratory of Natural History relieved
Forbes of the necessity of developing mu-
seum exhibits and allowed him to turn
more of his attention to research. Shortly
after the establishment of the Laboratory,
Forbes' title was changed from Curator
to Director (Etter 1877:25).

Forbes had not been occupying his time
completely in the preparation of museum
material while he was Curator of the Illi-
nois Museum of Natural History. He had
taught classes in zoology at Illinois State
Normal University and he had started a
series of bulletins reporting on research
and investigation. The first number of the
series is dated December, 1876, and carries
the title. Bulletin of the Illinois Museum
of Natural History. From the appearance
of No. 2 of the first volume, in June,
1878, until the beginning of Volume 13,
in 1918, the title was the Bulletin of the
State Laboratory of Natural History, and
from that time to the present it has been
the Bulletin of the Illinois State Natural
History Survey or Illinois Natural His-
tory Survey Bulletin. The volumes have
been numbered serially from December,
1876, to the present time.

The work of the Laboratory and its
young Director attracted the attention of
the new Illinois Industrial University at
Urbana. Not only had Forbes been pub-
lishing actively, but in 1882 the duties of
State Entomologist had fallen on his capa-
ble shoulders. Shortly afterward the Uni-
versity made an offer of employment to
the Director of the Laboratory and State
Entomologist. Forbes faced the choice of
declining the offer, of abandoning the
Laboratory, which had been established at
the Illinois State Normal University by
legislative act, or of moving the Labora-
tory with him.

Apparently at his suggestion, the mat-
ter was taken up with the State Board of
Education by the Trustees of the Illinois
Industrial University, and an agreement


Ii.i.iNois Natlral History Slrvhv Hclletin

Vol. 27, Art. 2

was made that the hiw be changed to
allow for the move. In a report addressed
to the Recent and dated December 12,
1SS4. Forbes made known his needs at
the University (Burrill 1887^:10). He
stated :

As voii are (l(Jiibtless aware, I have for
some time held the position of Director of
the State Laboratory of Natural History, lo-
cated in the Normal I'niversity building at
Normal, and, indeed, still remain in nominal
charge of that establishment, having received
from the State Board of Education a leave
of absence, without pay. from January 1 to
June 30, 1885. in order to enable me to enter
upon my duties in the I'niversity here. If I
believed that my acceptance of a chair in
this University necessarily involved an inter-
ruption or serious modification of the work
which I have organized as Director of the
State Laboratory of Natural History, I should
keenly regret it; and, indeed, I did not ex-
press my acceptance of that position until I
had arranged a plan of readjustment which
I thought adequate to prevent such a con-

Later in the same meeting, Trustee
Alexander McLean offered the following
resolutions (Burrill 1887^:18):

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